Subdomain Location of Mutations in Cardiac Actin Correlate with Type of Functional Change

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 05/2012; 7(5):e36821. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036821
Source: PubMed


Determining the molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of heart failure will help us gain better insight into the most costly health problem in the Western world. To understand the roles that the actin protein plays in the development of heart failure, we have taken a systematic approach toward characterizing human cardiac actin mutants that have been associated with either hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy. Seven known cardiac actin mutants were expressed in a baculovirus system, and their intrinsic properties were studied. In general, the changes to the properties of the actin proteins themselves were subtle. The R312H variant exhibited reduced stability, with a T(m) of 53.6 °C compared to 56.8 °C for WT actin, accompanied with increased polymerization critical concentration and Pi release rate, and a marked increase in nucleotide release rates. Substitution of methionine for leucine at amino acid 305 showed no impact on the stability, nucleotide release rates, or DNase-I inhibition ability of the actin monomer; however, during polymerization, a 2-fold increase in Pi release was observed. Increases to both the T(m) and DNase-I inhibition activity suggested interactions between E99K actin molecules under monomer-promoting conditions. Y166C actin had a higher critical concentration resulting in a lower Pi release rate due to reduced filament-forming potential. The locations of mutations on the ACTC protein correlated with the molecular effects; in general, mutations in subdomain 3 affected the stability of the ACTC protein or affect the polymerization of actin filaments, while mutations in subdomains 1 and 4 more likely affect protein-protein interactions.

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Available from: Melissa L Chow, Apr 08, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The two genes most commonly associated with mutations linked to hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathies are β-myosin and cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C). Both of these proteins interact with cardiac actin (ACTC). Currently there are 16 ACTC variants that have been found in patients with HCM or DCM. While some of these ACTC variants exhibit protein instability or polymerization-deficiencies that might contribute to the development of disease, other changes could cause changes in protein-protein interactions between sarcomere proteins and ACTC. To test the hypothesis that changes in ACTC disrupt interactions with cMyBP-C, we examined the interactions between seven ACTC variants and the N-terminal C0C2 fragment of cMyBP-C. We found there was a significant decrease in binding affinity (increase in Kd values) for the A331P and Y166C variants of ACTC. These results suggest that a change in the ability of cMyBP-C to bind actin filaments containing these ACTC protein variants might contribute to the development of disease. These results also provide clues regarding the binding site of the C0C2 fragment of cMyBP-C on F-actin.
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant WT human cardiac actin (WT actin) was expressed using the baculovirus/insect cell expression system, purified, and used to reconstitute the thin-filament of bovine cardiac muscle fibers, together with bovine cardiac tropomyosin (Tm) and troponin (Tn). Effects of [Ca(2+)], [ATP], [phosphate] and [ADP] on tension and tension transients were studied at 25°C by using sinusoidal analysis, and the results were compared with those of native fibers and fibers reconstituted with purified bovine cardiac actin (BVC actin). In actin filament reconstituted fibers (without Tm/Tn), those reconstituted with WT actin showed exactly the same active tension as those reconstituted with purified BVC actin (WT: 0.75±0.06T0, N=11; BVC: 0.73±0.07T0, N=12, where T0 is tension of original fibers before extraction). After Tm/Tn reconstitution, fibers reconstituted with WT actin generated 0.85±0.06T0 (N=11) compared to 0.98±0.04T0 (N=12) recovered by those reconstituted with BVC actin. In the presence of Tm/Tn, WT actin reconstituted fibers showed exactly the same Ca(2+) sensitivity as those of the native fibers and BVC actin reconstituted fibers (pCa50: native fibers: 5.69±0.01, N=10; WT: 5.69±0.02, N=11; BVC: 5.68±0.02, N=12). Sinusoidal analysis showed that the cross-bridge kinetics were the same among native fibers, BVC actin reconstituted fibers, and WT actin reconstituted fibers, followed by reconstitution of Tm/Tn. These results demonstrate that baculovirus/insect cell expressed actin has no significant differences from tissue purified actin and can be used for thin-filament reconstitution assays. One hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) causing actin mutant A331P actin was also expressed and studied similarly, and the results were compared to those of the WT actin. In the reconstituted fibers, A331P significantly decreased the tension both in the absence of Tm/Tn (0.55±0.03T0, N=13) and in their presence (0.65±0.02T0, N=13) compared to those of the WT (0.75±0.06T0 and 0.85±0.06T0, respectively, N=11). A331P also showed decreased pCa50 (5.57±0.03, N=13) compared to that of WT (5.69±0.02, N=11). The cross-bridge kinetics and its distribution were similar between WT and A331P actin reconstituted fibers, indicating that force/cross-bridge was decreased by A331P. In conclusion, A331P causes a weakened cross-bridge force, which leads to a decreased active tension, reduces left-ventricular ejection fraction, and eventually results in the HCM phenotype.
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