Up-regulation of FAS Ligand Expression by Human Cytomegalovirus Immediately-Early Gene Product 2: A Novel Mechanism in Cytomegalovirus-Induced Apoptosis in Human Retina.

ArticleinThe Journal of Immunology · May 2001with1 Reads
    • "An avidin-biotin complex method was used for the immunohistochemical staining in the differentiated NSCs (Chiou et al., 2001). Following washes with the 3% hydrogen peroxide, sodium azide and antigenicities were retrieved using a microwave. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hippocampus has long been associated with learning, memory, and modulation of emotional responses. Previous studies demonstrated that stress-induced loss of hippocampal neurons may contribute to the pathogenesis of depression. The recent observations supported that antidepressant drugs increase the production of serotoninergic neurotransmitter and they play a critical role in the initiation of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. In order to explore the possible new mechanism of the treatment of depression, we cultured neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from the hippocampus of adult rats as an in vitro model to evaluate the capabilities of neuroprotection and neural differentiation in NSCs by fluoxetine (FL) treatment. Our results showed that 20 microM FL treatment can significantly increase the proliferation rate of NSCs (p<0.05), and up-regulate the mRNA and protein expressions of Bcl-2 in Day-7 FL-treated NSCs (p<0.01). Using Bcl-2 gene silencing with small interfering RNA, our data verified that FL can prevent Fas ligand-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in NSCs through the activation of Bcl-2. The in vitro observation and immunofluorescent study further demonstrated that FL treatment can stimulate the neurite development and serotoninergic differentiation of NSCs through the activation of Bcl-2. Using microdialysis with high performance liquid chromatography- electrochemical detection, the functional release of serotonin in the differentiating NSCs with FL treatment was increased and simultaneously regulated by the Bcl-2 expressions. In sum, the study results indicate that antidepressant administration can increase NSCs survival, promote the neurite development, and facilitate NSCs differentiating into the functional serotoninergic neurons via the modulation of Bcl-2 expression.
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high frequency of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome and antigens in tumor samples of patients with different malignancies is now well documented, although the causative role for HCMV in the development of the neoplasias remains to be established. HCMV infection can modulate multiple cellular regulatory and signalling pathways in a manner similar to that of oncoproteins of small DNA tumor viruses such as human papilloma virus or adenoviruses. However, in contrast to these DNA tumor viruses, HCMV infection fails to transform susceptible normal human cells. There is now growing evidence that tumor cells with disrupted regulatory and signalling pathways enable HCMV to modulate their properties including stimulation of cell proliferation, survival, invasion, production of angiogenic factors, and immunogenic properties. In contrast to previously suggested "hit and run" transformation we suggest that persistence in tumor cells is essential for HCMV to fully express its oncomodulatory effects. These effects are observed particularly in persistent HCMV infection and are mediated mainly by activity of HCMV regulatory proteins. In persistently HCMV-infected tumor cell lines - a selection of novel, slowly growing virus variants with changes in coding sequences for virus regulatory proteins takes place. As a result, oncomodulatory effects of HCMV infection may lead to a shift to more malignant phenotype of tumor cells contributing to tumor progression.
    Article · Mar 2004
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rabies virus (RABV) is a pathogen well-adapted to the nervous system, where it infects neurons. RABV is transmitted by the bite of an infected animal. It enters the nervous system via a motor neuron through the neuromuscular junction, or via a sensory nerve through nerve spindles. It then travels from one neuron to the next, along the spinal cord to the brain and the salivary glands. The virions are then excreted in the saliva of the animal and can be transmitted to another host by bite. Thus preservation of neuronal network integrity is crucial for the virus to be transmitted. Successful invasion of the nervous system by RABV seems to be the result of a subversive strategy based on the survival of infected neurons. This strategy includes protection against virus-mediated apoptosis and destruction of T cells that invade the CNS in response to infection.
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