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Effect of Lower-Limb Compression Clothing on 400-m Sprint Performance

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Abstract

The current study investigated the effects of wearing a variety of lower limb compression garments on 400m sprint performance. Eleven male 400m runners (23.7 ± 5.7 y, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 75.3 ± 10.0 kg) completed six, 400m running tests on an outdoor, all-weather running track on separate occasions. Participants completed two runs either with long-length lower-limb compression garments (LG; hip-to-ankle), a combination of short-length lower-limb compression garments (SG; hip-to-knee) with calf compression sleeves (CS; ankle-to-knee), or without compression garments (CON; shorts), in a randomised, counterbalanced order. Overall lap time and 100m split times, heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion were measured during the 400m run. Blood lactate concentration, visual analogue scales for perceived soreness, feeling and arousal, as well as scales for perceived comfort and tightness when wearing compression garments, were assessed before (pre-exercise, post warm-up) and after 400 m performance (post, 4-min post exercise, following a warm-down). Statistical analysis revealed no differences between conditions in overall 400m performance, 100m split times or blood lactate concentration (P > .05), although there was a trend for an increased rate of blood lactate clearance when wearing compression garments. A significantly lower RPE (P > .05), was however observed during LG (13.8 ± 0.9) and SG (13.4 ± 1.1) when compared to CON (14.0 ± 1.0). The present study has demonstrated that lower-limb compression garments may lower the effort perception associated with 400 m performance, despite no differences in overall athletic performance.

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... Kraemer et al. reported increases in vertical jump height with LBC in female volleyball players [18]. Faulkner et al. reported lower effort perception with LBC during a 400 m sprint but observed no changes in performance, and Hamlin et al. reported improved recovery and fatigue during repeated 40 m sprints in rugby players [19,20]. Given the conflicts between these results, further study of LBC on anaerobic exercise performance is warranted. ...
... The gradient of compression went from approximately 15-20 mmHg at the ankle to 6-10 mmHg at the thigh (Nike, Beaverton, OR, USA). The CON garment was shorts, which provided no compression [16,19]. Seat height was adjusted for each subject to where the knee had approximately 5 degrees of flexion, while the crank of the cycle was at the bottom [23]. ...
... Important to the following study, improvements in power output occurred with concurrent decreases in RPE while wearing LBC garments. Supporting our findings, Faulkner et al. reported LBC decreased RPE during 400 m sprint times [19]. Of particular note, the order of magnitude in which RPE changed was very similar ...
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Lower body compression (LBC) has been shown as an effective recovery tool from basketball but it is unknown how it affects performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of wearing a LBC garment on anaerobic exercise performance in collegiate basketball players. Healthy Division I collegiate basketball players (n = 12) were recruited for this study. In a crossover, counterbalanced study design, subjects volunteered to participate in two separate visits each with a different condition: wearing a LBC garment or non-compressive control (CON) garment. During each visit, subjects completed 2 × 30 second Wingate Anaerobic Tests (WAnTs) separated by a 5-min active recovery period. Each visit was separated by a 72 h washout period. Results revealed that over the 2 × 30 second WAnTs, mean power output (p = 0.028; d= 0.35), anaerobic capacity (p = 0.018; d = 0.45), and total work (p = 0.027; d = 0.36) were higher when wearing the LBC versus CON garment. However, peak power output (p = 0.319; d = 0.09), anaerobic power (p = 0.263; d = 0.23), and fatigue index (p = 0.749; d = 0.05) were not statistically different. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was significantly lower (p = 0.032; d = 0.72) with LBC compared to CON. Results indicate that LBC may increase anaerobic exercise performance in collegiate basketball players.
... Ali et al. [38] Ali et al. [7] Barwood et al. [39] Bernhardt and Anderson [26] Bringard et al. [27] Burden and Glaister [36] Dascombe et al. [10] Driller and Halson [37] Faulkner et al. [40] Goh et al. [41] Kemmler et al. [28] Lovell et al. [34] Ménétrier et al. [46] Rider et al. [29] Rimaud et al. [11] Rivas et al. [33] Scanlan et al. [30] Sperlich et al. [31] Stickford et al. [9] Treseler et al. [43] Varela-Sanz et al. [35] Venckunas et al. [42] Wahl et al. [32] ...
... -1 [95% CI -1.48 to 1.95], I 2 = 0.0%, p = 1.000) (Fig. 4). These results did not change in any subgroup or Faulkner et al. [40] Venckunas et al. [42] Goh et al. [41] Faulkner et al. [40] Goh et al. [ ...
... -1 [95% CI -1.48 to 1.95], I 2 = 0.0%, p = 1.000) (Fig. 4). These results did not change in any subgroup or Faulkner et al. [40] Venckunas et al. [42] Goh et al. [41] Faulkner et al. [40] Goh et al. [ ...
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Background: Although compression garments are used to improve sports performance, methodological approaches and the direction of evidence regarding garments for use in high-intensity exercise settings are diverse. Objectives: Our primary aim was to summarize the association between lower-limb compression garments (LLCGs) and changes in sports performance during high-intensity exercise. We also aimed to summarize evidence about the following physiological parameters related to sports performance: vertical jump height (VJ), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), submaximal oxygen uptake (VO2submax), blood lactate concentrations ([La]), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, 6-20 Borg scale). Methods: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov) and reference lists for previous reviews. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials with athletes or physically active subjects (≥ 18 years) using any type of LLCG during high-intensity exercise. The results were described as weighted mean difference (WMD) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results: The 23 included studies showed low statistical heterogeneity for the pooled outcomes. We found that LLCGs yielded similar running performance to controls (50-400 m: WMD 0.06 s [95% CI - 1.99 to 2.11]; 800-3000 m: WMD 6.10 s [95% CI - 7.23 to 19.43]; > 5000 m: WMD 1.01 s [95% CI - 84.80 to 86.82]). Likewise, we found no evidence that LLCGs were superior in secondary outcomes (VJ: WMD 2.25 cm [95% CI - 2.51 to 7.02]; VO2max: WMD 0.24 mL.kg-1.min-1 [95% CI - 1.48 to 1.95]; VO2submax: WMD - 0.26 mL.kg-1.min-1 [95% CI - 2.66 to 2.14]; [La]: WMD 0.19 mmol/L [95% CI - 0.22 to 0.60]; RPE: WMD - 0.20 points [95% CI - 0.48 to 0.08]). Conclusions: LLCGs were not associated with improved performance in VJ, VO2max, VO2submax, [La], or RPE during high-intensity exercise. Such evidence should be taken into account when considering using LLCGs to enhance running performance.
... There were no changes between the experimental and the control groups in the perception of fatigue [36]. Finally, regarding the use of compression stockings, 10 protocols performed endurance tests [39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48], 3 combined tests of different types (endurance and strength [49], and endurance and speed [50,51]), and two strength tests [52,53]. The use of compression stockings did not significantly improve heart rate [41,[46][47][48]51], respiratory parameters with an emphasis on oxygen consumption [41,42,46,48], skin temperature [47], plasma markers of muscle damage [39], blood lactate concentration [41,51], one-leg hop parameters [53], or blood flow and muscle oxygenation [41,42]. ...
... Finally, regarding the use of compression stockings, 10 protocols performed endurance tests [39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48], 3 combined tests of different types (endurance and strength [49], and endurance and speed [50,51]), and two strength tests [52,53]. The use of compression stockings did not significantly improve heart rate [41,[46][47][48]51], respiratory parameters with an emphasis on oxygen consumption [41,42,46,48], skin temperature [47], plasma markers of muscle damage [39], blood lactate concentration [41,51], one-leg hop parameters [53], or blood flow and muscle oxygenation [41,42]. Neither were there significant improvements found in performance parameters: the time to exhaustion remained unchanged in the group with compression stockings compared to the control group [48], the partial times of each of the 400 m sets did not show any notable change [51], and the pace and total race time in an official marathon were unaffected [39]. ...
... Finally, regarding the use of compression stockings, 10 protocols performed endurance tests [39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48], 3 combined tests of different types (endurance and strength [49], and endurance and speed [50,51]), and two strength tests [52,53]. The use of compression stockings did not significantly improve heart rate [41,[46][47][48]51], respiratory parameters with an emphasis on oxygen consumption [41,42,46,48], skin temperature [47], plasma markers of muscle damage [39], blood lactate concentration [41,51], one-leg hop parameters [53], or blood flow and muscle oxygenation [41,42]. Neither were there significant improvements found in performance parameters: the time to exhaustion remained unchanged in the group with compression stockings compared to the control group [48], the partial times of each of the 400 m sets did not show any notable change [51], and the pace and total race time in an official marathon were unaffected [39]. ...
Article
Compression garments are becoming increasingly popular among sportspeople who wish to improve performance and reduce their exercise discomfort and risk of injury. However, evidence for such effects is scarce. This paper presents the evidence following a review of the literature evaluating the effects of the application of compression garments on sports performance and recovery after exercise. The literature reviewed was the result of a search on the Web of Science, PubMed, and SPORTDiscus electronic databases for studies which analysed the effect of compression garments on physiological, psychological, and biomechanical parameters during and after exercise. These search criteria were met by 40 studies. Most studies do not demonstrate any beneficial effect on performance, immediate recovery, or delay in the appearance of muscle pain. They do, however, show a positive trend towards a beneficial effect during recovery: the subsequent performance improved in five of the eight studies where it was measured, and the perception of muscle damage was reduced in five of six studies. In summary, the use of compression garments during recovery from exercise appears to be beneficial, although the factors explaining this efficacy have yet to be established. No adverse effects of the use of compression garments have been demonstrated.
... Still, there is no consensus as to whether CGs can increase athletic performance [16,[24][25][26]. Experimental setup, participants' training status, exercise modality, body area where the garment was applied, design, exposure duration, timing of wear (during or after exercise), and compression levels are factors, which individually or in combination contribute to the observed inconsistencies [16,24,[27][28][29][30][31][32]. For example, although some experimental studies have demonstrated potential beneficial effects of wearing a CG during exercise [16,27,28], others did not confirm CGs' performance-enhancing effects during exercise [24,29,30]. ...
... Experimental setup, participants' training status, exercise modality, body area where the garment was applied, design, exposure duration, timing of wear (during or after exercise), and compression levels are factors, which individually or in combination contribute to the observed inconsistencies [16,24,[27][28][29][30][31][32]. For example, although some experimental studies have demonstrated potential beneficial effects of wearing a CG during exercise [16,27,28], others did not confirm CGs' performance-enhancing effects during exercise [24,29,30]. On the other hand, CG may hasten recovery when worn during the post-exercise regeneration period [31,32]. ...
Article
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Background: The use of compression garments (CGs) during or after training and competition has gained popularity in the last few decades. However, the data concerning CGs’ beneficial effects on muscle strength-related outcomes after physical exercise remain inconclusive. Objective: The aim was to determine whether wearing CGs during or after physical exercise would facilitate the recovery of muscle strength-related outcomes. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted across five databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCOhost). Data from 19 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 350 healthy participants were extracted and meta-analytically computed. Weighted between-study standardized mean differences (SMDs) with respect to their standard errors (SEs) were aggregated and corrected for sample size to compute overall SMDs. The type of physical exercise, the body area and timing of CG application, and the time interval between the end of the exercise and subsequent testing were assessed. Results: CGs produced no strength-sparing effects (SMD [95% confidence interval]) at the following time points (t) after physical exercise: immediately ≤ t < 24 h: − 0.02 (− 0.22 to 0.19), p = 0.87; 24 ≤ t < 48 h: − 0.00 (− 0.22 to 0.21), p = 0.98; 48 ≤ t < 72 h: − 0.03 (− 0.43 to 0.37), p = 0.87; 72 ≤ t < 96 h: 0.14 (− 0.21 to 0.49), p = 0.43; 96 h ≤ t: 0.26 (− 0.33 to 0.85), p = 0.38. The body area where the CG was applied had no strength-sparing effects. CGs revealed weak strength-sparing effects after plyometric exercise. Conclusion: Meta-analytical evidence suggests that wearing a CG during or after training does not seem to facilitate the recovery of muscle strength following physical exercise. Practitioners, athletes, coaches, and trainers should reconsider the use of CG as a tool to reduce the effects of physical exercise on muscle strength.
... • Dans de nombreux articles, Kraemer et al. [39], Duffield et al. [40], Faulkner et al. [41], l'effort était représenté par des épreuves de sprint : 60 m [31], sprints successifs 400 m [41]. Les performances athlétiques au sprint n'ont globalement pas été améliorées par le port de vêtements de compression. ...
... • Dans de nombreux articles, Kraemer et al. [39], Duffield et al. [40], Faulkner et al. [41], l'effort était représenté par des épreuves de sprint : 60 m [31], sprints successifs 400 m [41]. Les performances athlétiques au sprint n'ont globalement pas été améliorées par le port de vêtements de compression. ...
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... The absence of positive effects on the maximal sprinting speed performance is not a novelty in the context of compressive clothing. In agreement with our results, Faulkner et al. (2013) reported that compression garments were not able to improve the overall 400-m sprint performance or individual 100-m split times in elite sprinters. On the other hand, the authors demonstrated that these clothes might lower the effort perception associated with long-sprint performance (i.e., 400-m). ...
... Possibly, the "multifactorial nature" of sprint performance (Cronin and Hansen 2005;Loturco et al. 2015b) limits the role played by comfortable levels of compression in increasing maximal speed, especially in top-level athletes. Nevertheless, due to the recognized properties of compression in reducing the perception of effort and facilitating blood lactate removal (Faulkner et al. 2013), it would be interesting to test its effectiveness during repeated-sprint sets. Furthermore, it remains to be examined whether garments with extreme levels of compression can enhance top-speed performance, since it was demonstrated that very-high intensity compression may increase the vertical force component (which is directly related to higher velocities) (Harman and Frykman 1990;Nilsson and Thorstensson 1989;Weyand et al. 2000). ...
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Background: Compression garments are thought to aid performance in some selected speed-power activities owing to improved sensory feedback and proprioception. The aim of this study was to test the effects of using compression garments on speed and power-related performances in elite sprinters with visual impairment, who rely more on proprioception to perform than their Olympic peers. Eight top-level Paralympic sprinters competing in 100- and 200-m races performed, in the following order: unloaded squat jump (SJ), loaded jump squat (JS) and sprint tests over 20- and 70-m distances; using or not the compression garment. The maximum mean propulsive power value obtained during the JS attempts (starting at 40 % of their body mass, after which a load of 10 % of body mass was progressively added) was considered for data analysis purposes. The athletes executed the SJ and JS attempts without any help from their guides. Magnitude-based inference was used to analyze the results. Findings: The unloaded SJ was possibly higher in the compression than the placebo condition (41.19 ± 5.09 vs. 39.49 ± 5.75 cm). Performance differences in the loaded JS and sprint tests were all rated as unclear. Conclusions: It was concluded that the acute enhancement in vertical jump ability should be explored in the preparation of Paralympic sprinters during power-related training sessions. However, chronic effects in Paralympic athletes wearing compression garments need to be further tested, in order to support its use as a specific training aid.
... The use of compressive garments in sport is becoming very popular due to their potential positive effects on athletes [1,2]. These benefits appear to be related to circulatory improvements [3,4]. ...
... These benefits appear to be related to circulatory improvements [3,4]. Different studies have reported a reduction in the severity of delayed onset muscle soreness [5,6], lower perception of fatigue [2], better recovery of muscle strength [7] and lower concentration of muscle damage markers in blood (creatine kinase) as a result of using compressive garments during exercise [8,9]. These results suggest that the use of compressive garments could be an effective strategy to enhance recovery [10]. ...
Article
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The use of graduated compression stockings (GCS) in sport has been increasing in the last years due to their potential positive effects for athletes. However, there is little evidence to support whether these types of garments actually improve cardiorespiratory performance. The aim of this study was to examine the cardiorespiratory responses of GCS during running after three weeks of regular use. Twenty recreational runners performed three tests on different days: test 1) - a 5-min maximal effort run in order to determine the participants' maximal aerobic speed; and tests 2) and 3) - a fatigue running test of 30 minutes at 80% of their maximal aerobic speed with either GCS or PLACEBO stockings at random. Cardiorespiratory parameters (minute ventilation, heart rate, relative oxygen consumption, relative carbon dioxide production, ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide, and oxygen pulse) were measured. Before each test in the laboratory, the participants trained with the randomly assigned stockings (GCS or PLACEBO) for three weeks. No significant differences between GCS and PLACEBO were found in any of the cardiorespiratory parameters. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that running with GCS for three weeks does not influence cardiorespiratory parameters in recreational runners.
... Initial studies demonstrated that compression shorts increased vertical jump performance by enhancing force and power production across repeated jumps [3][4] possibly mediated by a reduction in muscle oscillation and enhancement of joint position sense [4][5]. Most prior studies have primarily investigated the effects of compression garments during lower-body continuous exercise [2,5,[9][10][11][12][13][14][15], and several studies have reported physiological and performance benefits [9,13,[16][17]. Recently, upper-body compression garments have become popular, albeit with little substantiating scientific evidence. ...
... Most prior studies of compression garments on performance have only examined their effects on the lower-body, making direct comparisons to our results difficult. Faulkner et al. [10] investigated the effects of a variety of lower-limb compression garments on 400-m sprint performance and found no significant differences when compared to a control condition. Many other studies have also not found significant lower-body performance differences while wearing compression garments [2, 7-8, 12, 17, 25-27]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of graduated compression sleeves on muscle performance during high-intensity exercise. Twenty-four resistance trained men were randomly assigned to one of two groups: compression sleeve (GCS, n=11) or placebo sleeve (GPS, n=13). Participants performed 4 sets of 10 unilateral maximal eccentric/concentric elbow flexion repetitions on an isokinetic dynamometer at 120° s-1 with 1 min of inter-set rest. Average torque, work and power were measured during concentric and eccentric actions.ANOVA revealed no significant interactions or main effects for group for any variable. However, values decreased significantly across sets for average torque (1st = 46.55 ± 11.11 Nm to 4th = 36.75 ± 8.78 Nm), average work (1st = 78.83 ± 18.49 J to 4th = 53.26 ± 10.04 J) and average power (1st = 52.3 ± 12.03 W to 4th = 32.59 ± 8.82 W). Therefore, the use of a graduated compression sleeve appears not enhance isokinetic elbow flexion muscle performance.
... Další informace jsme zjišťovali z grafů srdeční frekvence a ostatních naměřených hodnot, které se průběžně ukládaly do počítače. Hoare,Sear, Rearburn, Scanlan 2011;Faulkner, Gleadon, McLaren, Jakeman 2012;Jakeman, Byrne, Easton 2010).Oproti těmto zjištěním jsme v rámci naší studie dospěli k zajímavému zjištění z hlediska měření koncentrace post zátěžového laktátu v krvi, kde došlo mezi jednotlivými pokusy s užitím kompresivní metody k jeho signifikantnímu poklesu a to při téměř shodném výkonu. Zcela jistě by se této problematice mohla věnovat další studie s větším vzorkem testovaných jedinců a zřejmě také na delší době trvání samotného testu. ...
... Řada studií tento pozitivní posun výkonu nenalezla, avšak byly v jejich rámci zaznamenány statisticky významné rozdíly u jiných sledovaných parametrů, převážně právě u hodnot koncentrace zátěžového resp. post zátěžového laktátu v krvi(Faulkner, Gleadon, McLaren, Jakeman 2012;Lovell, Mason, Delphinus, McLellan 2011).Z našich zjištění, které se velmi podobají výsledkům výše uvedených studií, se můžeme domnívat, že běžné punčochy, které slouží převážně k medicínským účelům přináší v rámci krátkodobého zatížení resp. regeneračního efektu po tomto výkonu velmi podobný efekt jako několikanásobně dražší značkové sportovní oblečení.ZÁVĚRZ výsledků vyplývá, že nedošlo k signifikantní rozdílu ve výkonu dosaženým při prvním a druhém resp. ...
... Increasing popularity of the use of compression garments during various exercise activities renders investigation of the possible effects these garments may have. While some studies have demonstrated ergogenic effect of the compression garments [14], most of the published research has failed to support any effects of garments for performance capacity in a wide range of exercise tests [2,13,[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]. Those reports that have shown ergogenic effect did not disclose any of the possible underlying mechanisms [14]. ...
... In well-trained endurance athletes, elastic stockings, tights, and whole-body compression suits making different compressive surface were equally found not to change various measured indices of acute adaptation to submaximal and maximal running [16]. Also, different lower body compression attire was demonstrated not to affect male runners' response to 400 m sprint run [22]. In support to our results, it has been concluded by most other researchers that compression garments in general have limited if any ergogenic potential in healthy subjects [2,6]. ...
Article
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Purpose: Compression garments are often worn during exercise and allegedly have ergogenic and/or physiological effects. In this study, we compared hemodynamics and running performance while wearing compression and loose-fit breeches. We hypothesized that in neutral-warm environment compression breeches impair performance by diminishing body cooling via evaporative sweat loss and redistributing blood from active musculature to skin leading to a larger rise in body temperature and prolonging recovery of hemodynamics after exercise. Methods: Changes in hemodynamics (leg blood flow, heart rate, and blood pressure during orthoclinostatic test), calf muscle tissue oxygenation, and skin and core temperatures were measured in response to 30 min running (simulation of aerobic training session) followed by maximal 400 m sprint (evaluation of running performance) in recreationally active females (25.1 ± 4.2 yrs; 63.0 ± 8.6 kg) wearing compression or loose-fit breeches in randomized fashion. Results: Wearing compression breeches resulted in larger skin temperature rise under the garment during exercise and recovery (by about 1 °C, P < 0.05; statistical power > 85%), while core temperature dynamics and other measured parameters including circulation, running performance, and sensations were similar compared to wearing loose-fit breeches (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Compared with loose-fit breeches, compression breeches have neither positive nor negative physiological and performance effects for females running in thermoneutral environment.
... Although some experimental studies have demonstrated potential beneficial effects of wearing a CG during exercise (3,30), several previous investigations did not confirm the performance-enhancing effect of the use of a CG during exercise (4,13,25). A recent review article by MacRae et al. (25) focused on the efficacious use of CG and exercise and suggested that the use of CG helps with certain aspects of jump performance in some situations (3,20,21). ...
... The subjects wearing the CG sensed greater compression, which might have elicited a placebo effect. In fact, some previous studies showed significantly lower muscle soreness and perceived exertion by wearing a CG, with no differences in physiological performance or biochemical parameters, compared with the control condition (11)(12)(13). In the present study, the CG trial showed significantly lower muscle soreness and subjective fatigue scores than the CON trial did, with rapid performance recovery (1RM for the chest press and MVC for the knee extension). ...
Article
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Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing a compression garment (CG) for 24 h on changes in muscular strength and blood parameters over time after resistance exercise. Methods: Nine trained men conducted resistance exercises (10 repetitions of 3-5 sets at 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) for nine exercises) in two trials, wearing either a CG or a normal garment (CON) for 24 h after exercise. Recovery of muscular strength, blood parameters, muscle soreness, and upper arm and thigh circumference were compared between the trials. Results: Both trials showed decreases in maximal strength after the exercise (P < 0.05). However, the CG trial showed faster recovery of one-repetition maximum for the chest press from 3 to 8 h after exercise (P < 0.05). Recovery of maximal knee extension strength was also improved in the CG trial 24 h after exercise (P < 0.05). The CG trial was associated with lower muscle soreness and subjective fatigue scores the following morning (P < 0.05). The upper arm and thigh circumferences were significantly higher during the recovery period in the CON trial, whereas no change was observed in the CG trial. Blood lactate, insulin like growth factor-1, free testosterone, myoglobin, creatine kinase, interleukin 6, and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist concentrations for 24 h after exercise were similar in both trials. Conclusions: Wearing a CG after resistance exercise facilitates the recovery of muscular strength. Recovery for upper body muscles significantly improved within 3-8 h after exercise. However, facilitation of recovery of lower limb muscles by wearing the CG took a longer time.
... Previous studies have found recovery benefits from the use of compression garments following exercise-induced muscle damage (1,10,14,15,29,31) and performance during continuous exercise (2,11,19). However, few studies have examined their effects on performance during predominantly anaerobic exercise (15,16,26,29,30,35). ...
... The use of compression garments seems beneficial in athletes during training by increasing muscle power (27). Wearing compression garments may allow training at a higher physiological intensity, which results in completion of a greater training volume (16). This may prove to be beneficial chronically as improvements of 1.3% seem to influence success in competition (13). ...
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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of upper-body graduated compression sleeves on neuromuscular and metabolic responses during a power training. Fifteen resistance trained men (age: 23.07 ± 3.92 years; body mass: 76.13 ± 7.62 kg; height: 177 ± 6 cm) performed two separate power training protocols, either wearing compression sleeves (CS) or placebo sleeves (PS), in a counterbalanced fashion. Participants first performed a familiarization session and a bench press 1RM test. The training protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions of bench press with a load of 50% 1RM. Statistical analysis compared mean power, peak power, blood lactate, muscle activation, isometric strength and repetitions to failure. Mean and peak power significantly (p < 0.05) decreased with increasing sets. However, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) on mean and peak power between protocols. Blood lactate clearance was also no significant different (p > 0.05) between CS and PS. Muscle activation was not different between PRE and POST (p > 0.05) for any of the muscles analyzed. Isometric strength decreased from PRE to POST (p < 0.05), and was not different between CS and PS. Repetitions to failure were not different between protocols (p > 0.05). These results demonstrate no positive performance effects when wearing graduated compression sleeves during power exercise in young trained men.
... These authors speculated that RPE may not be a sensitive indicator of any CRP effect in long-distance running. In contrast, wearing CRP showed a significant positive effect on RPE when running 15 min (Rugg and Sternlicht, 2013) and 400 m (Faulkner et al., 2013). Accordingly, it may be that CRP may have a positive effect on perceived exertion only in short distance running, but not in long distance running. ...
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Background: Knee injury is common in half-marathon runners, however, the effect of compression running pants on fatigue and knee proprioception remains unclear. Objectives: The study aims to investigate whether wearing compression running pants (CRP) and treadmill running stages affect knee proprioception and fatigue-related physiological responses during half-marathon running. Methods: Eighteen half-marathon runners completed two self-paced 21 km treadmill running trials, once wearing CRP and once wearing loose running shorts (LRS). For each 21 km run, RPE, heart rate, blood lactic acid, and knee flexion proprioception were assessed before starting, and after each 7 km stage. Results: Data analysis revealed no difference between CRP and LRS conditions in heart rate, RPE, or blood lactic acid. Repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant garment condition main effect whereby wearing CRP was associated with higher knee proprioceptive acuity ( p = 0.006). Polynomial trend analysis showed a significant linear downwards trend in proprioceptive acuity across the four measurement occasions ( p = 0.048). Stage analysis showed that wearing CRP was associated with better knee proprioception at running distances of 14 km ( p = 0.007, 95%CI = -0.054, -0.010) and 21 km ( p = 0.016, 95%CI = -0.051, -0.006). Conclusion: Compression running pants provide an overall positive effect on knee proprioception, particularly after 14 km and 21km, which may reduce the probability of knee injury. CRP had no significant effect on physiological measures in half-marathon running.
... Table S1: During exercise studies; Table S2: During recovery studies; Table S3: Combined design (during exercise & recovery) studies. References [170][171][172][173][174][175][176][177][178][179][180][181][182][183][184][185][186][187] Funding: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. ...
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Background: Compression garments (CGs) are a popular tool that may act on physiological, physical, neuromuscular, biomechanical, and/or perceptual domains during exercise and recovery from exercise, with varying levels of efficacy. While previous reviews have focused on the effects of CGs during running, high-intensity exercise, and exercise recovery, a comprehensive systematic review that assesses the effectiveness of garment use both during and after exercise has not been recently conducted. Methods: A systematic search of the literature from the earliest record until May 2022 was performed based on the PRISMA-P guidelines for systematic reviews, using the online databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar. Results: 160 articles with 2530 total participants were included for analysis in the systematic review, comprised of 103 ‘during exercise’ studies, 42 ‘during recovery’ studies, and 15 combined design studies. Conclusions: During exercise, CGs have a limited effect on global measures of endurance performance but may improve some sport-specific variables (e.g., countermovement jump height). Most muscle proteins/metabolites are unchanged with the use of CGs during exercise, though measures of blood lactate tend to be lowered. CGs for recovery appear to have a positive benefit on subsequent bouts of endurance (e.g., cycling time trials) and resistance exercise (e.g., isokinetic dynamometry). CGs are associated with reductions in lactate dehydrogenase during recovery and are consistently associated with decreases in perceived muscle soreness following fatiguing exercise. This review may provide a useful point of reference for practitioners and researchers interested in the effect of CGs on particular outcome variables or exercise types.
... Another investigation reported that wearing compression socks during high-intensity running had a positive impact on subsequent running performance (Brophy-Williams et al., 2019). Conversely, although compression garments lead to a lower effort perception and a reduced self-reported muscle soreness, they are not found to result in performance changes in team-sport activities (Duffield et al., 2008), the 400 m sprint (Faulkner et al., 2013), or during high intensity exercise (Da Silva et al., 2018). Given these contradictory results, further studies are needed to investigate the effects of compression garments on high-intensity exercise performance with relation to specific sports disciplines. ...
Article
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Purpose: Wearing compression garments is a commonly used intervention in sports to improve performance and facilitate recovery. Some evidence supports the use of forearm compression to improve muscle tissue oxygenation and enhance sports climbing performance. However, evidence is lacking for an effect of compression garments on hand grip strength and specific sports climbing performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effects of forearm compression sleeves on muscular strength and endurance of finger flexor muscles in sports climbers. Materials and Methods: This randomized crossover study included 24 sports climbers who performed one familiarization trial and three subsequent test trials while wearing compression forearm sleeves (COMP), non-compressive placebo forearm sleeves (PLAC), or no forearm sleeves (CON). Test trials consisted of three performance measurements (intermittent hand grip strength and endurance measurements, finger hang, and lap climbing) at intervals of at least 48 h in a randomized order. Muscle oxygenation during hand grip and finger hang measurements was assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy. The maximum blood lactate level, rate of perceived exertion, and forearm muscle pain were also determined directly after the lap climbing trials. Results: COMP resulted in higher changes in oxy[heme] and tissue oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) during the deoxygenation (oxy[heme]: COMP –10.7 ± 5.4, PLAC –6.7 ± 4.3, CON –6.9 ± 5.0 [μmol]; p = 0.014, η p ² = 0.263; StO 2 : COMP –4.0 ± 2.2, PLAC –3.0 ± 1.4, CON –2.8 ± 1.8 [%]; p = 0.049, η p ² = 0.194) and reoxygenation (oxy [heme]: COMP 10.2 ± 5.3, PLAC 6.0 ± 4.1, CON 6.3 ± 4.9 [μmol]; p = 0.011, η p ² = 0.274; StO 2 : COMP 3.5 ± 1.9, PLAC 2.4 ± 1.2, CON 2.3 ± 1.9 [%]; p = 0.028, η p ² = 0.225) phases of hand grip measurements, whereas total [heme] concentrations were not affected. No differences were detected between the conditions for the parameters of peak force and fatigue index in the hand grip, time to failure and hemodynamics in the finger hang, or performance-related parameters in the lap climbing measurements ( p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: Forearm compression sleeves did not enhance hand grip strength and endurance, sports climbing performance parameters, physiological responses, or perceptual measures. However, they did result in slightly more pronounced changes of oxy [heme] and StO 2 in the deoxygenation and reoxygenation phases during the hand grip strength and endurance measurements.
... Die Sprintleistung kann auch durch den Einsatz von Sporttechnologien verbessert werden. So stellen die Erfindung der Startblöcke 1948 und der Tartanbahn 1968 im Sprintbereich entscheidende Meilensteine dar, von denen alle Athleten profitierten (Haake, 2009 (Faulkner et al., 2013;MacRae et al., 2011). ...
Thesis
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Introduction: The performance of the athletic 200-m-sprint depends on several internal and external factors, such as the radius of curvature. It influences the amount of centripetal force that is necessary to follow the bend track. Compared to the innermost lane, the time-saving benefit of the outmost lane is on the average of all implemented studies about 105 ms. The underlying kinematic and kinetic effects have just been studied partially till now. Methods: 14 male sprinters perform each three runs along different radii of curvature (r 1 =36.50 and r 8 =45.04 m) with a constant submaximal velocity. A three-dimensional motion analysis (250 Hz) with 16 infrared cameras and the measuring of the ground reaction forces with four force plates (1250 Hz) are performed in the curve’s vertex. The joint angles of the ankle, knee and hip which occur during the left and right stance phase are determined with the aid of a kinematic model. The three components of the ground reaction force are utilised to calculate the external joint moments by means of inverse dynamics. Results: Compared to lane 1, the differences of the medio-lateral impulses in lane 8 are lower (L8: -13%, R8: -7%) than physically calculated. While curve sprinting at a mean velocity of 9.5 m/s, right steps and flight phases are prolonged along the larger radius leading to significant decreases in step frequency. However, joint angles are not affected. The larger radius reduces the load on the foot muscles with regard to peak values of right inversion and left external rotation moments by 10% and 35%, respectively. Meanwhile, knee and hip mechanics are not influenced by a different curvature. Conclusion: The results of this study improve the understanding of the asymmetric function of both legs during curve sprinting and indicate potential positive effects of a larger bend. The radius of curvature changes step length, flight time as well as step frequency and reduces the non-sagittal ankle joint moments. These effects may have performance-enhancing impact on the 200-m-time.
... However, there are also studies that did not find improvements in vertical jump performance (Jakeman, Byrne, & Eston, 2010;Kraemer et al., 2010). Likewise, and despite the fact that in the sprint modalities power is a determining factor, the use of compression garments has not resulted in improvements in running performance (Doan et al., 2003;Duffield et al., 2010;Faulkner et al., 2013). ...
... Players then completed a 20-min lower limb, drainage activity where they lay supine with their lower limbs 30-cm above the trunk. After the 20-min period, players from the CS group identified their perceived stocking comfort and tightness using an 11-point scale ranging from 0 "uncomfortable/extremely tight" to 10 "very comfortable/extremely loose" (Faulkner, Gleadon, McLaren, & Jakeman, 2013). All players then undertook the standardized 15-min pre-match, warm-up. ...
... To induce such responses a range of priming strategies have been employed including performing exercise of varying intensity and duration (Sargeant and Dolan 1987), stretching (Fletcher and Jones 2004), limb heating (Edwards et al. 1972), and wearing Communicated by Phillip D. Chilibeck. weighted vests (Reiman et al. 2010) or compression garments (Faulkner et al. 2013). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on several measures of aerobic function and 4-km cycling time-trial performance. An acute cross-over design was adopted involving eight well-trained cyclists (age 27.0 ± 7.0 years) who completed incremental and square-wave exercise tests for determination of peak O2 uptake (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT) and moderate- and heavy-intensity domain VO2 kinetics, as well as 4-km time trials. All were preceded by IPC, or sham–IPC, involving repeated bouts of thigh blood flow occlusion, interspersed with reperfusion. There was no significant difference between IPC and sham–IPC with respect to VO2peak (4.4 ± 0.6 L min⁻¹ vs 4.4 ± 0.5 L min⁻¹, effect size − 0.01 ± 0.09), VT (3.4 ± 0.6 L min⁻¹ vs 3.5 ± 0.5 L min⁻¹, effect size 0.07 ± 0.28), cycling economy (4.9 ± 4.9%, ES 0.24 ± − 0.24, P > 0.05) or any moderate-domain VO2 kinetic parameter. During heavy-intensity exercise, a reduced end-exercise VO2, slow component amplitude and overall gain was observed following IPC compared to sham–IPC. Though not statistically significant, there was a possibly beneficial effect of IPC on 4-km time-trial mean power output (2.2 ± 2.0%; effect size: 0.18 ± 0.15, P > 0.05). The observed reduction in VO2 slow component and tendency for improved economy and 4-km time-trial performance, albeit small, suggests that acute IPC shows some potential as a performance-enhancing priming strategy for well-trained cyclists prior to high-intensity exercise.
... Players then completed a 20-min lower limb, drainage activity where they lay supine with their lower limbs 30-cm above the trunk. After the 20-min period, players from the CS group identified their perceived stocking comfort and tightness using an 11-point scale ranging from 0 "uncomfortable/extremely tight" to 10 "very comfortable/extremely loose" (Faulkner, Gleadon, McLaren, & Jakeman, 2013). All players then undertook the standardized 15-min pre-match, warm-up. ...
... Players then completed a 20-min lower limb, drainage activity where they lay supine with their lower limbs 30-cm above the trunk. After the 20-min period, players from the CS group identified their perceived stocking comfort and tightness using an 11-point scale ranging from 0 "uncomfortable/extremely tight" to 10 "very comfortable/extremely loose" (Faulkner, Gleadon, McLaren, & Jakeman, 2013). All players then undertook the standardized 15-min pre-match, warm-up. ...
Article
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Soccer-induced fatigue and performance are different between the sexes. The effect of compression stockings (CS) use on fatigue during the soccer match in females is unknown. Thus, we evaluated the impact of CS use during a female soccer match on match-induced fatigue. Twenty soccer players were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 10 for each group): CS and Control (regular socks), and equally distributed within two teams. At rest (baseline 48-h before the match) and immediately post-match, we assessed agility T-test, standing heel-rise test and YoYo Intermittent Endurance Test level 2 (YoYoIE2) performance. Effort during the match (heart rate and rating of perceived exertion) was similar (p > 0.05) between groups. The YoYoIE2 performance was decreased post-match (p < 0.05) equally for both groups. Otherwise, the CS group exhibited a greater post-match performance (p < 0.05) for the agility T-test and heel-rise test (large effect sizes). Therefore, we conclude that the use of CS during an amateur female soccer match resulted in less match-induced fatigue.
... A usage of compression garment may have some potential psychological benefits during prolonged sitting. For patients with lymphedema, wearing compression stockings supported a better quality of life [19], attenuated perceived muscle soreness [20], and rate of perceived exertion in trained populations [21]. It also reduced pain and swelling in deep vein thrombosis (DVT) patients [22]. ...
Article
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We investigated the impact of wearing vs. not wearing graduated compression stockings on psychological and physiological responses in 18 healthy young people (12 men and six women) during 3 h prolonged sitting. Profiled of Mood States (POMS) scores did not show marked differences between with and without stockings. A 3 h sit significantly decreased saliva cortisol in both conditions; with no differences between conditions. Wearing stockings suppressed a subjective uncomfortable sensation (e.g., pain; fatigue; swelling) in the lower limbs, as assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). Increase in heart rate at 1 h and 3 h was significantly greater without than with stockings. In addition, high-frequency oscillations (HF: 0.15–0.4 Hz), used as an indicator of parasympathetic nerve activity, showed higher values with than without stockings throughout the 3 h sitting period—significantly higher at 1 h. When data for both conditions were pooled pre-to-post changes in saliva cortisol were positively associated with higher uncomfortable sensations of VAS in the lower limbs and negatively associated with changes in the Vigor subscale of POMS. Collectively, these findings suggest that wearing graduated compression stockings may benefit from subjective comfort and increased parasympathetic nerve activity.
... In this way, the same uniform pressure is applied to the sEMG sensors during both the baseline and active phases of the study, allowing for fair comparison between the sEMG signals. The baseline is performed with the device already donned on the user, as studies indicate that elastic compression sleeves, such as the one used in the exosuit, are designed to increase proprioception of the joint and not to restrict or enhance physical performance (Faulkner et al., 2013, Venckūnas et al., 2014. Following all safety requirements, as described in our IRB agreement, the non-impaired adult participants are instructed to walk on an instrumented treadmill with the sEMG sensors attached to the aforementioned muscle groups. ...
Article
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In this paper, we present a soft-inflatable exosuit to assist knee extension during gait training for stroke rehabilitation. The soft exosuit is designed to provide 25% of the knee moment required during the swing phase of the gait cycle and is integrated with inertial measurement units (IMUs) and smart shoe insole sensors to improve gait phase detection and controller design. The stiffness of the knee joint during level walking is computed using inverse dynamics. The soft-inflatable actuators, with an I cross-section, are mechanically characterized at varying angles to enable generation of the required stiffness outputs. A linear relation between the inflatable actuator stiffness and internal pressure as a function of the knee angle is obtained, and a two-layer stiffness controller is implemented to assist the knee joint by providing appropriate stiffness during the swing phase. Finally, to evaluate the ability of the exosuit to assist in swing motion, surface-electromyography (sEMG) sensors are placed on the three muscle groups of the quadriceps and two groups of the hamstrings, on three healthy participants. A reduction in muscle activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis is observed, which demonstrates feasibility of operation and potential future usage of the soft inflatable exosuit by impaired users.
... We assume that if compression technology brings any benefits, so these benefits are not de- tectable during running performance according to mid-term endurance specifically in graduating test vita maxima lasting up to 10 minutes. Similar findings were published in Faulkner's stu- dy et al. (2012), which dealt with the influence of compression apparel on performance and selected physiological parameters in short and speed endu- rance capabilities (Faulkner, Gleadon, McLaren, et al. 2012). Kleingartner et al. (2012) dealt with mid-term endurance and influence of the compression appa- rel on physiological parameters (HR, VO2max and RPE). ...
Article
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Within the framework of pilot study, we tested effect of running outfit with compressive technology EXO SENSIFIT on running performance according to mid-term endurance and selected physiological parameters through quasi-experiment. Four probands completed within one week two identical exercise tests, one in standard running clothes, second one in sportswear EXO Sensifit (Calf, pants and shirt). Test vita maxima was conducted on treadmill, the initial speed was set at 11.5 km / h-1, with increasing speed of 0.5 km / h-1 every 200 meters and inclination 1°. Cardiorespiratory parameters and duration of the test were assessed. We did not notice significant distinction in any physiological parameter. There was an obvious distinction in the duration of the test. Nevertheless, this could be also added to incorporation or placebo-effect. Souhrn V rámci pilotní studie, jsme prostřednictvím kvaziexperimentu ověřovali vliv kompresní technologie bě-žeckého oblečení Salomon EXO SENSIFIT na běžecký výkon charakteru střednědobé vytrvalosti a vybrané fyziologické parametry. Čtyři probandé absolvovali v průběhu jednoho týdne dvakrát totožné zátěžové vy-šetření, jednou ve standartním běžeckém oblečení, podruhé v oděvu EXO SENSIFIT (calfy, kalhoty a triko). Test vita maxima proběhl na běhacím páse, iniciální rychlost byla 11,5 km.h-1 s navýšením rychlosti o 0,5 km.h-1 každých 200 metrů, sklon 1°. Hodnoceny byly kardiorespirační parametry a délka trvání testu. Ne-zaznamenali jsme výrazné rozdíly v žádném fyziologickém parametru. Rozdíl však byl patrný v délce trvání testu. Toto však můžeme spekulativně přičíst i zapracování popř. placebo efektu.
... Specifically, research indicates that lower body CGs may have trivial to small positive effects on maximal effort jump and sprint performance in trained athletes (Kraemer et al., 1996;Doan et al., 2003;Duffield and Portus, 2007;Duffield et al., 2010;Born et al., 2013;Wannop et al., 2016). Positive effects observed during dynamic movements wearing lower body CG have been attributed to enhanced power maintenance (Kraemer et al., 1996) biomechanical changes (Doan et al., 2003;Born et al., 2014), and a reduced perception of effort (Faulkner et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Purpose: The prevalence of compression garment (CG) use is increasing with athletes striving to take advantage of the purported benefits to recovery and performance. Here, we investigated the effect of CG on muscle force and movement velocity performance in athletes. Methods: Ten well-trained male rugby athletes wore a wrestling-style CG suit applying 13–31 mmHg of compressive pressure during a training circuit in a repeated-measures crossover design. Force and velocity data were collected during a 5-s isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and repeated countermovement jump (CMJ), respectively; and time to complete a 5-m horizontal loaded sled push was also measured. Results: IMTP peak force was enhanced in the CG condition by 139 ± 142 N (effect size [ES] = 0.36). Differences in CMJ peak velocity (ES = 0.08) and loaded sled-push sprint time between the conditions were trivial (ES = −0.01). A qualitative assessment of the effects of CG wear suggested that the likelihood of harm was unlikely in the CMJ and sled push, while a beneficial effect in the CMJ was possible, but not likely. Half of the athletes perceived a functional benefit in the IMTP and CMJ exercises. Conclusion: Consistent with other literature, there was no substantial effect of wearing a CG suit on CMJ and sprint performance. The improvement in peak force generation capability in an IMTP may be of benefit to rugby athletes involved in scrummaging or lineout lifting. The mechanism behind the improved force transmission is unclear, but may involve alterations in neuromuscular recruitment and proprioceptive feedback.
... Although some evidences exist for beneficial effects of wearing a CG during exercise [9][10][11][12], majority of previous studies failed to support the performance-enhancing effect of the use of a CG during exercise [8,[13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. In a latest review [20], CG did not reveal positive effects on running performance, maximal and submaximal oxygen uptake, or the performance of strength-related tasks after running. ...
Article
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Background The efficacy of wearing [a] compression garment (CG) between repeated bouts of exercise within a same day has not been fully understood. The present study determined the effect of wearing a CG after strenuous exercise sessions (consisting of sprint exercise, resistance exercise, drop jump) twice a day on exercise performance, muscle damage, and inflammatory responses. Methods Eleven physically active males (age, 22.7 ± 0.9 years; height, 175.7 ± 6.7 cm; body mass, 73.6 ± 10.2 kg; BMI, 23.8 ± 2.7 kg/m²) performed two trials (a randomized crossover design), consisting of the trial with either wearing a whole-body CG during post-exercise period (CG trial) or the trial with wearing a normal garment without specific pressure (CON trial). Two exercise sessions were conducted in the morning (09:00–10:00, Ex1) and afternoon (14:00–15:00, Ex2). Immediately after completing 60 min of each exercise, the subjects in the CG trial changed into a whole-body CG. Time-course changes in exercise performance (bench press power, jump performances, repeated sprint ability), blood variables (lactate, glucose, myoglobin, creatine kinase, interleukin-6, leptin), and scores of subjective feeling (fatigue, muscle soreness) were compared between the CG and CON trials before Ex1 (8:40), immediately before Ex2 (14:00, 4 h after Ex1), 4 h after Ex2 (19:00), and 24 h after the onset of Ex1 (9:00). Results Two bouts of exercise significantly decreased performances of counter movement jump (main effect for time: P = 0.04, F = 3.75, partial η² = 0.27) and rebound jump (main effect for time: P = 0.00, F = 12.22, partial η² = 0.55), while no significant difference was observed between the two trials (interaction: P = 0.10, F = 1.96, partial η² = 0.16 for counter movement jump, P = 0.93, F = 0.01, partial η² = 0.001 for rebound jump). Repeated sprint ability (power output during 10 × 6 s maximal sprint, 30-s rest periods between sprints) did not differ significantly between the two trials at any time points. Power output during bench press exercise was not significantly different between the two trials (interaction: P = 0.46, F = 0.99, partial η² = 0.09 for Ex1, P = 0.74, F = 0.38, partial η² = 0.04 for Ex2, P = 0.22, F = 1.54, partial η² = 0.13 for 24 h after the onset of Ex1). Serum myoglobin, creatine kinase, leptin, and plasma interleukin-6 were not significantly different between the two trials (interaction: P = 0.16, F = 2.23, partial η² = 0.18 for myoglobin; P = 0.39, F = 0.81, partial η² = 0.08 for creatine kinase; P = 0.28, F = 1.30, partial η² = 0.13 for leptin; P = 0.34, F = 1.05, partial η² = 0.12 for interleukin-6). Muscle soreness at 24 h during post-exercise period was significantly lower in the CG trial than in the CON trial for pectoralis major muscle (P = 0.04), while the value was inversely lower in the CON trial for hamstring (P = 0.047). Conclusions Wearing a whole-body CG during the post-exercise period after two bouts of strenuous exercise sessions separated with 4 h of rest did not promote recovery of muscle function for lower limb muscles nor did it attenuate exercise-induced muscle damage in physically active males.
... [67] Furthermore, wearing compression garments may allow training at a higher physiological intensity, which results in completion of a greater training volume. [68] However, some studies have reported a lack of significant effect. Dascombe et al. [69] demonstrated no improvement on oxygenation measures or performance using upper body compression garments. ...
... Blood-lactate concentration, an indicator of muscle metabolites and recovery, has been widely used to investigate the effects of CG during running and post-running recovery. 6,20,21 Some studies indicated that running with CG reduced blood-lactate 6,22 by inducing greater blood flow. However, when CG were worn by well-trained athletes during high-intensity exercise, only small effects were observed in post-exercise lactate removal following a 400 m sprint, 20 a 40 min run, 10 and an endurance run. ...
Article
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Background The few previous studies that focused on the effects of compression garments (CG) on distance running performance have simultaneously measured electromyogram, physiological, and perceptual parameters. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of CG on muscle activation and median frequency during and after distance running, as well as blood-lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during distance running. Methods Eight healthy male recreational runners were recruited to randomly perform two 40 min treadmill running trials, one with CG, and the other with control garment made of normal cloth. The RPE and the surface electromyography (EMG) of 5 lower extremity muscles including gluteus maximus (GM), rectus femoris (RF), semitendinosus (ST), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GAS) were measured during the running trial. The blood-lactate levels before and after the running trial were measured. Results Wearing CG led to significant lower muscle activation (p < 0.05) in the GM (decreased 7.40%–14.31%), RF (decreased 4.39%–4.76%), and ST (decreased 3.42%–7.20%) muscles; moreover, significant higher median frequency (p <0.05) in the GM (increased 5.57%) and ST (increased 10.58%) muscles. Wearing CG did not alter the RPE values or the blood-lactate levels (p > 0.05). Conclusion Wearing CG was associated with significantly lower muscle activation and higher median frequency in the running-related key muscles during distance running. This finding suggested that wearing CG may improve muscle function, which might enhance running performance and prevent muscle fatigue.
... Similarly, CGs was able to improve blood flow [10]. It might leave to lower rating of perceived exertion influencing on performance and recovery [17]. Moreover, in the research of accuracy performance of archers, better accuracy and lower heart rate occur at the same time, based on a comparison between experienced archers and inexperienced archers [18]. ...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of wearing whole body compression garments (WBCGs) on cardiovascular function of running trainers. Eight non-athletes (age: 25.1±3.8 years, height: 165.9±8.3 cm; weight: 61.4±13.7 kg) performed an incremental test followed by 30 minutes running on a treadmill, from 6 km.h-1 to 11 km.h-1 with correct size-compression garments (CCGs), undersize-compression garments (UCGs) and non- compression garments (NCGs). During the exercise, electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were collected between each completed speed by wearable sensors. There was a significant difference in heart rate (HR, p<0.05) between CCGs and NCGs from the velocity of 7km.h-1 onwards. Moreover, the group that wore UCGs has some significant effects on QT intervals and corrected QT at 10km.h-1 and 11km.h-1 (p<0.05). The utilization of WBCGs in a running test may influence the cardiovascular function of wearers. Based on the results of longer QTc, UCGs may cause an adverse effect on performance. Essentially, CCGs should be recommended for wearing during exercise due to the effects of lower HR.
... A seventh site, the gluteal, showed a significant decrease with the full-length garment only (by 1.2 mmHg). In this study there were no effects of either compression condition versus regular running shorts for 400 m performance or 100 m split times, heart rate, or blood lactate profiles (Faulkner et al. 2013). Thus, the practical significance of any changes in pressure is hard to judge given the lack of pressure effect in the first place. ...
Chapter
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Compression garments are popular among competitive and recreational athletes alike. The debate about the efficacy of compression garments in sport is similarly popular, spanning the scientific literature, public press, social media, and the sports field itself. In this chapter we aim to assist both researchers and the general reader by discussing the core elements of the compression garment story. First, we consider compression—the applied pressures and factors influencing those pressures. Knowing the applied pressures in vivo and characteristics of the pressures during use are important for building a clearer idea about what aspects of sports performance and recovery are affected by compression garments and why. Second, we consider garments—that, like other clothing, compression garments cover and interact with the body, establish a microenvironment, and influence variables such as heat and moisture exchanges. Understanding characteristics of the garments themselves can be useful for aiding interpretation of certain physiological and psychological effects, including heat balance, comfort, and wearer acceptability. We hope that the detail here helps the reader to contextualise and critically evaluate research on compression garments in sport.
... Further quality assessment was conducted using a modified Delphi Scale (11,26) and Jadad Scale (36). ...
Article
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To enhance recovery from sport, cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) have become common practice within high level team sport. Initially, athletes relied solely upon anecdotal support. As there has been an increase in the volume of research into recovery including a number of general reviews, an opportunity existed to narrow the focus specifically examining the use of hydrotherapy for recovery in team sport. A Boolean logic [AND] keyword search of databases was conducted: SPORTDiscus; AMED; CINAHL; MEDLINE. Data was extracted and the standardised mean differences were calculated with 95% CI. The analysis of pooled data was conducted using a random-effect model, with Heterogeneity assessed using I2. Twenty three peer reviewed papers (n=606) met the criteria. Meta-analyses results indicated CWI was beneficial for recovery at 24h (CMJ: p= 0.05, CI -0.004 to 0.578; All-out sprint: p=0.02, -0.056 to 0.801) following team sport. CWI was beneficial for recovery at 72h (fatigue: p=0.03, CI 0.061 to 1.418) and CWT was beneficial for recovery at 48h (fatigue: p=0.04, CI 0.013 to 0.942) following team sport. CWI was beneficial for neuromuscular recovery 24h following team sport, whereas CWT was not beneficial for recovery following team sport. In addition, when evaluating accumulated sprinting, CWI was not beneficial for recovery following team sports. In evaluating subjective measures, both CWI (72h) and CWT (24h) were beneficial for recovery of perceptions of fatigue, following team sport. However neither CWI nor CWT was beneficial for recovery, of perceptions of muscle soreness, following team sport.
... A study of 11 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) division I baseball pitchers and 10 NCAA division I golfers wearing upper body compression garments found no difference in power activities (fastball pitch velocity or golf driving distance) but did note an improvement in accuracy (fastball in baseball and drive, approach shot, and chipping in golf) thought to be related to improvements in proprioceptive cues (47). A study on 11 male 400-m runners utilizing lower limb compression garments found no difference in athletic performance (400-m time and 100-m split times) but did find lower rates of perceived exertion when wearing the garments and a trend toward increased rate of lactate clearance (32). ...
... Yapılan çalışmalar arasında kompresyon giysilerinin sıçramada etkili olduğunu (Doan ve ark., 2003) ortaya koyan sonuçlar olmasına rağmen, etkisi olmadığını (Kraemer ve ark., 1996; Kraemer ve ark., 1998; Sipes ve ark., 2011) gösteren çalışmalar da bulunmaktadır. Bu giysileri giymenin sprint süresine anlamlı etkisinin olmadığını gösteren çalışma sayısı da oldukça fazladır (Doan ve ark., 2003; Duffield ve Portus, 2007; Duffield ve ark., 2008; French ve ark., 2008; Davies ve ark., 2009; Lepers ve ark., 2010; Ali ve ark., 2011; Sipes ve ark., 2011; Faulkner ve ark., 2013). Bunların yanında aerobik ve anaerobik güçte (Scanlan ve ark., 2008; Sipes ve ark., 2011), omuz izokinetik kuvvetinde (Lambert ve Dongas, 2006), anaerobik güçte (Sipes ve ark., 2011), anaerobik koşu performansında (Kemmler ve ark., 2009), kas aktivasyonlarında (Yasuda ve ark., 2008) ve eklem hareket açıklığında (Sands ve ark., 2014) artış ortaya koyan çalışma sonuçları da literatürdeki kaynaklarda yer almaktadır. ...
Article
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Abstract Compression garments are modern textiles that has a special structure which be able to apply external mechanical pressure over the skin to the subcutaneous tissues. Research results showing that the positive physical, physiological and psychological benefits of externally applied pressure to the tissue might have led to widespread among athletes of compression garments. According to these possible effects of compression garments has become increasingly widespread among athletes. However, with the presence of the studies that have no positive effects for athletic performance shows that the results are influenced by the variables such as the garment type, surrounding area and worn duration, exercise type, age, gender, form level and anthropometric characteristics of practitioners gradient of applied pressure and according that the effect mechanisms of these clothes are not clarified. In this review, the characteristics, the main effect common consensus on the mechanism, usage, effects of compression garments was described. General information and the new research results about these clothes with increasing popularity in the sports field was discussed to provide useful information for athletes, coaches and sports specialists and this way, we purposed to taking its place in national sports science literature.
... Two studies have reported no significant benefit of wearing compression clothing on sprint performance [114,115]. Brechue et al. [116] reported that American Football equipment (6-8 kg total weight, depending on playing position) impaired 40-yard sprint performance by nearly 3 % (0.15 s) on average. However, the choice of proper athletic clothing is important to minimise air drag and carried weight during sprinting. ...
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The aim of this review is to investigate methodological concerns associated with sprint performance monitoring, more specifically the influence and magnitude of varying external conditions, technology and monitoring methodologies not directly related to human physiology. The combination of different starting procedures and triggering devices can cause up to very large time differences, which may be many times greater than performance changes caused by years of conditioning. Wind, altitude, temperature, barometric pressure and humidity can all combine to yield moderate time differences over short sprints. Sprint performance can also be affected by the athlete’s clothing, principally by its weight rather than its aerodynamic properties. On level surfaces, the track compliance must change dramatically before performance changes larger than typical variation can be detected. An optimal shoe bending stiffness can enhance performance by a small margin. Fully-automatic timing systems, dual-beamed photocells, laser guns and high-speed video are the most accurate tools for sprint performance monitoring. Manual timing and single-beamed photocells should be avoided over short sprint distances (10-20 m) due to large absolute errors. The validity of today’s GPS technology is satisfactory for long distances (>30 m) and maximal velocity in team sports, but multiple observations are still needed due to questionable reliability. Based on different approaches used to estimate the smallest worthwhile performance change and the typical error of sprint measures, we have provided an assessment of the usefulness of speed evaluation from 5 to 40 m. Finally, we provide statistical guidelines to accurately assess changes in individual performance; i.e., considering both the smallest worthwhile change in performance and the typical error of measurement, which can be reduced while repeating the number of trials.
... Graduated compression stockings (GCS) are a type of sport garment that have become popular among runners in the last years (Chatard et al., 2004;Miyamoto and Kawakami, 2014). Although numerous studies have examined the effects of GCS on running performance (Ali et al., 2010;Faulkner et al., 2013;Kemmler et al., 2009;Sperlich et al., 2010), muscle damage (Bieuzen et al., 2013;Miyamoto and Kawakami, 2014), or muscle recovery (Bieuzen et al., 2013;Duffield et al., 2008), there is a lack of information concerning the effects of GCS on skin temperature. ...
Article
High skin temperatures reduce the thermal gradient between the core and the skin and they can lead to a reduction in performance and increased risk of injury. Graduated compression stockings have become popular among runners in the last years and their use may influence the athlete’s thermoregulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graduated compression stockings on skin temperature during running. Forty-four runners performed two running tests lasting 30 minutes (10 minutes of warm-up and 20 minutes at 75% of their maximal aerobic speed) with and without graduated compressive stockings. Skin temperature was measured in twelve regions of interest on the lower limbs by infrared thermography before and after running. Heart rate and perception of fatigue were assessed during the last minute of the running test. Compression stockings resulted in greater increase of temperature (p=0.002 and ES=2.2, 95%CI [0.11-0.45 °C]) not only in the body regions in contact (tibialis anterior, ankle anterior and gastrocnemius) but also in the body regions that were not in contact with the garment (vastus lateralis, abductor and semitendinosus). No differences were observed between conditions in heart rate and perception of fatigue (p>0.05 and ES<0.8). In conclusion, running with graduated compression stockings produces a greater increase of skin temperature without modifying the athlete’s heart rate and perception of fatigue.
... A study of 11 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) division I baseball pitchers and 10 NCAA division I golfers wearing upper body compression garments found no difference in power activities (fastball pitch velocity or golf driving distance) but did note an improvement in accuracy (fastball in baseball and drive, approach shot, and chipping in golf) thought to be related to improvements in proprioceptive cues (47). A study on 11 male 400-m runners utilizing lower limb compression garments found no difference in athletic performance (400-m time and 100-m split times) but did find lower rates of perceived exertion when wearing the garments and a trend toward increased rate of lactate clearance (32). ...
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This review summarizes the evidence base for using compression, massage, caloric replacement, cold, and heat as exercise recovery aids in sport.
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Abstract: Background: Varicose veins and vein insufficiency as is mostly aesthetic problem disease with hidden etiology witch is treated endovenous Laser Ablation (EVLA) method in most cases. The progression of Venous abnormalities in lower extremities with sport connection or exercise training among athletes aged 20-30 is relatively unknown. But is still in scientific eye the excesses recommendation in varicose patients witch is better; Stationary Bike Exercise Training with Sports Compression Socks or Jogging on Treadmill and witch sport can or even have the potential to reduce the pathological process preventing the futures stage of vein insufficiency with the development of pathological reflux of saphenofemoral junction and leg ulcers. Aim: study Focused Clinical Question. Is any sport exercise limitation in young varicose vein patients and with recommendation is better for young adults (treadmill jogging or stationary cycling including weights lifting)? Patients and methods: This study was conducted from the beginning of July, 201 8 till end of July, 2021 at the Clinic of Cardiovascular department of Vascular Surgery, Clinical Center University of Sarajevo and Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Sarajevo, included 142 patients in young age 20-30 with varicose vein (72 nonsurgical patients were observed during one year on standard weight lifting and Treadmill sport excise with and without Sports Compression Socks and control group consisting of 70 nonsurgical were observed during one year patients on Stationary Bike and weight lifting and with and without Sports Compression Socks), male and female patients, in Stage 1: Spider Veins and Stage 2: Varicose Veins / Ropey Veins without pathologic reflux of saphenofemoral junction. Results: Analysis shows the no statistically significant difference between Stationary Bike Exercise Training with Sports Compression Socks or Jogging on Treadmill Sports Compression after one year study (p> 0.005). Conclusion: Stationary Bike Training with Sports Compression Socks provide better protection as an alternative of Treadmill jogging with Sports Compression Socks for progression of futures stage of vein insufficiency and can be potentially recommended, but still need more evidence and large number of subjects to acknowledge this science clamed. Keywords: Varicose veins, Vein insufficiency, Compression Socks, Jogging, Stationary Cycling, Weights lifting.
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Background Compression garments are regularly worn during exercise to improve physical performance, mitigate fatigue responses, and enhance recovery. However, evidence for their efficacy is varied and the methodological approaches and outcome measures used within the scientific literature are diverse. Objectives The aim of this scoping review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the effects of compression garments on commonly assessed outcome measures in response to exercise, including: performance, biomechanical, neuromuscular, cardiovascular, cardiorespiratory, muscle damage, thermoregulatory, and perceptual responses. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and CINAHL Complete) was performed from the earliest record to 27 December, 2020. Results In total, 183 studies were identified for qualitative analysis with the following breakdown: performance and muscle function outcomes: 115 studies (63%), biomechanical and neuromuscular: 59 (32%), blood and saliva markers: 85 (46%), cardiovascular: 76 (42%), cardiorespiratory: 39 (21%), thermoregulatory: 19 (10%) and perceptual: 98 (54%). Approximately 85% ( n = 156) of studies were published between 2010 and 2020. Conclusions Evidence is equivocal as to whether garments improve physical performance, with little evidence supporting improvements in kinetic or kinematic outcomes. Compression likely reduces muscle oscillatory properties and has a positive effect on sensorimotor systems. Findings suggest potential increases in arterial blood flow; however, it is unlikely that compression garments meaningfully change metabolic responses, blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiorespiratory measures. Compression garments increase localised skin temperature and may reduce perceptions of muscle soreness and pain following exercise; however, rating of perceived exertion during exercise is likely unchanged. It is unlikely that compression garments negatively influence exercise-related outcomes. Future research should assess wearer belief in compression garments, report pressure ranges at multiple sites as well as garment material, and finally examine individual responses and varying compression coverage areas.
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This study aimed to compare the influence of wearing compression stockings on physiological, perceptual, and affective responses during running in recreational runners. Ten recreational runners (31.5 ± 9.7 years) participated in this study. All subjects completed three visits to the lab: (a) familiarization and incremental test until exhaustion (b) two exercise sessions conducted on different days. Each session involved the same exercise protocol (20 min continuously at an intensity of 80% of the maximum treadmill speed achieved in the incremental test until exhaustion), with or without the use of compression stockings. The Felt Arousal Scale (FAS), Feeling Scale (FS), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), oxygen consumption (VO2), and heart rate (HR) were recorded during each experimental session. Results showed no differences between the conditions of physiological (% VO2máx: 88.1 ± 8.3 vs 87.1 ± 11.32; % HR: 91.8 ± 2.8 vs 90.8 ± 3.2), perceptual (RPE: 6.4 ± 1.2 vs 6.2 ± 1.4) and affective (FS: 0.35 ± 2.4 vs 0.37 ± 2.3; FAS: 4.3 ± 0.7 vs 4.3 ± 1.1) responses during each exercise sessio n. The results of the present study suggest that wearing of compression stockings does not promote physiological, perceptual, and affective benefits during running of recreational runners.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the pressure intensity of the compression wear affect the kinematic variables, and to reveal whether the interaction effects between pressure intensity of compression wear and the running speed are present during running. Twenty young adults participated in the experiment. Participants wore normal non-pressure sportswear (polyester 100%) moderate-sized low-pressure compression wear (Skins™: nylon 75%, span 25%) and tight-sized high-pressure compression wear (Skins™: nylon 75%, span 25%) in random order. RunScribe™ wearable accelerometers were mounted on the participant’s heels. Participants ran up to 100 m at speeds of 6.0 (km/h) and 9.0 (km/h) in treadmill, and the extracted data was linked to applications on the tablet PC via Bluetooth and collected as Excel files from the desktop. The study showed that wearing compression pants with high pressure intensity lowered the index of foot strike type by 11.35% during running, which means that wearing compression pants with high pressure intensity induced a heel strike on the ground. In the relation with braking on the ground during running of high-pressure compression wear had an interaction effect between pressure intensity and running speed, resulting in performance improvement by braking accceleration at normal speed (6.0 km/h) and injury prevention by braking deceleration at high speed (9.0 km/h). In conclusion, the wearing of high-pressure compression wear during running led to efficient running at normal speed or helped prevent injury at the high speed.
Article
Objectives: Compression garments are used by athletes in attempts to enhance performance and recovery, although evidence to support their use is equivocal. Reducing the exertion experienced during exercise may encourage sedentary individuals to increase physical activity. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of compression garments on walking performance (self-paced and enforced pace) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in adults who presented with two or more CVD risk factors. Participants (n=15, 10 female, 58.9±11.5 years, BMI 27.5±4.5kgm(2)) were recruited. Design: A repeated measures design. Methods: Participants were randomised to Modified Bruce Protocol (enforced pace), or the 6min walk test (self-paced), and completed the test wearing compression garments or normal exercise clothes (Control). Outcome measures included stage completed, gross efficiency (%) and RPE in Modified Bruce Protocol, and distance walked (m) and RPE in 6 min walk test. Results: In the Modified Bruce Protcol participants had a higher RPE (15.5±2.5 vs 14.3±2.2) and a lower efficiency (19.1±5.9 vs 21.1±6.7) in the compression garment condition compared with control, p<0.05. In the 6 min walk test participants walked 9% less in the compression garment condition (p<0.05) but did not have a lower RPE. Conclusions: Compared with previous studies reporting enhanced or no effects of compression garments on performance or RPE, this study shows adverse effects of such clothing in untrained individuals with CVD risk factors. The mechanisms underlying this negative effect require further exploration. Use of garments designed for the athletic individuals may not be suitable for the wider population.
Chapter
Compression apparel is a popular method to aid sports performance and recovery. The ubiquitous nature of compression garments in sport attests to their popularity with athletes. In particular, use of compression clothing is evident in a range of strength and power focused sports. Regardless of their popularity, a growing theme of research in this area highlights the mixed, if not neutral, effects of compression garments on athletic performance and recovery. In part such conclusions stem from the diverse nature of research projects and exercise modes utilised. Thus a more detailed focus of the effects of compression apparel on specific physical capacities is warranted. This chapter will respectively discuss the effects of compression garments on strength, power and repeated-effort exercise. Further, hypothesised mechanisms for the improvement, or lack thereof, in performance indices will be provided. The findings of this discussion will suggest that the use of compression garments show mixed, if not minimal, benefits for exercise performance for prolonged repeat-sprint athletes. However, some small benefits for maximal strength or peak power movements may be evident. Furthermore, whilst compression garments show minimal recovery benefits, some evidence for small improvements in muscle damage marker clearance may exist. Despite the limited evidence for improved performance, compression garments seem beneficial for the reduction of muscle oscillation and perception of reduced exercise-induced muscle soreness (possibly resulting from a placebo effect). Accordingly, the addition of compression garments may be warranted to assist in the perceived readiness of an athlete to train or compete.
Article
Hintergrund: Zunehmend werden Sportkompressionsstrümpfe (SKS) eingesetzt, doch fehlt eine Norm in Analogie zu medizinischen Kompressionsstrümpfen (MKS). Ziel dieser Pilotstudie war der Vergleich der Druckprofile von fünf SKS ex vivo und in vivo miteinander sowie mit MKS-Normen. Patienten und methodik: CEP Running-Progressive-Socks, Falke Running--Energizing, Sigvaris Performance, X-Socks Speed-Metal-Energizer und 2XU Compression--Race-Socks wurden an zehn Leistungssportlern (standardisiert in vivo, Kikuhime--Sensor) sowie im Hohenstein Institut (ex vivo) hinsichtlich ihres Druckprofils getestet. Ergebnisse: Die Ex-vivo-Messungen im Fesselbereich von CEP (25,6 mmHg) und 2XU (23,2 mmHg) entsprachen der deutschen MKS-Klasse 2, von Sigvaris-SKS (20,8 mmHg) der deutschen MKS-Klasse 1. Die übrigen SKS lagen darunter. Die ermittelten Druckprofile differierten stark und entsprachen nicht der MKS-Norm. Die In-vivo-Messungen zeigten für drei SKS (2XU, CEP, Sigvaris) durchschnittlich einen höheren Anpressdruck als die SKS von Falke und X-Socks. Alle SKS lagen in vivo jedoch unter der deutschen MKS-Klasse 1. Kein SKS bot den für MKS geforderten Druckabfall vom Messpunkt B nach D. Schlussfolgerungen: Die in vivo und ex vivo ermittelten SKS-Druckprofile zeigten heterogene Ergebnisse und folgten kaum den MKS-Anforderungen. Entsprechend sind auch die klinisch-praktischen Effekte von SKS nicht vergleichbar. Wünschenswert wäre eine SKS-Klassifikation, die erlaubt, Produkte einzuordnen, zu vergleichen und nach konkreten Vorlieben und Bedürfnissen (hoher vs. geringer Druck, progressiver vs. degressiver Gradient) auszuwählen.
Article
Background: While sport compression stockings (SCS) have become increasingly popular, there is no regulatory norm as exists for medical compression stockings (MCS). The objective of this pilot study was to compare five SCS with respect to their pressure profiles ex vivo and in vivo, and in relation to German standards for MCS (RAL norm). Patients and methods: In vivo (10 competitive athletes; standardized procedure using the Kikuhime pressure monitor) and ex vivo (tested at the Hohenstein Institute) pressure profiles were tested for the following products: CEP Running Progressive Socks, Falke Running Energizing, Sigvaris Performance, X-Socks Speed Metal Energizer, and 2XU Compression Race Socks. Results: Ex vivo ankle pressures of CEP (25.6 mmHg) and 2XU (23.2 mmHg) corresponded to class 2 MCS; that of Sigvaris (20.8 mmHg), to class 1 MCS. The remaining SCS achieved lower pressure values. The pressure gradients showed marked differences, and did not meet MCS standards. Average in vivo pressures were higher for 2XU, CEP, and Sigvaris than for Falke and X-Socks. However, in vivo values for all SCS were below those of class 1 MCS. None of the SCS showed the decreasing pressure gradient (from distal to proximal) required for MCS. Conclusions: In vivo and ex vivo pressure profiles of all SCS examined showed marked heterogeneity, and did not meet MCS standards. Consequently, the clinical and practical effects of SCS cannot be compared, either. It would therefore be desirable to establish a classification that allows for the categorization and comparison of various SCS as well as their selection based on individual preferences and needs (high vs. low pressure, progressive vs. degressive profile).
Article
For many years now, compression stockings have been used by elite and recreational athlete in the attempt of improving their performances and accelerate the recovering process. In fact, compression stockings are commonly used in therapeutic medicine, especially in chronic venous disease to promote and increase venous return. Therefore, one could think that improvement of venous return during and after exercise could facilitate muscles oxygen delivery and clearance of metabolites produced during exercise. Studies published on the subject are numerous but the literature remains fragmented due to great heterogeneity among the studies and the results of the previous studies are controversial. Compression stockings have demonstrated few ergogenic effects during exercise. They could possibly have a positive effet on jump performance in some situations, but we lack evidence of such influence for other forms of exercise including cycling, running, sprinting. Specific physical and physiological effects have been identified, such as attenuation of muscles oscillation, decrease muscle oxygen intake, improved joint awareness, but such findings remains relatively isolated. To be noticed that none of the endurance parameters, such as cardiac frequency, cardiac output, VO2 max, ... were unaffected by wearing compression garments during high intensity exercises. During recovery, compression stockings have had mixed effects but there is some evidence for local blood flow augmentation, post-exercise swelling reduction and lower rating of perceived muscle soreness. However, these positive results need confirmation. Thus, the purpose of this text is to review the possible measurable effects of compression garments on exercise performance and muscle recovery.
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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an ankle compression garment (CG) on muscle performance and physiological variables associated with recovery from fatigue. Fifteen participants took part in a randomized, crossover study design with two experimental conditions (ankle CG and control). The dependent variables: skin temperature, evoked muscle contractile properties, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force, electromyography (EMG), drop jump performance (20, 35 and 50cm box heights), continuous drop jump (30cm) time to fatigue (TTF) and blood lactate concentration were measured pre- and post-warm up and post-fatigue. Compared to control condition, ankle CG condition had significantly reduced half relaxation times (p = 0.043) and higher skin temperatures at post-warm up and post-fatigue protocol (p< 0.001, Δ 3.2% and Δ 4% respectively). Participants also exhibited significantly lower ground reaction forces (GRF) for 50cm drop jumps (p = 0.044, Δ9.9%) with ankle CG at post-warm up. There were no significant differences between conditions for muscle contractile properties, MVC force or EMG, jump height, take-off velocity, contact time, and jumping TTF. Independent of group, there was a three-fold increase in blood lactate (p < 0.01) from pre-warm up to post-fatigue and a significant decrease in MVC force (p = 0.048, Δ8.1%) from post-warm up to post-fatigue. Results suggest that ankle CG increased and maintained skin temperature during recovery, decreased twitch half relaxation times and reduced GRF from a 50cm drop height. However, ankle CG did not improve other performance measures, aid in recovery or affect blood lactate clearance.
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During activity, the body's limbs experience significant anthropometrical changes as muscles and tendons exert force for motion and stability. This dynamic motion is of interest to sports compression garment manufacturers who seek to enhance sports performance through gradient compression garment design. Existing devices for measuring garment pressure are generally not well suited to dynamic pressure measurement during sports activities due to limited portability, memory, communication and power capacity. A wearable wireless monitoring device was constructed, which included six 18mm diameter low profile pressure sensors that were placed on the body at various positions, e. g. on the calf, thigh, and buttocks regions, to sense garment pressure in the range of 5 - 50mmHg. The accuracy and precision of the wearable dynamic pressure monitoring device was explored using a series of step changes in pressure effected through the placement of a series of known masses. Similar tests were also conducted with the Kikuhime (TM) and PicoPress (TM) for comparison. Further tests to explore the performance of the wearable dynamic pressure monitoring device to monitor changes in pressure between a subject and garment during various activities were also performed. The performance of the wearable dynamic pressure monitoring device is discussed in terms of portability, dynamic response, accuracy, precision, resolution and general utility. It was generally found to be acceptable for further field studies. Wireless dynamic pressure monitoring devices represent a tool that could be utilised to help further understand and characterise dynamic compression in various sports activities. Such a device would enable functional testing and provide valuable information on dynamic compression values and the physiological efficacy of gradient compression garment design. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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Compression shorts have become a very popular item of sports apparel. Few data exist about whether they influence athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether compression shorts affected vertical jump performance after different fatigue tasks (i.e., endurance, strength, and power). In addition, experiments on the influence of a compression garment on joint position sense at the hip and muscle movement velocity upon landing impact was also studied. Healthy college age men and women participated in the various studies. Subjects were thoroughly familiarized with the jump tests and all other experimental techniques. Jumps were performed on an AMTI force plate which was interfaced to a computer with customized software used to determine jump power. Ten consecutive maximal counter movement jumps with arms held at waist level were performed. The compressive garment had no effect on the maximal power of the highest jump in either men or women. The compressive garment significantly enhanced mean power output in the jump test both before and after different fatigue tasks. The compressive garment enhanced joint position sense at the hip at 45°and 60°of flexion. A compression garment also significantly reduced the vertical velocity of muscle movement upon landing. These data indicate that compression shorts do not improve maximal jump power output. However, an enhanced mean power output during the repetitive maximal jump test was observed when wearing a compression garment. The performance improvement observed may be due to reduced muscle oscillation upon impact, psychological factors, and/or enhanced joint position sense.
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Purpose: The present investigation examined the physiological and performance effects of lower-body compression garments (LBCG) during a one-hour cycling time-trial in well-trained cyclists. Methods: Twelve well-trained male cyclists ([mean+/-SD] age: 20.5+/-3.6 years; height: 177.5+/-4.9 cm; body mass: 70.5+/-7.5 kg; VO2max: 55.2+/-6.8 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) volunteered for the study. Each subject completed two randomly ordered stepwise incremental tests and two randomly ordered one-hour time trials (1HTT) wearing either full-length SportSkins Classic LBCG or underwear briefs (control). Blood lactate concentration ([BLa-]), heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2) and muscle oxygenation (mOxy) were recorded throughout each test. Indicators of cycling endurance performance were anaerobic threshold (AnT) and VO2max values from the incremental test, and mean power (W), peak power (W), and total work (kJ) from the 1HTT. Magnitude-based inferences were used to determine if LBCG demonstrated any performance and/or physiological benefits. Results: A likely practically significant increase (86%:12%:2%; eta2=0.6) in power output at AnT was observed in the LBCG condition (CONT: 245.9+/-55.7 W; LBCG: 259.8+/-44.6 W). Further, a possible practically significant improvement (78%:19%:3%; eta2=0.6) was reported in muscle oxygenation economy (W.%mOxy(-1)) across the 1HTT (mOxy: CONT: 52.2+/-12.2%; LBCG: 57.3+/-8.2%). Conclusions: The present results demonstrated limited physiological benefits and no performance enhancement through wearing LBCG during a cycling time trial.
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This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of lower limb compression as a recovery strategy following exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Seventeen female volunteers completed 10 x 10 plyometric drop jumps from a 0.6-m box to induce muscle damage. Participants were randomly allocated to a passive recovery (n = 9) or a compression treatment (n = 8) group. Treatment group volunteers wore full leg compression stockings for 12 h immediately following damaging exercise. Passive recovery group participants had no intervention. Indirect indices of muscle damage (muscle soreness, creatine kinase activity, knee extensor concentric strength, and vertical jump performance) were assessed prior to and 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h following plyometric exercise. Plyometric exercise had a significant effect (p < or = 0.05) on all indices of muscle damage. The compression treatment reduced decrements in countermovement jump performance (passive recovery 88.1 +/- 2.8% vs. treatment 95.2 +/- 2.9% of pre-exercise), squat jump performance (82.3 +/- 1.9% vs. 94.5 +/- 2%), and knee extensor strength loss (81.6 +/- 3% vs. 93 +/- 3.2%), and reduced muscle soreness (4.0 +/- 0.23 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.24), but had no significant effect on creatine kinase activity. The results indicate that compression clothing is an effective recovery strategy following exercise-induced muscle damage.
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Most (75%+) of the lactate formed during sustained, steady-rate exercise is removed by oxidation during exercise, and only a minor fraction (approximately 20%) is converted to glucose. Significant lactate extraction occurs during net lactate release from active skeletal muscle; the total lactate extraction approximates half the net chemical release. Of the lactate which appears in blood, most of this will be removed and combusted by oxidative (muscle) fibers in the active bed and the heart. The "shuttling" of oxidizable substrate in the form of lactate from areas of high glycogenolytic rate to areas of high cellular respiration through the interstitium and vasculature appears to represent an important means by which substrate is distributed, metabolic "waste" is removed, and the functions of various tissues are coordinated during exercise. During recovery from sustained exhausting exercise, most of the lactate accumulated during exercise will continue to be removed by direct oxidation. However, as the muscle respiratory rate declines in recovery, lactate becomes the preferred substrate for hepatic gluconeogenesis. Practically all of the newly formed liver glucose will be released into the circulation to serve as a precursor for cardiac and skeletal muscle glycogen repletion. Liver glycogen depots will not be restored, and muscle glycogen will not be completely restored until refeeding. This is because the diversion of lactate carbon to oxidation during exercise and recovery represents an irreversible loss of gluconeogenic precursor and because the processes of protein proteolysis and gluconeogenesis from amino acids are insufficient to achieve complete glycogen restitution after exhausting exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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A between groups design was used to compare recovery following eccentric muscle damage under 2 experimental conditions. To determine if a compression sleeve donned immediately after maximal eccentric exercise would enhance recovery of physical function and decrease symptoms of soreness. Prior investigations using ice, intermittent compression, or exercise have not shown efficacy in relieving symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). To date, no study has shown the effect of continuous compression on DOMS, yet this would offer a low cost intervention for patients suffering with the symptoms of DOMS. Twenty nonimpaired non-strength-trained women participated in the study. Subjects were matched for age, anthropometric data, and one repetition maximum concentric arm curl strength and then randomly placed into a control group (n = 10) or an experimental compression sleeve group (n = 10). Subjects were instructed to avoid pain-relieving modalities (eg, analgesic medications, ice) throughout the study. The experimental group wore a compressive sleeve garment for 5 days following eccentric exercise. Subjects performed 2 sets of 50 passive arm curls with the dominant arm on an isokinetic dynamometer with a maximal eccentric muscle action superimposed every fourth passive repetition. One repetition maximum elbow flexion, upper arm circumference, relaxed elbow angle, blood serum cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and perception of soreness questionnaires were collected prior to the exercise bout and daily thereafter for 5 days. Creatine kinase was significantly elevated from the baseline value in both groups, although the experimental compression test group showed decreased magnitude of creatine kinase elevation following the eccentric exercise. Compression sleeve use prevented loss of elbow motion, decreased perceived soreness, reduced swelling, and promoted recovery of force production. Results from this study underline the importance of compression in soft tissue injury management.
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The aims of this study were to determine how custom-fit compression shorts affect athletic performance and to examine the mechanical properties of the shorts. Ten male and 10 female track athletes on a university's nationally competitive track team, specializing in sprint or jump events, participated in the study. Testing utilized the compression shorts with loose-fitting gym shorts as the control garment. Several significant effects were revealed for the custom-fit compressive garment. Although 60 m sprint time was not affected, hip flexion angle was reduced. Skin temperature increased more and at a faster rate during a warm-up protocol. Muscle oscillation was decreased during vertical jump landing. Countermovement vertical jump height increased when the participants were wearing the custom-fit compression garment. In materials testing, the elasticity of the compressive garment provides increased flexion and extension torque at the end range of extension and flexion, respectively, and may assist the hamstrings in controlling the leg at the end of the swing phase in sprinting. The compressive garment significantly reduced impact force by 27% compared with American football pants alone. Through various mechanisms, these findings may translate into an effect on athletic performance and a reduction in injuries.
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The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of predicting maximal oxygen uptake(VO(2max)) from sub-maximal VO(2) values elicited during a perceptually-regulated exercise test. We hypothesised that the strong relationship between the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and VO(2) would enable VO(2max) to be predicted and that this would improve with practice. Ten male volunteers performed a graded exercise test (GXT) to establish VO(2max) followed by three sub-maximal RPE production protocols on a cycle ergometer, each separated by a period of 48 h. The perceptually-regulated trials were conducted at intensities of 9, 11, 13, 15 and 17 on the RPE scale, in that order. VO(2) and HR were measured continuously and recorded at the end of each 4 min stage. Individual's RPE values yielded correlations in the range 0.92-0.99 across the three production trials. There were no significant differences between measured VO(2max) (48.8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) and predicted VO(2) max values (47.3, 48.6 and 49.9 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), for trials 1, 2 and 3, respectively) when VO(2) max was predicted from RPE values of 9-17. The same was observed when VO(2max) was predicted using RPE 9-15. Limits of agreement (LoA) analysis on actual and predicted VO(2max) values (from RPE 9-17) were (bias+/-1.96xSDdiff) 1.5+/-7.3, 0.2+/-4.9 and -1.2+/-5.8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), for trials 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Corresponding LoA values for actual and predicted VO(2max) (from RPE 9-15) were 5.4+/-11.3, 4.4+/-8.7 and 2.3+/-8.4 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), respectively. The data suggest that a sub-maximal, perceptually-guided, graded exercise protocol can provide acceptable estimates of maximal aerobic power, which are further improved with practice in fit young males.
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To examine the effectiveness of four interventions on the rate and magnitude of muscle damage recovery, as measured by creatine kinase (CK). 23 elite male rugby players were monitored transdermally before, immediately after, 36 hours after, and 84 hours after competitive rugby matches. Players were randomly assigned to complete one of four post-match strategies: contrast water therapy (CWT), compression garment (GAR), low intensity active exercise (ACT), and passive recovery (PAS). Significant increases in CK activity in transdermal exudate were observed as a result of the rugby match (p<0.01). The magnitude of recovery in the PAS intervention was significantly worse than in the ACT, CWT, and GAR interventions at the 36 and 84 hour time points (p<0.05). An enhanced rate and magnitude of recovery was observed in the ACT, CWT, and GAR treatment groups when compared with the PAS group. Low impact exercise immediately post-competition, wearing compression garments, or carrying out contrast water therapy enhanced CK clearance more than passive recovery in young male athletes.
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We applied near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to evaluate in resting conditions the effects of compression tights (CT) on calf muscle oxygenation and venous pooling compared with Lycra(R) elastic tights (ET) and shorts (no compression) according to the body posture (supine vs standing). Twelve sportsmen regularly involved in endurance training volunteered to this study. Their average age, height and weight (+/-SD) were 26.5+/-2.6 years, 177+/-6 cm and 70.1+/-4 kg, respectively. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI), deoxyhemoglobin (HHb), and blood pooling (Hbtot) of the right gastrocnemius medialis were continuously monitored at 2 Hz using a NIRS device (NIRO-300, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan). A home made transducer was used to measure applied pressure at the interface between skin and clothing over the calf area. Subjects were asked to realize a supine-standing protocol (5 min for each position) by wearing CT, ET or shorts in a counterbalanced order on the same day. HHb and Hbtot concentration changes were significantly lower whereas TOI was significantly higher by wearing CT compared with shorts and ET (P<0.001) as did supine compared to upright postures. The mean pressures applied over the calf were 5.6 and 23.2 mmHg during supine and 5 and 24.1 mmHg during standing for ET and CT, respectively. Pressures were significantly different among clothing according to the following rank order: CT>ET>shorts (P<0.001). CT compared to ET have positive effects on calf muscle oxygenation and venous pooling in quiet resting positions.
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The aim of this study was to examine the effect of wearing graduated compression stockings on physiological and perceptual variables during and after intermittent (Experiment 1) and continuous (Experiment 2) running exercise. Fourteen recreational runners performed two multi-stage intermittent shuttle running tests with 1 h recovery between tests (Experiment 1). A further 14 participants performed a fast-paced continuous 10-km road run (Experiment 2). Participants wore commercially available knee-length graduated compression stockings (pressure at ankle 18 - 22 mmHg) beneath ankle-length sports socks (experimental trials) or just the latter (control trials) in a randomized counterbalanced design (for both experiments). No performance or physiological differences were observed between conditions during intermittent shuttle running. During the 10-km trials, there was a reduction in delayed-onset muscle soreness 24 h after exercise when wearing graduated compression stockings (P < 0.05). There was a marked difference in the frequency and location of soreness: two participants in the stockings trial but 13 participants in the control trial indicated soreness in the lower legs. Wearing graduated compression stockings during a 10-km road run appears to reduce delayed-onset muscle soreness after exercise in recreationally active men.
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This study assessed whether the accuracy of predicting maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) from sub-maximal heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) values was moderated by gender and habitual activity. In total, 27 men and 18 women completed two GXTs to determine VO2max and three perceptually-regulated GXTs, incremented by RPE 9, 11, 13, 15 and 17. The RPE and HR were individually regressed against VO2max (approximately 0.96) to enable predictions of VO2max. The VO2max was predicted from three RPE ranges (9-17, 9-15, 9-13). The RPE ranges were extrapolated to RPE(19), RPE(20) and age-predicted maximal HR (HRmax(pred)). ANOVA revealed no differences between measured and predicted VO2max (P > 0.05) when the RPE range 9-17 was extrapolated to RPE(19) and HRmax(pred). Extrapolation of RPE 9-17 to RPE(20) overestimated VO2max (P < 0.05), but no differences were observed when predicted from the RPE ranges 9-15 and 9-13. The prediction of VO2max was not moderated by gender or activity status. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that HR explained additional variance in VO2max when added to the RPE (2%). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis also indicated that VO2max was significantly correlated with power output at sub-maximal RPE values of 13 and 15 (P < 0.01) in men and women. The addition of HRmax(pred) improved the accuracy of the prediction equation for men (P = 0.05) but not for women. The study confirmed the validity of estimating VO2max from perceptually-regulated, sub-maximal GXT and indicated the potential utility of regression analysis to gauge appropriate sub-maximal exercise intensities.
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This study compared the effects of compression garments on recovery of evoked and voluntary performance following fatiguing exercise. Eleven participants performed 2 sessions separated by 7 days, with and without lower-body compression garments during and 24h post-exercise. Participants performed a 10-min exercise protocol of a 20-m sprint and 10 plyometric bounds every minute. Before, following, 2h and 24h post-exercise, evoked twitch properties of the knee extensors, peak concentric knee extension and flexion force were assessed, with blood samples drawn to measure lactate [La(-)], pH, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate transaminase (AST) and c-reactive protein (C-RP). Heart rate, exertion (RPE) and muscle soreness (MS) measures were obtained pre- and post-exercise. No differences (P=0.50-0.80) and small effect sizes (d<0.3) were present for 20-m sprint (3.59+/-0.22 vs. 3.59+/-0.18s) or bounding performance (17.13+/-1.4 vs. 17.21+/-1.7 m) in garment and control conditions. The decline and recovery in concentric force were not different (P=0.40) between conditions. Full recovery of voluntary performance was observed 2h post-exercise, however, evoked twitch properties remained suppressed 2h post-exercise in both conditions. No differences (P=0.40-0.80, d<0.3) were present between conditions for heart rate, RPE, [La(-)], pH, CK or C-RP. However, 24h post-exercise a smaller change (P=0.08; d=2.5) in AST (23.1+/-3.1 vs. 26.0+/-4.0) and reduced (P=0.01; d=1.1) MS (2.8+/-1.2 vs. 4.5+/-1.4) were present in the garments. In conclusion the effects of compression garments on voluntary performance and recovery were minimal; however, reduced levels of perceived MS were reported following recovery in the garments.
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Oedema is one of the most frequent signs of chronic venous insufficiency and may be present at all stages of this disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four different types of elastic compression stockings on oedema prevention in patients with varicose veins. An increase in foot volume after elevation of the leg was evaluated by strain gauge plethysmography in 20 limbs with varicose veins and 14 normal limbs, and the effects of four different compression stockings--8, 14, 22 and 30-40 mmHg--were compared. All stockings significantly reduced the foot volume increase compared with the no stockings patient group and the normal group. There was no significant difference in the volume increase in the normal group for all four stockings, while there was a significantly smaller volume increase in the 22 mmHg stocking compared to the 14 mmHg stocking in the patient group. Between the 22 mmHg and 30-40 mmHg stockings or between the 14 mmHg and 8 mmHg stockings, there was no significant difference in the volume increase. Elastic stockings, even with a pressure as low as 8 mmHg, can prevent oedema in patients with varicose veins, as well as in normal controls. However, the 22 mmHg and 30-40 mmHg stockings were better at preventing foot oedema in patients with varicose veins than those exerting less compression.
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Venous hemodynamics evaluated during walking better reflect changes that occur under active physiologic conditions than do conventional static modes of exercise such as tip-toe exercise, knee bending, or dorsiflexion. We prospectively studied the efficacy of air-plethysmography (APG) in monitoring venous hemodynamics during ambulation, and with this method we determined the hemodynamic effects of graduated elastic compression stockings on the lower limb during walking at various speeds. The residual volume fraction (RVF%) during treadmill walking was monitored with APG in 10 limbs with primary chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)(CEAP(2-4)) at four speeds (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 km/h consecutively), with and without elastic compression (21 mm Hg at the ankle). The method was validated in comparison with standard APG, which is based on tip-toe exercise. RVF obtained during treadmill walking at 1.5 km/h was correlated with RVF measured with standard APG in 30 subjects: 12 healthy volunteers, 11 patients with primary CVI, and 7 postthrombotic limbs. Data were analyzed with nonparametric statistics. RVF measurements during walking were reproduced with an intra-day coefficient of variation of 5.1% to 16.5%. RVF during walking correlated well with RVF during standard APG (tip-toe) (r = 0.5, P =.004). At each of the investigated walking speeds, stockings improved venous hemodynamics by decreasing RVF, from a median of 50.5% without stockings to 40.5% with stockings at 1.0 km/h (19.8% decrease), from 49% to 39.5% at 1.5 km/h (19.4% decrease), from 50.5% to 41% at 2.0 km/h (18.8% decrease), and from 53% to 45.5% at 2.5 km/h (14.2% decrease) (all speeds, P <.02). Efficacy of the stockings in decreasing RVF (percent change in RVF) was similar across the spectrum of examined speeds (P =.47). During walking with elastic stockings, nominal RVF values were also similar across the spectrum of walking speeds, except at 2.5 km/h (P =.012). During walking without stockings, RVF did not change with treadmill speed, nor did it differ from that obtained with conventional APG (tip-toe) (P =.46). The percentage decrease in RVF generated with elastic stockings correlated with the venous filling index (r = 0.73, P =.017) at 1.0 km/h. APG is a reproducible and valid method for monitoring venous hemodynamics during walking. Graduated elastic compression stockings significantly improved venous hemodynamics by reducing RVF in limbs with primary CVI at all examined walking speeds (1.0 to 2.5 km/h). The effect was linearly correlated with the amount of reflux (1.0 km/h). The modified application of APG during walking offers a new noninvasive method for assessment of venous hemodynamics in limbs with CVI, enabling quantification of the actual effect of elastic compression therapy during ambulation.
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Anecdotal evidence suggests compression garments (CGs) are being worn underneath normal playing attire during team sports. Wearing CGs as a baselayer could possibly increase heat storage, and so this field study investigated the effects of wearing CGs, comprising knee-length shorts and short-sleeved top underneath normal match-day attire (COMP), versus normal match-day attire alone (NORM) on thermoregulation during simulated team sport activity. Ten match-fit field hockey players twice performed 4x15min exercise bouts consisting of repeated cycles of intermittent, varied-intensity 20m shuttle running (Loughborough intermittent shuttle test), once in COMP and once in NORM. Testing was conducted in an indoor gymnasium (ambient conditions: approximately 17 degrees C, approximately 60% relative humidity). Participants acted as their own controls. Heart rate (HR), 15m sprint time, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate concentration, sweat rate and body core temperature (T(core)) were similar between trials (p>0.05). Mean skin temperature (T(skin)) was significantly higher in COMP than NORM (p<0.05). Overall, CGs worn as a baselayer during simulated team sport exercise in temperate ambient conditions had no thermoregulatory benefits nor any detrimental effects on T(core), physiological performance or dehydration. However, the higher T(skin) may affect individual preference for wearing CGs as an undergarment during team sports.
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Contrast bathing (CB) and compression garments (CG) are widely used to promote recovery. To evaluate CB and CG as regeneration strategies after exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Baseline values of muscle soreness, serum creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin (Mb), joint range of motion, limb girth, 10- or 30-m sprint, countermovement jump (CMJ), and five repetition maximum squat were completed by 26 young men who then undertook a resistance exercise challenge (REC) to induce EIMD: 6 x 10 parallel squats at 100% body weight with 5-s one repetition maximum eccentric squat superimposed onto each set. After the REC, subjects were separated into three intervention groups: CB, CG, and control (CONT). Forty-eight hours after REC, the subjects exercise performance was reassessed. CK and Mb were also measured +1, +24, and +48 h post-REC. CK was elevated at +24 h ( upward arrow140%; upward arrow161%; upward arrow270%), and Mb was elevated at +1 h ( upward arrow523%; upward arrow458%; upward arrow682%) in CB, CG, and CONT. Within-group large effect sizes for loge[CK] were found for CB at +24 h (0.80) and +48 h (0.84). Area under the [Mb] curve was lower in CB compared with CG and CONT (P < or = 0.05). At +48 h, significant differences from baseline were found in all groups for CMJ (CG, downward arrow5.1%; CB, downward arrow4.4%; CONT, downward arrow8.5%) and soreness ( upward arrow213%; upward arrow284%; upward arrow284%). Soreness transiently fell at +1 h compared with post-REC in the CB group. At +48 h, midthigh girth increased in CB ( upward arrow1.4%) and CONT ( upward arrow1.6%), whereas 30-m sprint time increased in CG ( upward arrow2%). No hierarchy of recovery effects was found. Neither contrast bathing nor compression acted to promote acute recovery from EIMD any more effectively than passive conditions, although contrast bathing may transiently attenuate postexercise soreness.