In-Office Influenza Vaccination by US Pediatric Providers Varies Greatly and Is Higher Among Smaller Offices
MedImmune LLC, One MedImmune Way, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA. Clinical Pediatrics
(Impact Factor: 1.15).
06/2012; 51(6):551-9. DOI: 10.1177/0009922812443731
During the 2010-2011 US influenza season, 105 pediatric and 13 family practice offices participated in a prospective observational study of in-office influenza vaccination of children. Office characteristics, influenza vaccinations, and vaccination-related activities were reported. Among pediatric offices, first dose vaccination rates (2% to 60%), 2-dose compliance (11% to 100%), the duration of vaccine availability (60-302 days), and office visit type (well vs sick vs clinic) used for vaccinations varied greatly. Pediatric offices had higher vaccination coverage than family practice offices, offered vaccine longer, and administered more vaccinations during sick visits. Smaller offices and higher staff vaccination rates were associated with higher vaccination coverage. Smaller offices and video reminders in waiting rooms were associated with enhanced 2-dose compliance among children younger than 9 years. A greater understanding of interoffice variability in influenza vaccine delivery by US pediatric providers should allow for the creation of more effective strategies to improve pediatric influenza vaccination rates.
Available from: Chyongchiou Jeng (C.J.) Lin
- "Little research has been performed on factors associated with 2-dose influenza vaccination compliance. In an earlier analysis of the 2010–2011 results from the current study, Toback et al.  found that 2-dose compliance was higher in smaller offices and in offices with video reminder messages in waiting rooms. Other research among 6–23-month-old children found only visits between October and January related to increased levels of compliance . "
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ABSTRACT: In the United States, influenza vaccination is recommended for all children 6 months and older; however, vaccination rates are below target levels. A broad sample of U.S. pediatric offices was assessed to determine factors that influence in-office influenza vaccination rates.
Offices (N = 174) were recruited to participate in an observational study over three influenza seasons (2008--2009, 2009--2010, 2010--2011). Only data from the first year of an office's participation in the study were used. Associations of coverage and 2-dose compliance rates with office characteristics and selected vaccination activities were examined using univariate regression analyses and linear regression analyses using office characteristics identified a priori and vaccination activities with P values <=0.10 in univariate analyses.
Influenza vaccination coverage for children 6 months to 18 years of age averaged 25.2% (range: 2.0%--69.1%) and 2-dose compliance for children <9 years of age averaged 53.4% (range: 5.4%--96.2%). Factors associated with increased coverage were non-rural site (P = 0.025), smaller office size (fewer than 5000 patients; P < 0.001), use of evening and weekend hours to offer influenza vaccine (P = 0.004), a longer vaccination period (P = 0.014), and a greater influenza vaccine coverage rate among office staff (P = 0.012). Increased 2-dose compliance was associated with smaller office size (P = 0.001) and using patient reminders (P = 0.012) and negatively related to use of electronic provider reminders to vaccinate (P = 0.003).
To maximize influenza vaccine coverage and compliance, offices could offer the vaccine during evening and weekend hours, extend the duration of vaccine availability, encourage staff vaccination, and remind patients that influenza vaccination is due. Additional efforts may be required in large offices and those in rural locations.
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To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a prototype quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (QIV) containing two influenza B strains, one of each lineage, compared with licensed trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIVs) containing either a Victoria B-lineage strain (2009-2010 TIV) or a Yamagata B-lineage strain (2008-2009 TIV).
Healthy adults ≥18 years of age were eligible to participate in this phase II, open-label, randomized, controlled, multicenter study conducted in the US. Participants received a single dose of 2009-2010 TIV, 2008-2009 TIV, or QIV. Sera were collected before and 21 days after vaccine administration to test for hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies to each of the four influenza strains. Immunogenicity endpoints included geometric mean HAI antibody titers (GMTs) and rates of seroprotection (titer ≥1:40) and seroconversion (4-fold rise pre- to post-vaccination). Safety endpoints included frequency of solicited injection-site and systemic reactions occurring within 3 days of vaccination, and unsolicited non-serious adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) within 21 days of vaccination.
One hundred and ninety participants were enrolled to each vaccine group. QIV induced GMTs to each A and B strain that were noninferior to those induced by the 2009-2010 and 2008-2009 TIVs (i.e., lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval of the ratio of GMT(QIV)/GMT(TIV)>0.66 for each strain). Rates of seroprotection and seroconversion were similar in all groups. Incidence and severity of solicited injection-site and systemic reactions, AEs, and SAEs were similar among groups.
QIV, containing two B strains (one from each B lineage), was as safe and immunogenic as licensed TIV. QIV has the potential to be a useful alternative to TIV and offer protection against both B lineages.
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ABSTRACT: To analyze organization-level correlates of immunization coverage among adolescents served by high-volume primary care providers in North Carolina.
We randomly selected 91 clinics with at least 200 active records for patients ages 11-18 in the North Carolina Immunization Registry. For the 105,121 adolescents served by these clinics, we obtained immunization status for 6 vaccines, including human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (females only); meningococcal conjugate; and tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis booster (Tdap).
Clinics specializing in pediatrics had higher coverage for meningococcal vaccine (OR=1.79, 95% CI: 1.25-2.55), Tdap vaccine (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.00-1.50), and childhood vaccines. However, pediatric clinics had lower coverage for HPV vaccine initiation (OR=0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.94). Other correlates, which varied by vaccine, included policies related to vaccine documentation and the age at which clinics recommended vaccines.
Overall, adolescents were more likely to receive vaccines, except HPV vaccine, if they attended a pediatric clinic with supportive clinical policies.
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