Influence of full-time intensivist and the nurse-to-patient ratio on the implementation of severe sepsis bundles in Korean intensive care units
Division of Pulmonary, Sleep, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan, 425-707 Republic of Korea. Journal of critical care
(Impact Factor: 2).
05/2012; 27(4):414.e11-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2012.03.010
The reported actual compliance for severe sepsis bundles was very low, suggesting the presence of barriers to their implementation. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of full-time intensivist and nurse-to-patient ratio in Korean intensive care units (ICUs) on the implementation of the severe sepsis bundles and clinical outcome.
A total of 251 patients with severe sepsis were enrolled from 28 adult ICUs during the July, 2009. We recorded the organizational characteristics of ICUs, patients' characteristics and clinical outcomes, and the compliance for severe sepsis bundles.
Complete compliance with the resuscitation bundle and totally complete compliance with all element targets for resuscitation and management bundles were significantly higher in the ICU with full-time intensivist and a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:2 (P < .05). The hazard ratio (HR) for hospital mortality was independently reduced by the presence of full-time intensivist (HR, 0.456; 95% confidence interval, 0.223-0.932), and a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:2 was independently associated with a lower 28-day mortality (HR, 0.459; 95% confidence interval, 0.211-0.998).
The full-time intensivist and the nurse-to-patient ratio had a substantial influence on the implementation of severe sepsis bundles and the mortalities of patients with severe sepsis.
Available from: Seongheon Lee
- "Only 7.7% of adult ICUs were staffed by physician specialists for 5 days each week. The outcome of severe sepsis and compliance with the Surviving Sepsis Campaign in Korea was poor in ICUs without fulltime intensivists (1). In several studies that evaluated the association between ICU physician staffing and patient outcomes, higher staffing of intensivists was associated with lower hospital mortality and morbidity (13-17). "
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ABSTRACT: There is a lack of information on critical care in Korea. The aim of this study was to determine the current status of Korean intensive care units (ICUs), focusing on the organization, characteristics of admitted patients, and nurse and physician staffing. Critical care specialists in charge of all 105 critical care specialty training hospitals nationwide completed a questionnaire survey. Among the ICUs, 56.4% were located in or near the capital city. Only 38 ICUs (17.3%) had intensive care specialists with a 5-day work week. The average daytime nurse-to-patient ratio was 1:2.7. Elderly people ≥ 65 yr of age comprised 53% of the adult patients. The most common reasons for admission to adult ICUs were respiratory insufficiency and postoperative management. Nurse and physician staffing was insufficient for the appropriate critical care in many ICUs. Staffing was worse in areas outside the capital city. Much effort, including enhanced reimbursement of critical care costs, must be made to improve the quality of critical care at the national level.
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ABSTRACT: To compare patient outcomes in hospitals certified by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine (JSICM) as training facilities for intensive care specialists with patient outcomes in hospitals not certified by the JSICM (non-CFs).
A retrospective case-control study using administrative data.
164 803 intensive care unit admissions were identified between 1 April 2008 and 31 March 2010, of which 159 540 were for adults (≥18 years). A total of 50 875 patients in 125 hospitals were admitted to certified facilities (CFs) and 108 665 patients in 309 hospitals were admitted to non-CFs. Inhospital mortality rates were 9.9% and 10.6% in CFs and non-CFs, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, emergency admission, admission route, use of vasopressors, mechanical ventilation, and renal replacement therapy, the odds ratio for hospital mortality in CF-treated patients was 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.85). The c statistic of the model was 0.881.
Patients admitted to the intensive care unit in CFs had better outcomes. To improve patient outcomes, more board-certified intensivists are required in Japan.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of different intensivist staffing models on clinical outcomes for critically ill patients.
A sensitive search of electronic databases and hand-search of major critical care journals and conference proceedings was completed in October 2012.
Comparative observational studies examining intensivist staffing patterns and reporting hospital or ICU mortality were included.
Of 16,774 citations, 52 studies met the inclusion criteria. We used random-effects meta-analytic models unadjusted for case-mix or cluster effects and quantified between-study heterogeneity using I. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Score for cohort studies.
High-intensity staffing (i.e., transfer of care to an intensivist-led team or mandatory consultation of an intensivist), compared to low-intensity staffing, was associated with lower hospital mortality (risk ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70-0.99) and ICU mortality (pooled risk ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.96). Significant reductions in hospital and ICU length of stay were seen (-0.17 d, 95% CI, -0.31 to -0.03 d and -0.38 d, 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.20 d, respectively). Within high-intensity staffing models, 24-hour in-hospital intensivist coverage, compared to daytime only coverage, did not improved hospital or ICU mortality (risk ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89-1.1 and risk ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.70-1.1). The benefit of high-intensity staffing was concentrated in surgical (risk ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.44-1.6) and combined medical-surgical (risk ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.66-0.83) ICUs, as compared to medical (risk ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.83-1.5) ICUs. The effect on hospital mortality varied throughout different decades; pooled risk ratios were 0.74 (95% CI, 0.63-0.87) from 1980 to 1989, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.69-1.3) from 1990 to 1999, 0.70 (95% CI, 0.54-0.90) from 2000 to 2009, and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.84-1.8) from 2010 to 2012. These findings were similar for ICU mortality.
High-intensity staffing is associated with reduced ICU and hospital mortality. Within a high-intensity model, 24-hour in-hospital intensivist coverage did not reduce hospital, or ICU, mortality. Benefits seen in mortality were dependent on the type of ICU and decade of publication.
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