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Abstract

Todd, JS, Shurley, JP, and Todd, TC. Thomas L. DeLorme and the science of progressive resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 26(11): 2913-2923, 2012-In the latter years of the Second World War, the number of American servicemen who had sustained orthopedic injuries was overwhelming the nation's military hospitals. The backlog of patients was partly because of the sheer number of soldiers involved in the war effort, but it was exacerbated by rehabilitation protocols that required lengthy recovery times. In 1945, an army physician, Dr. Thomas L. DeLorme experimented with a new rehabilitation technique. DeLorme had used strength training to recover from a childhood illness and reasoned that such heavy training would prove beneficial for the injured servicemen. DeLorme's new protocol consisted of multiple sets of resistance exercises in which patients lifted their 10-repetition maximum. DeLorme refined the system by 1948 to include 3 progressively heavier sets of 10 repetitions, and he referred to the program as "Progressive Resistance Exercise." The high-intensity program was markedly more successful than older protocols and was quickly adopted as the standard in both military and civilian physical therapy programs. In 1951, DeLorme published the text Progressive Resistance Exercise: Technic and Medical Application, which was widely read by other physicians and medical professionals. The book, and DeLorme's academic publications on progressive resistance exercise, helped legitimize strength training and played a key role in laying the foundation for the science of resistance exercise.

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... One notable investigator who pushed the modality into the mainstream was Dr. Thomas L. DeLorme. In an eloquent and extensive historical perspective of this man, Todd et al. (16) from the University of Texas' Stark Center for Physical Culture and Sport delved into the many permutations of a man who clearly impacted the field of resistance training as much as anyone ...
... The term progressive resistance training also became an accepted concept and was the term first coined by DeLorme, arising from a dinner conversation with his wife who came up with the name for his rehabilitation programs (16). Through time, in the late 1940s and 1950s, his research entered the consciousness of the public because of his status as a respected orthopedic and rehabilitation physician ( Figure 3). ...
... Through time, in the late 1940s and 1950s, his research entered the consciousness of the public because of his status as a respected orthopedic and rehabilitation physician ( Figure 3). DeLorme's The term progressive resistance training also became an accepted concept and was the term first coined by DeLorme, arising from a dinner conversation with his wife who came up with the name for his rehabilitation programs (16). ...
... A traditional training program for conditioning and muscular enhancement is based on progressive resistive loads according to the technique of DeLorme and Watkins. 15 This lasts for 4 weeks or 12 sessions of approximately 45 minutes, on alternate days. In the warm-up phase, the muscles of the lower limbs are prepared. ...
... The exercises are performed in 3 sets of 10 repetitions with loads of half of the 10 repetition maximum (RM). 15 In the work phase, aimed at the enhancement of the quadriceps, hamstrings, abductors and adductors, the loads become 10 RM. The loads are adapted to the possibilities of the participants looking for a maximum performance, but also try to avoid fatigue. ...
... Also the science of progressive resistance training is a development of the twentieth century. Actually during World War II, most physicians still believed that strength training may be adverse to health and well-being, by sharing views of a well-known newspaper columnist stating that "extreme effort is not desirable in any kind of physical training nor is it good for the heart" [5]. However, only a few years later the first scientific papers of progressive overload resistance training were published by Thomas L. Delorme, who utilized progressive resistance training (defined as lifting multiple sets of the individual 10 repetition maximum) for the rehabilitation of injured servicemen [5]. ...
... Actually during World War II, most physicians still believed that strength training may be adverse to health and well-being, by sharing views of a well-known newspaper columnist stating that "extreme effort is not desirable in any kind of physical training nor is it good for the heart" [5]. However, only a few years later the first scientific papers of progressive overload resistance training were published by Thomas L. Delorme, who utilized progressive resistance training (defined as lifting multiple sets of the individual 10 repetition maximum) for the rehabilitation of injured servicemen [5]. Delorme's book "Progressive Resistance Exercise: Technic and Medical Application" and his academic publications are nowadays understood as the foundation for the science of strength training and his research continued way beyond the official end of World War II. ...
Chapter
Although exercise has been part of humanity since the antiquity, the initial attempts to scientifically investigate the physiology of human performance dates back to the early twentieth century. While a major corner stone in the science of progressive resistance training was achieved already at the end of World War II, the first study investigating the compatibility of aerobic and strength training dates back to 1980. Ever since, the science of concurrent training has been controversally discussed. This chapter, thus, aims to provide a brief summary on the history of the scientific milestones of concurrent aerobic and strength training investigations.
... Para todos os testes de força foi aplicado o protocolo de deLorme 10 , de 10 repetições máximas, este foi utilizado de forma unilateral para cadeia cinética aberta e bilateralmente para cadeia cinética fechada. Sendo realizados 10 repetições iniciais com carga préestabelecidas pelo voluntário e após um minuto de repouso, o teste foi repetido com uma carga maior finalizando quando o voluntário conseguisse realizar as 10 repetições com a maior carga possível, em caso de fadiga muscular a última carga utilizada foi considerada 13 ...
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Introdução: Tem-se a ideia de que, quanto mais força, menor é a flexibilidade articular. Objetivos: Verificar a flexibilidade e força muscular entre indivíduos praticantes e não-praticantes de musculação. Métodos: Participaram do estudo 120 voluntários adultos, idade entre 18 anos e 46 anos, divididos em 4 grupos: Sedentários (S); Praticantes de musculação (M); Trabalhadores não praticantes de exercícios resistidos (T); Trabalhadores praticantes de exercícios resistidos (TM). Testes de flexibilidade e força muscular foram utilizados para correlacionar os resultados. Resultados: Os grupos M e TM continham quantidade significativa em meses de prática de musculação, além de flexibilidade predominante de peitoral maior. A força dos isquiotibiais foi predominante no grupo TM também. Quanto à flexibilidade do músculo quadríceps apenas o grupo TM apresentou correlação negativa alta com a força muscular. Conclusão: Não se pode afirmar que mesmo que a flexibilidade estabeleça vantagem mecânica sobre um movimento, ela esteja diretamente relacionada à força muscular.
... Furthermore, adapting to exercise requires time and can be repetitiously surmounted to achieve, incrementally, greater adaptations. Such is the foundation of progressive exercise training (51). The use of a single session negates the factor of time to allow incremental increases in adaptation and potentially greater skeletal muscle protection. ...
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The aim of the present study was to investigate whether short-term, concurrent exercise training before hindlimb suspension (HLS) prevents or diminishes both soleus and gastrocnemius atrophy and to analyze whether changes in mitochondrial molecular markers were associated. Male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to control at 13 ± 1 wk of age, 7-day HLS at 12 ± 1 wk of age (HLS), 2 wk of exercise training before 7-day HLS at 10 ± 1 wk of age (Ex+HLS), and 2 wk of exercise training at 11 ± 1 wk of age (Ex) groups. HLS resulted in a 27.1% and 21.5% decrease in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle weight-to-body weight ratio, respectively. Exercise training before HLS resulted in a 5.6% and 8.1% decrease in soleus and gastrocnemius weight-to-body weight ratio, respectively. Exercise increased mitochondrial biogenesis- and function-associated markers and slow myosin heavy chain (SMHC) expression, and reduced fiber-type transitioning marker myosin heavy chain 4 (Myh4). Ex+HLS revealed decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress compared with HLS. Our data indicated the time before an atrophic setting, particularly caused by muscle unloading, may be a useful period to intervene short-term, progressive exercise training to prevent skeletal muscle atrophy and is associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, function, and redox balance. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, whereas exercise is known to increase mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Here we provide evidence of short-term concurrent exercise training before an atrophic event protecting skeletal muscle from atrophy in two separate muscles with different, dominant fiber-types, and we reveal an association with the adaptive changes of mitochondrial molecular markers to exercise.
... One of the most important principles is the progressive overload. The application to weights and the term progressive resistance exercise originates from Thomas Delorme, when he rehabilitated soldiers after World War II [21]. However, to increase performance, the basic assumptions are: (i) the workout has to be more challenging than the previous one (i.e., a minimum threshold has to be exceeded), (ii) the workout has to be within the tolerance of the trainee (i.e., there is a maximum threshold), (iii) the recovery must be completed before another workout, and ideally some time for adaptation has to be given. ...
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Increases in strength and muscle mass can be achieved with weight training and adequate recovery (including nutrition and sleep). The time course of recovery and adaptation (super-compensation) for different number of sets has not been adequately investigated in the literature. A 40-year-old well-trained male exercised the chest with (a) 3 sets of bench press, (b) 5 sets of bench press, (c) 5 sets of bench press and 4 sets of dips, all to momentary concentric muscular failure during a 6 months body split program. The recovery was assessed by comparing the number of repetitions of the first bench press set to the previous training session. The results showed that with 3 and 5 sets to failure adaptation (+1 repetition) took place after 5 days. 9 sets needed 7 days for recovery and no adaptation took place. The adaptation was faster when exercising the chest without training the back and/or legs, indicating that Selye's adaptation energy (resources potential) might be applicable to weight training as well. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and motivation (mood) were found to be useful indexes of recovery. Implications on training volume and frequency and how the findings can be applied in practice are discussed.
... There are several acute manipulations which can substantially influence the outcome induced by RE. Indeed, DeLorme's classic work suggested that RET using low repetition/high resistance favoured adaptations for strength, power, and hypertrophy, whereas training with high repetition/low resistance increased muscular endurance and oxidative potential (101). From this, a repetition training continuum (102) or repetition maximum continuum (103) has been hypothesised such that the number of repetitions allowed by the resistance will result in very specific training adaptations. ...
Article
The importance of regular exercise for glucose management in individuals with type 1 diabetes is magnified by its acknowledgment as a key adjunct to insulin therapy by several governmental, charitable, and healthcare organisations. However, although activelyencouraged,exerciseparticipationratesremainlow,withglycaemicdisturbances and poor cardiorespiratory fitness cited as barriers to long-term involvement. These fears are perhaps exacerbated by uncertainty in how different forms of exercise can considerably alter several acute and chronic physiological outcomes in those with type 1 diabetes. Thus, understanding the bodily responses to specific forms of exercise is important for the provision of practical guidelines that aim to overcome these exercise barriers. Currently, the majority of existing exercise research in type 1 diabetes has focused on moderate intensity continuous protocols with less work exploring predominately non-oxidative exercise modalities like resistance exercise. This is surprising, considering the known neuro-muscular, osteopathic, metabolic, and vascular benefits associated with resistance exercise in the wider population. Considering that individuals with type 1 diabetes have an elevated susceptibility for complications within these physiological systems, the wider health benefits associated with resistance exercise may help alleviate the prevalence and/or magnitude of pathological manifestation in this population group. This review outlines the health benefits of resistance exercise with reference to evidence in aiding some of the common complications associated with individuals with type 1 diabetes.
... hypertrophy, strength or power). Fundamentally, RT prescription has focused on empirically based set and repetition schemes performed in a continuous traditional set (TS) configuration [8,9], such that during TS training, rest intervals are only implemented after the completion of each set. During the early phase of periodised training, higher-volume hypertrophy-inducing programmes have previously been implemented [7,10,11], ...
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Background Cluster sets (CSs) are a popular resistance training (RT) strategy categorised by short rest periods implemented between single or groups of repetitions. However, evidence supporting the effectiveness of CSs on acute intra-session neuromuscular performance is still equivocal. Objective The objective of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a single session of CSs to attenuate losses in force, velocity and power compared to traditional set (TS) training. Methods Screening consisted of a systematic search of EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus and SPORTDiscus. Inclusion criteria were (1) measured one or more of mean/peak force, velocity or power; (2) implemented CSs in comparison to TSs; (3) an acute design, or part thereof; and (4) published in an English-language, peer-reviewed journal. Raw data (mean ± standard deviation) were extracted from included studies and converted into standardised mean differences (SMDs) and ± 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Twenty-five studies were used to calculate SMD ± 95% CI. Peak (SMD = 0.815, 95% CI 0.105–1.524, p = 0.024) and mean (SMD = 0.863, 95% CI 0.319–1.406, p = 0.002) velocity, peak (SMD = 0.356, 95% CI 0.057–0.655, p = 0.019) and mean (SMD = 0.692, 95% CI 0.395–0.990, p < 0.001) power, and peak force (SMD = 0.306, 95% CI − 0.028 to 0.584, p = 0.031) favoured CS. Subgroup analyses demonstrated an overall effect for CS across loads (SMD = 0.702, 95% CI 0.548–0.856, p < 0.001), included exercises (SMD = 0.664, 95% CI 0.413–0.916, p < 0.001), experience levels (SMD = 0.790, 95% CI 0.500–1.080, p < 0.001) and CS structures (SMD = 0.731, 95% CI 0.567–0.894, p < 0.001) with no difference within subgroups. Conclusion CSs are a useful strategy to attenuate the loss in velocity, power and peak force during RT and should be used to maintain neuromuscular performance, especially when kinetic outcomes are emphasised. However, it remains unclear if the benefits translate to improved performance across all RT exercises, between sexes and across the lifespan.
... It will comprise the Motor Relearning Programme and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation, which includes task-specific training and multiplanar movements of the affected lower and upper extremities.  Group B: The participants in this group will receive bilateral lower limb training, including the Motor Relearning Programme and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation for the involved side and strengthening [15,16] of the less affected side. The participants in this group will undergo 20 min of lower limb training and upper limb to affected side only and 20 min of strength training to the less affected side for five days per week for six weeks provided by a physiotherapist. ...
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Background: One of the significant causes of morbidity worldwide and an essential contributor to disability is Stroke. As said by the National Stroke Association, nine post-stroke survivors out of 10 experience some degree of weakness post-stroke. The hemiplegic patients with sub-acute stroke, who will undergo training to both the lower limb overtraining to only involved side will have an improvement in balance and walking. The goal of this study is to see how much training to both the lower limb improves functional recovery in patients who have had a subacute stroke compared to unilateral, more insufficient limb training. Objective: The goal of this study was to see how training to both the lower limb overtraining to the hemiparetic lower limb on balance and walking in subacute stroke patients. Methods: A randomized clinical study with assessor blinding will be conducted with participants with subacute stroke (n=40). Participants will be randomized to one of two groups after performing baseline assessments: Group A or Group B.1st group will receive training only to the hemiparetic side, i.e., Motor Relearning Programme and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation, and 2nd group participants will receive bilateral training, i.e., Strengthening to the unaffected side along with Motor Relearning Programme and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation to the affected side. During the therapy period, we will assess lower limb function through static and dynamic balance, walking, and gait measures. Results: The purpose of the research is to look into the effect of training to both the lower limb overtraining to the hemiparetic lower limb on balance and walking in subacute stroke patients. The results of this study will be based on the outcome measures that are static and dynamic balance in the stroke patients and walking. Conclusion: The study's findings will shed more light on the benefits of training to both the lower limb overtraining to only involved side in patients post-stroke. If this trial proves successful, it will help post-stroke patients improve their balance and walking.
... Both the ST and ST + B groups performed a 4-week, 12-session intervention of outpatient preoperative training. The ST group performed strengthening training based on DeLorme and Watkins's recommendations for progressive resistance exercise [37]. The sessions lasted 30-40 min. ...
Article
PurposeTo investigate the effects of including balance training in a preoperative strengthening intervention on balance and functional outcomes in patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) and compare these effects to those induced by preoperative strengthening and no intervention.Methods Eighty-two subjects scheduled for TKR were randomly allocated into the strengthening (ST, n = 28) group: a preoperative lower limb strengthening intervention; the strengthening + balance (ST + B, n = 28) group: same intervention augmented with balance training; and the control group (n = 26). The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the function in daily living subscale of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS-ADL) were the primary outcomes. The secondary measures included balance and mobility, self-reported status, and knee function. The outcomes were assessed at baseline, 1 week before surgery, and 2, (primary endpoint), 6 and 52 weeks after surgery.ResultsCompared with the controls, the participants in the ST and ST + B groups presented significant improvements from baseline to the end of the preoperative intervention in BBS (p = 0.005) and KOOS-ADL (p < 0.001). At 6 weeks post-surgery, the knee extensor strength values were similar in the two treatment groups and significantly higher than that in the controls. Overall, the participant outcomes in all groups stabilized at 1 year after surgery.ConclusionA preoperative strengthening intervention, regardless of whether it is complemented with balance training, enhances strength but not balance or functional outcomes at 6 weeks after surgery. Patients are expected to present similar performance at 1 year postoperatively, but adequately statistically powered trials are needed to confirm the findings.Level of evidenceII.Trial registrationNCT02995668.
... Traditionally, the number of prescribed repetitions is predetermined and fixed. That is, the number of repetitions is decided upon before the session or set-initiation (e.g., 3 sets of 10 repetitions, or 5 sets of 5 repetitions) (DeLorme 1945;Sands, Wurth, & Hewit 2012;Todd, Shurley, & Todd 2012). Following this approach has a prominent psychological benefit-it provides one with a clear goal. ...
Preprint
In resistance-training, the number of repetitions can be either fixed and predetermined (e.g., 3 sets of 10 repetitions), or selected by the trainee during ongoing sets (e.g., 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions). The first approach is more goal-focused while the latter is more autonomy-focused. Here we compared between these two approaches on motor performance and psychological outcomes. Nineteen resistance-trained subjects (10-males) first completed one repetition-maximum (RM) tests in the barbell-squat and bench-press, and were familiarized with the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). In the next two counterbalanced sessions, subjects completed two sets of the squat and bench-press using 70%1RM, and two sets of the IMTP. In the predetermined session, subjects completed 10 repetitions in all sets, and in the self-selected session, subjects chose how many repetitions to complete out of an 8-12 range. Bar-velocity was measured in the squat and bench-press, and force production in the IMTP. Enjoyment, perceived-autonomy, and approach-preferences were collected post-sessions. We observed comparable bar-velocity, force production, and enjoyment in both conditions (all BF01>2.1), and an even approach-preferences split. However, in the self-selected condition, subjects demonstrated considerable variability in the number of repetitions and reported greater perceived-autonomy. Given the similarities between approaches, both can be used with this cohort based on their personal-preference. Yet, we note that the self-selected approach has two distinct benefits: the variability in the number of repetitions completed suggests that subjects regulated their efforts, and the higher perceived autonomy could lead to long-term improvements in motor and psychological outcomes.
... From the gap in the understanding of muscle function or adaptation in the mid-1940s emerged one of the most important practitioner scientists in the field of RT, Dr. Thomas L. DeLorme. DeLorme's accomplishments have been extensively reviewed [19,20]. Briefly, he was a first lieutenant and physician in the US Army who became inspired to help wounded soldiers or injured patients recover and regain muscle strength through RT. ...
Article
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The history of resistance training research began with anecdotal ideas and a slow growth of research from the late 1890s through the 1970s. The mid-1970s were a nexus point when resistance training studies evolved from just strength assessments to importance in physiological systems, physical health, and physical performance capabilities for individuals interested in physical fitness through to those seeking elite athletic performances. The pursuit of understanding program design and what mediated successful programs continues today as new findings, replication of old concepts, and new visions with the latest technologies fuel both our understanding and interest in this modality. This brief review highlights some of the important scientific contributions to the evolution of our scientific study of resistance training and provides a literature base analysis for greater quantification of the origins and expanse of such investigations.
... Traditionally, the number of prescribed repetitions is predetermined and fixed. That is, the number of repetitions is decided upon before the session or set-initiation (e.g., 3 sets of 10 repetitions, or 5 sets of 5 repetitions) (DeLorme 1945;Sands, Wurth, & Hewit 2012;Todd, Shurley, & Todd 2012). Following this approach has a prominent psychological benefit-it provides one with a clear goal. ...
Article
Full-text available
In resistance-training, the number of repetitions can be either fixed and predetermined (e.g., 3 sets of 10 repetitions), or selected by the trainee during ongoing sets (e.g., 3 sets of 8–12 repetitions). The first approach is more goal-focused while the latter is more autonomy-focused. Here we compared these two approaches in motor performance and psychological outcomes. Nineteen resistance-trained participants (10-males) first completed one repetition-maximum (RM) tests in the barbell-squat and bench-press, and were familiarized with the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). In the next two counterbalanced sessions, participants completed two sets of the squat and bench-press using 70%1RM, and two sets of the IMTP. In the predetermined session, participants completed 10 repetitions in all sets, and in the self-selected session, participants chose how many repetitions to complete out of an 8–12 range. Bar-velocity was measured in the squat and bench-press, and force production in the IMTP. Enjoyment, perceived-autonomy, and approach-preferences were collected post-sessions. We observed comparable bar-velocity, force production, and enjoyment in both conditions (all BF01 > 2.1), and an even approach-preferences split. However, in the self-selected condition, participants demonstrated considerable variability in the number of repetitions and reported greater perceived-autonomy. Given the similarities between approaches, both can be used with this cohort based on their personal-preference.
... Overload and progression are fundamental training principles that have been used for decades to develop training programs. 19 Similar training principles are used and advocated in other exercise-related contexts, such as physical activity in special or clinical populations. 20 Accordingly, training plans commonly adhere to the idea that progressing load too quickly can have a negative effect on load tolerance as a result of suboptimal adaptations, thereby increasing the risk of nonfunctional overreaching or overtraining. ...
Article
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The purpose of this 2-part commentary series is to explain why we believe our ability to control injury risk by manipulating training load (TL) in its current state is an illusion and why the foundations of this illusion are weak and unreliable. In part 1, we introduce the training process framework and contextualize the role of TL monitoring in the injury-prevention paradigm. In part 2, we describe the conceptual and methodologic pitfalls of previous authors who associated TL and injury in ways that limited their suitability for the derivation of practical recommendations. The first important step in the training process is developing the training program: the practitioner develops a strategy based on available evidence, professional knowledge, and experience. For decades, exercise strategies have been based on the fundamental training principles of overload and progression. Training-load monitoring allows the practitioner to determine whether athletes have completed training as planned and how they have coped with the physical stress. Training load and its associated metrics cannot provide a quantitative indication of whether particular load progressions will increase or decrease the injury risk, given the nature of previous studies (descriptive and at best predictive) and their methodologic weaknesses. The overreliance on TL has moved the attention away from the multifactorial nature of injury and the roles of other important contextual factors. We argue that no evidence supports the quantitative use of TL data to manipulate future training with the purpose of preventing injury. Therefore, determining “how much is too much” and how to properly manipulate and progress TL are currently subjective decisions based on generic training principles and our experience of adjusting training according to an individual athlete's response. Our message to practitioners is to stop seeking overly simplistic solutions to complex problems and instead embrace the risks and uncertainty inherent in the training process and injury prevention.
... He did not refer to Nautilus machines, which are not nor have ever been isokinetic machines. For a group of authors who have previously written extensively about strength training history [43,[51][52][53] in the NSCA's Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, Shurley and colleagues (Todd and Todd) should have known how Nautilus machines function. Ironically, the Editor-in-Chief of the aforementioned journal recently claimed that Todd and Todd were the best resource for the study of resistance training history and physical culture [54]. ...
Article
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A significant portion of a recent review on the development of research-based strength training in the National Strength and Conditioning Association focused on their opinion that free weight strength training is superior to machine training for increasing muscular strength and power. The purpose of this critique is to challenge that widely held belief, trace that belief to its probable genesis, and show that it is based primarily on a plethora of unsupported opinions and one highly flawed training study rather than science-based research.
... These exercise systems work on overload principle and they improve muscle strength, power and endurance which form important health and skill related physical fitness components in individuals and athletes respectively [1,2]. The concept of Progressive resistance exercise (PRE) was introduced by Thomas L. Delorme about 60 years ago [3]. It is a dynamic resistance training method where external load is applied to the contracting muscle by mechanical means and load is incrementally or progressively increased as the muscle strength improves [4]. ...
... Progression models in resistance training for muscle strengthening provide a framework for conditioning of muscles [1] which can influence the outcome of pathology [2]. Around 1945 Thomas DeLorm recommended a progressive resistance exercise (PREx) program based on 10 repetitions maximum (10RM) with weights [3]. ...
... Muscle strengthening uses the principle of maximum strength (1 RM) defined by DeLorme in 1948 [17]. For healthy subjects, this consists in one to three series of eight to twelve repetitions at 60-80% of the 1 RM, twice or three times a week [5]. ...
Article
Introduction: Muscle weakness is a common consequence of stroke and can result in a decrease in physical activity. Changes in gait performance can be observed, especially a reduction in gait speed, and increased gait asymmetry, and energy cost is also reported. Objective: The aim was to determine whether strengthening of the lower limbs can improve strength, balance and walking abilities in patients with chronic stroke. Method: Five databases (Pubmed, Cinhal, Cochrane, Web of Science, Embase) were searched to identify eligible studies. Randomized controlled trials were included and the risk of bias was evaluated for each study. Pooled standardized mean differences were calculated using a random effects model. The PRISMA statement was followed to increase clarity of reporting. Results: Ten studies, including 355 patients, reporting on the subject of progressive resistance training, specific task training, functional electrical stimulation and aerobic cycling at high-intensity were analysed. These interventions showed a statistically significant effect on strength and the Timed Up-and-Go test, and a non-significant effect on walking and the Berg Balance Scale. Conclusion: Progressive resistance training seemed to be the most effective treatment to improve strength. When it is appropriately targeted, it significantly improves strength.
... In human beings, morphological and physiological adaptations are needed to achieve better training goals [1][2][3]. Increasing muscle strength is the desired outcome in a variety of physical rehabilitation therapies [4,5]. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy explains the gains in muscle strength, making for such Resistance training (RT) the primary model for studying this phenomenon. ...
Article
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Since the 50s, methods and protocols of resistance training for human beings have been discussed. Different equipment is proposed for rodent resistance training seeking similarity to human practice. Many studies are compared without taking into consideration the animal adaptation period, training induced stress status, type of equipment structure and training protocols used. This review aimed to discuss factual issues about Vertical climbing equipment, protocols, strength testing, cellular and molecular responses from resistance trained rodents. We verified the existence of a variety of vertical training equipment and protocols. Many outcomes were studied and shown to be effective through ladder climbing experimentation. Even so, cellular and molecular responses might be quite different regarding voluntary and non-voluntary studies. Finally, it has been shown that there is still the need for a more accurate control of the variables of training, such as intensity and volume, the number of load testing sessions and familiarization process, and others, approaching its findings to data recorded in humans.
... In TS paradigms, repetitions are performed continuously [43,44] with rest intervals occurring at the completion of each set. Alternatively, CS implement short intra-set rest [27,45,46] between small groups of (e.g., 15-45 s), or between single repetitions (e.g., 6-20 s) (i.e., inter-repetition rest) and both have been applied and discussed in a number of articles 1 The term 'power' is commonly referred to in sport, exercise, and physical activity settings. ...
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Resistance training (RT) is a fundamental component of exercise prescription aimed at improving overall health and function. RT techniques such as cluster set (CS) configurations, characterized by additional short intra-set or inter-repetition rest intervals, have been shown to maintain acute muscular force, velocity, and ‘power’ outputs across a RT session, and facilitate positive longer-term neuromuscular adaptations. However, to date CS have mainly been explored from a human performance perspective despite potential for application in health and clinical exercise settings. Therefore, this current opinion piece aims to highlight emerging evidence and provide a rationale for why CS may be an advantageous RT technique for older adults, and across several neurological, neuromuscular, cardiovascular and pulmonary settings. Specifically, CS may minimize acute fatigue and adverse physiologic responses, improve patient tolerance of RT and promote functional adaptations (i.e., force, velocity, and power). Moreover, we propose that CS may be a particularly useful exercise rehabilitation technique where injury or illness, persistent fatigue, weakness and dysfunction exist. We further suggest that CS offer an alternative RT strategy that can be easily implemented alongside existing exercise/rehabilitation programs requiring no extra cost, minimal upskilling and/or time commitment for the patient and professional. In light of the emerging evidence and likely efficacy in clinical exercise practice, future research should move toward further direct investigation of CS-based RT in a variety of adverse health conditions and across the lifespan given the already demonstrated benefits in healthy populations.
... The strength training literature is often based on a percentage of one repetition maximum (1RM) in order to define the intensity of training by exercise physiologists, rehabilitation specialists, and strength coaches (1,16). Changes in the RT intensity of exercise can be used to improve muscular endurance, hypertrophy, strength, and muscle power (1,20). Moreover, it is considered the gold standard for assessing muscle strength in non-laboratory situations (8,15). ...
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Although the 1RM test is used as the gold standard for assessing muscle strength in non-laboratory situations, the question is this: “Are the 1RM values performed in a single exercise session with 8 exercises trustworthy?” Sixteen male subjects (mean ± SEM: age 27.3 ± 1.0 yrs; height, 179.1 ± 1.8 cm; body mass, 89.3 ± 2.9 kg; body mass index 27.8 ± 0.6 kg·m-2; and fat percentage 18.7 ± 1.5%) participated in this study. They completed two 1RM test sessions with 8 exercises. Session one (T-1RM): leg press, bench press, squat, front pulldown, leg curl machine, pushdown on a cable machine, leg extension machine, biceps barbell curl. Session two (RT-1RM) inverse order of the exercises was used, starting with the weight of 1RM found on the first test (T-1RM). Six blood samples were collected to analyze blood lactate concentration. The results of this study demonstrated the reliability of 1RM test in a single session with 8 exercises. A high intraclass correlation coefficient was also found (ranging from 0.911 to 0.993). The findings indicate that a single 1RM test session with 8 exercises is a reliable test without the need for a second session to confirm the previous values.
... Effective resistance training programs are heterogeneous because they are highly individualized [i.e. based on the goals of an individual (Fleck and Kraemer 1997)] and progressive in nature (Kraemer and Ratamess 2004). Nonspecific resistance training [i.e. the Delorme method of 3 sets of 10 repetitions (Todd et al. 2012)] can be effective at increasing strength in untrained or novice individuals. Advanced training, on the other hand, involves systematic variation of acute training variables, such as the exercise selection (unilateral vs. bilateral, single joint vs. multijoint), muscle action (i.e. ...
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Resistance training enhances muscular force due to a combination of neural plasticity and muscle hypertrophy. It has been well documented that the increase in strength over the first few weeks of resistance training (i.e. acute) has a strong underlying neural component and further enhancement in strength with long-term (i.e. chronic) resistance training is due to muscle hypertrophy. For obvious reasons, collecting long-term data on how chronic-resistance training affects the nervous system not feasible. As a result, the effect of chronic-resistance training on neural plasticity is less understood and has not received systematic exploration. Thus, the aim of this review is to provide rationale for investigating neural plasticity beyond acute-resistance training. We use cross-sectional work to highlight neural plasticity that occurs with chronic-resistance training at sites from the brain to spinal cord. Specifically, intra-cortical circuitry and the spinal motoneuron seem to be key sites for this plasticity. We then urge the need to further investigate the differential effects of acute versus chronic-resistance training on neural plasticity, and the role of this plasticity in increased strength. Such investigations may help in providing a clearer definition of the continuum of acute and chronic-resistance training, how the nervous system is altered during this continuum and the causative role of neural plasticity in changes in strength over the continuum of resistance training.
... Clinical Implication: This review implies that strength training can be used in Vol.11; Issue: 7; July 2021 isolation to improve functional gait and speed, and muscle strength. The dosage of strength training could be 25-90 minutes, between 3-5 sessions per week, for 3 to 24 weeks. This work has demonstrated the impact of lower limb and trunk muscle strengthening among stroke patients at various phases between 2-90 months after stroke. ...
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Background: Stroke is a major health challenge that impacts on the independence, quality of life, productivity and participation in social and economic lives of patients with stroke. Objective: To determine the effects of strength training on functional gait of stroke patients compared to conventional therapy Methods: Eleven databases (PubMed, Science Direct, MEDLINE, PEDRO, Cochrane, EBSCO Host, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Embase, Google Scholar and ERIC) were searched to identify eligible studies. All randomised controlled trials published between 2010 and 2020 were included and reviewed by two independent reviewers. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist for RCTs was used to assess and appraise the studies. Main Results: This review analysed 16 studies involving 946 patients with stroke that reported on aerobic exercises, task-oriented circuit training, treadmill gait training, high and medium intensity interval training, dynamic resistance training, progressive resistance training, stationary cycling, concentric isokinetic strengthening, functional strength training, resistance exercise strengthening, and isokinetic strengthening. The interventions revealed a statistical significance on walking speed, gait parameters, mobility, muscle strength, quality of life, functional parameters and balance of subjects from the strength training groups. The mean changes in gait speed, walking distance and mobility increased in the experimental (strength training) than the control (conventional) group (p = 0.003, p=.038; SD 0.25/0.33, p < .0001). Comparing walking speed at pre- and post-intervention, stride length increased (48.00 5.63: 53.00 5.38) with a p-value of p< 0.05. However, no statistical significance was recorded between the paretic and non-paretic limb during swing phase (paretic p = 0.0089; non-paretic p = 0.074). Strength training significantly improved all knee strength and ankle parameters, and gait velocity (p<0.01, p<0.05). Conclusion: Strength training appears to be an effective intervention improving functional gait of stroke patients compared to conventional therapy. Key words: Stroke patient, Functional gait, Strength training.
... Adoption of strength training by many individuals in a society is a relatively new phenomenon and has been made possible, for one, by the development and production of strength training equipment. The history of strength training is an emerging area of scholarly inquiry (7,11,17,18,(21)(22)(23)(24), but the topic of strength training equipment and its history has garnered relatively little attention (20). ...
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Nuzzo, JL. Content analysis of patent applications for strength training equipment filed in the United States before 1980. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-Strength training history is an emerging academic area. The aim of the current study was to describe quantitively the history of inventions for strength training equipment. Content analysis was conducted of patent applications for strength training equipment filed with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office before 1980. Applications were identified using relevant keyword searches in Google Patents. A total of 551 patent applications were analyzed. The earliest application identified was filed in 1860. Applications never exceed 6 per year until 1961 after which applications increased substantially, with a peak of 54 in 1979. Men invented 98.7% of all strength training devices. Lloyd J. Lambert, Jr. was the most prolific inventor, with 10 inventions. Types of inventions included mobile units (34.5%), stationary machines (27.9%), dumbbells (16%), racks or benches (8.0%), barbells (6.7%), and Indian clubs (3.8%). Common features included seats or benches (18.7%), cable-pulley systems (15.1%), weight stacks (8.2%), weight trays (4.5%), and cams (2.2%). Common types of resistance included weights or plates (33.2%), springs (11.6%), friction (9.1%), elastic bands (5.3%), and hydraulic (3.8%). Proposed invention benefits included adjustable resistance (37.4%), inexpensive (36.1%), simple to use (32.8%), compact design or easy storage (27.0%), multiple exercise options (26.1%), safety and comfort (25.4%), effectiveness (23.6%), portability (20.5%), adjustable size (15.8%), sturdiness or durability (15.8%), home use (13.6%), and light weight (13.6%). Certain aspects of strength training equipment have evolved over time. However, overall purposes and benefits of inventions have remained constant (e.g., affordability, convenience, personalization, safety, and effectiveness).
... From the initial studies by Thomas Delorme [16,17] regarding the use of strength training for musculoskeletal rehabilitation of ex-combatants of the second world war, a new field of application and a great interest in the therapeutic effects of physical exercise in rehabilitation and mainly its use in the treatment/rehabilitation of several comorbidities has emerged [16]. ...
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Purpose of review: The aim of this review is to present the main pieces of evidence, recent literature and to present future perspectives on the use of exercise/physical training in the treatment and improvement of the quality of life of patients with systemic autoimmune myopathies. Recent findings: In the last decades, knowledge about the relevance of physical exercise training in preventing and treating chronic diseases and improving quality of life has grown. Following the global trend exemplified by the expression 'exercise is medicine', the importance of exercise/physical training has also grown in myopathies. However, the science of exercise has a lot to collaborate on and improve patients' quality of life with myopathies by appropriating new technological tools, including accessible and low-cost devices and smartphone apps. Summary: Physical exercise, as already consolidated in the literature, is an effective, well tolerated, and low-cost strategy for patients with myopathies. The use of wearable devices, smartphone apps, and online training prescriptions must accompany the global scenario, bringing new research fields and expanding the options for access to training for the individualized basis, and prescribed by qualified professionals.
Article
Objective: To quantify changes in pinch force and brachioradialis (BR) activation after a task-based training program designed to improve pinch force after BR to flexor pollicis longus (FPL) transfer. Design: One-group repeated-measures design compared pinch force and BR activation pre- and posttraining. Significant differences were tested with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for pairwise comparisons at the P≤.05 level. Setting: Testing occurred in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center research laboratory and training was in a home setting. Participants: Participants with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) and previous BR to FPL transfer were enrolled in the study (N=8). Six patients completed the training program and posttraining measures. Interventions: The 10-week training was a home program that included novel activities to increase BR activation and practice producing pinch force in a variety of upper limb postures. Participants were provided with the task-based training equipment and instructed to practice 3 times per week. Main outcome measures: Fine-wire electromyography of the transferred BR was recorded in maximum effort pinch force (N). Secondary measures included the strength and activation of the antagonist elbow extensor. Results: Pinch force increased 3.7N (.38kg) and BR muscle activation increased 10% (P≤.05) after the training. There was no increase in elbow extension strength, but participants with previous posterior deltoid to triceps transfer achieved greater activation of the antagonist elbow extensor. Conclusions: The findings from this pilot study suggest that outcomes of tendon transfer and conventional therapy can be improved for patients with chronic cervical SCI.
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Binnen krachttraining wordt de intensiteit al jarenlang bepaald aan de hand van percentages van het 1 herhalings- maximum (1RM). Er zijn tegenwoordig echter ook andere bruikbare methoden om de belasting bij de training van het spiervermogen te doseren, zoals Velocity Based Training (VBT). Is VBT een hype of een goed (en wellicht zelfs beter) alterna- tief voor de RM-methode?
Article
Poststroke, less-severe motor impairment occurs on the ipsilesional side of body. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the motor training involving the less-affected side (MTLA) in stroke. This was a randomized, controlled, double-blinded pilot study conducted in the occupational therapy unit of a rehabilitation Institute. A convenience sample of 35 stroke subjects (mean poststroke duration, 28.76 weeks) was randomized into two groups (the experimental group: 17 and control group: 18). Thirty-two participants completed the entire study protocol. The experimental group and control group were provided MTLA and neurophysiological-based conventional therapy respectively. Both the groups received 24 treatment sessions (60 minutes each) over the period of two months. The Affected side was assessed using Brunnstrom recovery stage (BRS) and Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) whereas the less-affected side was evaluated by Minnesota manual dexterity test (MMDT), Purdue peg board test (PPBT) and Manual Muscle Testing (MMT). Postintervention, the less-affected side of experimental group demonstrated significant improvement for MMDT (P = 0.003), PPBT (P = 0.01) and MMT (P < 0.001 to 0.043) in comparison to the control group. Further, as compared to the control group, the experimental group exhibited positive significant change for the measure of affected side [BRS (P < 0.001) and FMA (P < 0.001 to 0.03)] at post assessment. MTLA enhanced the muscle strength, dexterity and coordination of the less-affected side as well as the motor recovery of the affected side in poststroke hemiparetic subjects.
Article
Shurley, JP. "Stronger is better": Gale Gillingham, the weight-trained packer all-pro. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-In the 1960s, many sport coaches advised their athletes not to lift weights, with some going so far as to threaten to dismiss or punish any who were caught engaging in such training. Their advice or threats were well intentioned as both were prompted by fears that weight training would make an athlete less flexible, slower, and less coordinated, known more colloquially as "muscle bound." Nonetheless, some athletes took up barbells despite that conventional wisdom and helped play a vital role in dispelling the notion that weight training would hamper athletic performance. Gale Gillingham was one of those athletes. He began weight training as an adolescent and continued to train throughout his career in intercollegiate and professional football. The size, strength, and speed he developed through long-term strength training enabled him to become an all-conference player in college, first-round draft pick in the National Football League, and a 6-time All-Pro offensive lineman. In addition to his dedication to regular training, Gillingham was innovative in the way he lifted, incorporating very high intensity and partial lifts as regular components of his workouts. Despite his many accolades, Gillingham has not received the attention he deserves for his pioneering role in demonstrating the utility of long-term strength training to enhance athletic performance. This article seeks to correct that oversight and discusses his career, training, and contributions to the field of strength and conditioning.
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Shurley, JP. Investigating "A Consensus of Uninformed Dogma": C.H. McCloy and Strength Training Research at the University of Iowa in the Mid-Twentieth Century. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Into the 1960s, many coaches advised their athletes to avoid weight training, fearing that lifting weights would result in their becoming stiff, slow, and "muscle-bound." By the early 1970s, however, some teams had begun hiring specialists to devise and supervise strength and conditioning programs for their athletes. This paradigm shift in the understanding of the relationship between strength training and athletic performance was precipitated by numerous factors, including the exposure of many soldiers to barbells during World War II, Cold War-era concerns about soft living, athletes who trained despite their coaches' advice, and scientists who investigated the effects of strength training. C.H. McCloy, a Research Professor of Anthropometry and Physical Education at the University of Iowa from 1930 to 1954, was one of the first in the field of physical education to encourage and promote research on strength training. Although an advocate of various forms of training throughout his career, McCloy began to encourage investigations of the relationship between strength and performance by Iowa graduate students in the late 1940s. When those studies indicated that barbell training actually enhanced jump height, swimming speed, and more, McCloy publicized those results in the classroom, at conference talks, and in both professional and popular press magazines. Some of those investigations became part of the foundation on which later strength research was based. Owing to his backing and promotion of scientific investigations of strength training, C.H. McCloy was a key figure in making strength training an integral element of sport preparation.
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A weight (resistance) training program includes training variables, such as exercises, sets, repetitions and training frequency. A training plan describes how the variables should be modified over time. In order to be effective, both training programs and plans should be based on some basic principles, applicable to all trainees. Based on the literature review, the most important and well supported is the principle of progressive overload, which states that the stimulus should be gradually increasing over time. The principle of specificity states that the training adaptations are specific to the stimulus applied, while the principle of variation (and periodization) states that the stimulus should change (within the specificity limits) to remain challenging. Although they are not necessary to increase performance, there is evidence supporting higher improvements. The principle of individuality states that the stimulus should be adjusted based on the individual's needs. Even though overlooked, limited data indicate that it may be more important than specificity and variation. This paper discusses the basic principles, the criticism against them, and how they should be applied when designing resistance training programs. Contribution/Originality: This study documents the principles that a weight training plan should be based on some basic principles, applicable to all trainees. This study contributes in the existing literature by clarifying the confusion and misconceptions on the topic.
Article
In part 2 of this clinical commentary, we highlight the conceptual and methodologic pitfalls evident in current training-load-injury research. These limitations make these studies unsuitable for determining how to use new metrics such as acute workload, chronic workload, and their ratio for reducing injury risk. The main overarching concerns are the lack of a conceptual framework and reference models that do not allow for appropriate interpretation of the results to define a causal structure. The lack of any conceptual framework also gives investigators too many degrees of freedom, which can dramatically increase the risk of false discoveries and confirmation bias by forcing the interpretation of results toward common beliefs and accepted training principles. Specifically, we underline methodologic concerns relating to (1) measure of exposures, (2) pitfalls of using ratios, (3) training-load measures, (4) time windows, (5) discretization and reference category, (6) injury definitions, (7) unclear analyses, (8) sample size and generalizability, (9) missing data, and (10) standards and quality of reporting. Given the pitfalls of previous studies, we need to return to our practices before this research influx began, when practitioners relied on traditional training principles (eg, overload progression) and adjusted training loads based on athletes' responses. Training-load measures cannot tell us whether the variations are increasing or decreasing the injury risk; we recommend that practitioners still rely on their expert knowledge and experience.
Article
Aims To assess the effects of three specific exercise training modes, aerobic exercise (A), resistance training (R) and autonomous climbing (AC), aimed at proposing a cross-training method, on improving the physical, molecular and metabolic characteristics of mice without many side effects. Materials and methods Seven-week-old male mice were randomly divided into four groups: control (C), aerobic exercise (A), resistance training (R), and autonomous climbing (AC) groups. Physical changes in mice were tracked and analysed to explore the similarities and differences of these three exercise modes. Histochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR), western blot (WB) and metabolomics analysis were performed to identify the underlying relationships among the three training modes. Key findings Mice in the AC group showed better body weight control, glucose and energy homeostasis. Molecular markers of myogenesis, hypertrophy, antidegradation and mitochondrial function were highly expressed in the muscle of mice after autonomous climbing. The serum metabolomics landscape and enriched pathway comparison indicated that the aerobic oxidation pathway (pentose phosphate pathway, galactose metabolism and fatty acid degradation) and amino acid metabolism pathway (tyrosine, arginine and proline metabolism) were significantly enriched in group AC, suggesting an increased muscle mitochondrial function and protein balance ability of mice after autonomous climbing. Significance We propose a new exercise mode, autonomous climbing, as a convenient but effective training method that combines the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and resistance training.
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Background Maximal strength is a critical determinant of performance in numerous sports. Autoregulation is a resistance training prescription approach to adjust training variables based on the individuals’ daily fluctuations in performance, which are a result of training-induced fitness and fatigue, together with readiness from daily non-training stressors. Objective This review aimed to summarise the effects of different subjective and objective autoregulation methods for intensity and volume on enhancing maximal strength. Materials and Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted through SPORTDiscus, PubMed and Google Scholar. Studies had to meet the following criteria to be included in the review: (1) estimation of 1-RM or a 1-RM test for both pre-test and post-test to measure progression in strength assessment during the training intervention, (2) a training comparison group, (3) participants were healthy, (4) the article had a detailed description of training intensity, training volume, and training frequency during the training intervention, (5) the training intervention lasted for more than four weeks, (6) studies with objective autoregulation methods utilised a validated measuring tool to monitor velocity, (7) English-language studies. Results Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 30 training groups and 356 participants. Effect size and percentage differences were calculated for 13 out of 14 studies to compare the effects of different training interventions. All autoregulation training protocols resulted in an increase in 1-RM, from small ES to large ES. Conclusion Overall, our findings suggest that using both subjective autoregulation methods for intensity, such as repetitions in reserve rating of perceived exertion and flexible daily undulation periodisation, together with objective autoregulation methods for autoregulation intensity and volume, such as velocity targets and velocity loss, could be effective methods for enhancing maximal strength. It is speculated that this is because the implementation of autoregulation into a periodised plan may take into account the athletes’ daily fluctuations, such as fluctuations in fitness, fatigue, and readiness to train. When training with a validated measuring tool to monitor velocity, this may provide objective augmented intra- and interset feedback during the resistance exercise who could be beneficial for increasing maximal strength. Coaches, practitioners, and athletes are encouraged to implement such autoregulation methods into a periodised plan when the goal is to enhance maximal strength.
Article
Nuzzo, JL. History of strength training research in man: an inventory and quantitative overview of studies published in English between 1894 and 1979. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Limited scholarship exists on the history of strength training research. The current review advances existing qualitative and biographical work by inventorying all experimental studies and case reports published before 1980 on the effects of ≥1 week of strength training on human health and function. Data on authors, journals, citations, study samples, training interventions, study outcomes, and study themes were extracted and summarized. Three hundred thirty-nine strength training studies were published between 1894 and 1979. Studies included 14,575 subjects, with 10,350 undergoing strength training. Subjects were usually healthy (81.1% of articles), university students (51.0%), or aged 18-65 years (86.7%). Men comprised 70.0% of subjects. Interventions typically involved isoinertial only (64.6%) or isometric only (35.4%) training. Upper-body interventions were more common (35.4%) than lower-body interventions (27.4%). Duration and frequency of training were typically 4-8 weeks (55.3%) and 3 days per week (39.2%), respectively. Isometric maximal voluntary contractions (54.0%) and one repetition maximum (20.4%) were the most common muscle strength tests. Other common outcomes included limb girths (20.9%) and muscle endurance (19.5%). Common research themes were physiology (54.3%), physical fitness (28.9%), and injury/rehabilitation (20.4%). The 339 studies have been cited 21,996 times. Moritani and deVries' 1979 article on time course of neuromuscular adaptations is the most highly cited (1,815 citations). DeLorme (5 articles and 772 citations), Hellebrandt (4 articles and 402 citations), Rasch (9 articles and 318 citations), and Berger (12 articles and 1,293 citations) made the largest contributions. Research Quarterly published the most articles (27.4%). The history of strength training research is discussed in the context of the results.
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Background: Stroke is the leading cause of global morbidity and a major contributor to disability. According to the National Stroke Association, as many as 9 out of 10 stroke survivors have some degree of paralysis immediately after the stroke. Aim is to evaluate the level to which the bilateral lower limb training compared to unilateral alone, reinforces the lower limb functional recovery in the subjects with sub-acute stroke. Methods: The participants (n=40) with subacute stroke will be included in assessor blinded, randomized clinical trial. Participants will be categorized into 2 groups after performing baseline assessments and equal randomization. The participants in Group A will receive only training to the affected side, and those in the Group B will receive bilateral training. We will be evaluating the improvement in lower limb function by balance and walking along with gait parameters. Discussion: Findings of the study will provide further insight into the effectiveness of bilateral training over unilateral in post stroke survivors. If this study is proved to be effective it will improve the balance and gait impairments in post stroke patients.The clinical trial registry-India(CTRI) registration number for this trial is CTRI/2021/05/033621.
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Exercise programs for patients with arthritis have been shown to produce a variety of benefits like increase and maintenance of range of motion, re-education and strengthening of muscles, increase in static and dynamic endurance, decrease in the number of swollen joints, enabling joints to function better biomechanically, increase the locomotor ability, increase the bone density, decrease in pain, increase in patients' overall function and well-being, decrease inflammation and increase in aerobic capacity. Patients value exercise prescription which is designed to improve function.
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One of the most important figures in the public's acceptance of weight training as an acceptable activity for athletes was Russian-born physician Peter V. Karpovich of Springfield College, Springfield, MA. Karpovich, like most early 20th-century educators, opposed weight training for athletes and held a low opinion of weightlifting as an activity in general. However, he became strength science's most eminent and visible advocate after witnessing a demonstration of weightlifting organized by Bob Hoffman of the York Barbell Company in 1940. Following that demonstration, Karpovich conducted several seminal studies that examined the bedrock beliefs on which the arguments normally cited against lifting were built-that it would make a person slow and inflexible-in short, muscle-bound. His research consistently revealed that those beliefs were in error. Later, he went on to collaborate with Jim Murray on the first science-based book on the subject of strength training, Weight Training in Athletics, published in 1956.
Article
We have studied fatigue curves in 65 normal subjects, 50 patients with myasthenia gravis, 25 patients with Parkinson's disease, 50 patients with miscellaneous neurological conditions such as poliomyelitis, arthritis, and dystrophy, and 40 patients who did not have any structural disease of their muscular or nervous systems but whose complaint was chronic fatigue and who had symptoms of nervousness, indicating that their fatigue was of psychogenic origin. The site of pathology of the fatigue in the neurological cases mentioned may be in the muscle, the end-plate, or in the peripheral nerve. However, the source of the fatigue complaint in patients with chronic fatigue of nonneurological nature and not due to medical diseases lies in the brain. Treatment of this type of disease must be directed toward determining the psychological causes of the fatigue and correcting them. The prescribing of muscular rest with the idea that the muscles are at fault is a waste of time.
Article
The prescription of any of the many varieties of therapeutic exercise should be detailed and specific depending on their purpose. For example, the aim may be to improve coordination, reeducate muscles, increase range of joint motion or enhance endurance. The purpose of progressive resistance exercise is primarily that of increasing strength. This technique is based on the sound physiological principle that one must contract against a resistance which calls forth a near maximal voluntary effort and that the resistance must be progressively increased in order to significantly and rapidly improve muscular strength or torque. There is a large body of evidence based on empiric practice that this is true for normal persons, as, for example, in the training of professional weight lifters. For a more detailed discussion of the physiology of this type of exercise the reader is referred to a recent publication by Hellebrandt.¹ The application in clinical
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