Intramuscular versus intravenous benzodiazepines for status epilepticus [1]

ArticleinNew England Journal of Medicine 366(20):1943; author reply 1944 · May 2012with9 Reads
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1203428#SA1 · Source: PubMed
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Treatment of myocardial infarction within the first 1 to 2 hours with a thrombolytic agent, percutaneous coronary intervention, or an αIIbβ3 antagonist decreases mortality and the later development of heart failure. We previously reported on a novel small molecule αIIbβ3 antagonist, RUC-2, that has a unique mechanism of action. We have now developed a more potent and more soluble congener of RUC-2, RUC-4, designed to be easily administered intramuscularly by autoinjector to facilitate its use in the prehospital setting. Here, we report the properties of RUC-4 and the antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of RUC-2 and RUC-4 in animal models. Approach and results: RUC-4 was ≈ 20% more potent than RUC-2 in inhibiting human ADP-induced platelet aggregation and much more soluble in aqueous solutions (60-80 mg/mL). It shared RUC-2's specificity for αIIbβ3 versus αVβ3, did not prime the receptor to bind fibrinogen, or induce changes in β3 identified by a conformation-specific monoclonal antibody. Both RUC-2 and RUC-4 prevented FeCl3-induced thrombotic occlusion of the carotid artery in mice and decreased microvascular thrombi in response to laser injury produced by human platelets infused into transgenic mice containing a mutated von Willebrand factor that reacts with human but not mouse platelets. Intramuscular injection of RUC-4 in nonhuman primates at 1.9 and 3.85 mg/kg led to complete inhibition of platelet aggregation within 15 minutes, with dose-dependent return of platelet aggregation after 4.5 to 24 hours. Conclusions: RUC-4 has favorable biochemical, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, antithrombotic, and solubility properties as a prehospital therapy of myocardial infarction, but the possibility of increased bleeding with therapeutic doses remains to be evaluated.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014