Seizure Predictors and Control After Microsurgical Resection of Supratentorial Arteriovenous Malformations in 440 Patients

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0112, USA.
Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 3.62). 05/2012; 71(3):572-80; discussion 580. DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31825ea3ba
Source: PubMed


Seizures are a common symptom of supratentorial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and uncontrolled epilepsy can considerably reduce patient quality of life. Potential risk factors for epilepsy in patients with AVMs are poorly understood, and the importance of achieving freedom from seizures in their surgical treatment remains underappreciated.
To characterize risks factors for preoperative seizures and factors associated with postoperative freedom from seizures in patients with surgically resected supratentorial AVMs.
We analyzed prospectively collected patient data for 440 patients who underwent microsurgical resection of supratentorial AVMs at our institution.
Among 440 patients with supratentorial AVMs, 130 (30%) experienced preoperative seizures, and 23 (18%) with seizures progressed to medically refractory epilepsy. Seizures were associated with a history of AVM hemorrhage (relative risk, 6.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.81-11.6), male sex (relative risk, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.26-3.39), and frontotemporal lesion location (relative risk, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.05-2.93). After resection, 96% of patients had a modified Engel class I outcome, characterized by freedom from seizures (80%) or only 1 postoperative seizure (16%; mean follow-up, 20.7 ± 2.3 months). Comparable rates of postoperative seizures were seen in patients with (7%) or without (3%) preoperative seizures. AVMs with deep artery perforators were significantly associated with postoperative seizures (hazard ratio, 4.35; 95% CI, 1.61-11.7).
In the microsurgical treatment of supratentorial AVMs, hemorrhage, male sex, and frontotemporal location are associated with higher rates of preoperative seizures, whereas deep artery perforators are associated with postoperative seizures. Achieving freedom from seizure is an important goal that can be achieved in the surgical treatment of AVMs because epilepsy can significantly diminish patient quality of life.

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    • "These lesions carry an inherent risk of spontaneous bleeding, with the natural incidence of hemorrhage reportedly 3% -4% per year [1] [2] [3]. Despite advances in microsurgical techniques and perioperative care, surgical resection of cerebral AVMs carries an estimated risk of morbidity ranging from 12% to 20%, and a risk of mortality ranging from 1% to 4% [4] [5] [6] [7]. AVM obliteration normalizes the cerebral perfusion pressure of previously hypotensive vasculature, predisposing the surrounding environment to complications such as edema and hemorrhage [7] [8] [9] [10]. "

    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed at identifying outcomes with respect to seizures, morbidity, and mortality in adult patients undergoing resective or Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) to treat intractable epilepsy associated with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH). Adult patients undergoing surgical treatment for HH-related epilepsy were prospectively monitored at a single center for complications and seizure outcome by using a proprietary database. Preintervention and postintervention data for patients 18 years of age and older, and with at least 1 year of follow-up, were analyzed, with specific attention to seizure control, complications, hormonal status, and death. Forty adult patients were found in the database (21 were women). The median HH volume was 0.54 cm(3). In 70% of patients, it was located inside the third ventricle, attached unilaterally and vertically to the hypothalamus (Delalande Type II). Most patients (26) underwent an endoscopic resection, 10 patients had a transcallosal or other type of open (pterional or orbitozygomatic) resection, and 4 patients chose GKS. Twenty-nine percent became seizure free in the long term, and overall a majority of patients (55%) reported at least > 90% seizure improvement. Only 3 patients were ultimately able to discontinue anticonvulsants, whereas most patients were taking an average of 2 antiepileptic drugs pre- and postoperatively. The only factor significantly correlated with seizure-free outcome was the absence of mental retardation. The HH volume, HH type, and amount of resection or disconnection were not correlated to seizure freedom. A total of 4 patients (10%) died, 2 immediately after surgery and 2 later. All of them had undergone a resection, as opposed to GKS, and still had seizures. Postoperatively, persistent neurological deficits were seen in 1 patient; 34% of patients had mild hormonal problems; and 59% experienced weight gain of at least 6.8 kg (average gain 12.7 kg). Surgical or GKS procedures in adults with HH provided seizure freedom in one-third of patients. The only significant favorable prognostic factor was the absence of mental retardation. The overall mortality rate was high, at 10%. Other important morbidities were persistent hormonal disturbances and weight gain.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are among the least common of causes of brain hemorrhage, seizures, or headaches. Embedded in the brain, their widely varying size, arterial feeders draining venous pattern and nidus complexity make them among the most challenging of disorders for attempted eradication. The low prevalence has created a literature long dominated by anecdote, only recently and slowly being clarified by epidemiological, pathophysiological, and imaging data. A first-ever randomized clinical trial seeks to determine if invasive intervention to eradicate the lesion-and its attendant risks of complications-offers a better prognosis than awaiting a hemorrhage before undertaking such efforts.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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