The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
AJT conceived and designed the manuscript. All authors contributed to
writing the manuscript and have read and approved the final manuscript.
AJT is supported by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
(#49446), which also supports DP. AJT acknowledges funding support from
the RAPIDD program of the Science & Technology Directorate, Department
of Homeland Security, and the Fogarty International Center, National
Institutes of Health. CL is supported by a grant from the Fondation Philippe
Wiener - Maurice Anspach. This paper is the result of a working group
meeting held in May 2011 in New York, funded by the RAPIDD program of
the Science & Technology Directorate, Department of Homeland Security,
and the Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Heal th. AD
received financial support from the National Institute for Child Health and
Human Development, Grant No. R24HD047879. AMN is supported by a
Wellcome Trust Intermediate Research Fellowship (##095127). SA is
supported in part by NASA under contract NNG08HZ11C for the continued
operation of the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). CRB
is supported by the US Agency for International Development-fund ed
MEASURE Demographic and Health Survey.
Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA.
International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia
University, New York, USA.
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton
University, Princeton, USA.
Demographic and Health Surveys, International
Health and Development Division, ICF International, Washington DC, USA.
Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public
Health, Boston, USA.
Office of Population Research and Woodrow Wilson
School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton,
Biological Control and Spatial Ecology, Université Libre de Bruxelles,
Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS),
Research and Information Services of Namibia,
The Population Council, New York, USA.
International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.
Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI -
University of Oxford - Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.
School of Public Affairs, Baruch College, City University New York, New
Department of Economics, Stony Brook University, New York,
Received: 28 October 2011 Accepted: 27 April 2012
Published: 16 May 2012
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