Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 05/2012; 366(20):1891-904. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1112010
Source: PubMed


Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, but the association between coffee consumption and the risk of death remains unclear.
We examined the association of coffee drinking with subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 229,119 men and 173,141 women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study who were 50 to 71 years of age at baseline. Participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke were excluded. Coffee consumption was assessed once at baseline.
During 5,148,760 person-years of follow-up between 1995 and 2008, a total of 33,731 men and 18,784 women died. In age-adjusted models, the risk of death was increased among coffee drinkers. However, coffee drinkers were also more likely to smoke, and, after adjustment for tobacco-smoking status and other potential confounders, there was a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for death among men who drank coffee as compared with those who did not were as follows: 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.04) for drinking less than 1 cup per day, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99) for 1 cup, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for 2 or 3 cups, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.93) for 4 or 5 cups, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96) for 6 or more cups of coffee per day (P<0.001 for trend); the respective hazard ratios among women were 1.01 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.07), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.01), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.90), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.93) (P<0.001 for trend). Inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections, but not for deaths due to cancer. Results were similar in subgroups, including persons who had never smoked and persons who reported very good to excellent health at baseline.
In this large prospective study, coffee consumption was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Whether this was a causal or associational finding cannot be determined from our data. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics.).

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Available from: Neal Freedman
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    • "Observationally, caffeine (or, more commonly, coffee) consumption has been shown to be associated with a number of health outcomes [22]. Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that long-term coffee consumption may in fact be protective against cardiovascular disease [22], [23] and lower the risk of all-cause mortality [24]. Coffee consumption also shows an inverse association with diabetes, although this may be due to antioxidant compounds within coffee rather than caffeine itself [23]. "
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    • "In fact, coffee intake may improve glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, thus decreasing the risk of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, depression, Alzheimer's and other diseases of the central nervous system, including Parkinson's disease (Huxley et al., 2009; O'Keefe et al., 2013). Moreover, coffee consumption has shown inverse association with death linked to heart disease and respiratory disease, stroke, injuries, accidents, diabetes and infections (Freedman et al., 2012). Coffee fruit is a drupe with an outer skin or pericarp, usually green in unripe and red-violet or deep red in ripe fruits (even yellow or orange in particular cultivars). "
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    • "This report is a follow up experiment to our recently published data on the effects of stress and caffeine on salivary alpha amylase (sAA) in healthy young men [1]. The health effects of caffeine and/or coffee consumption continue to be debated (e.g., [2,3]). Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that releases catecholamines and glucocorticoids and elevates blood pressure (see [4] for review; [5]). "
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