Article

How Are Curious People Viewed and How Do They Behave in Social Situations? From the Perspectives of Self, Friends, Parents, and Unacquainted Observers

Authors:
  • Hogan Assessment Systems
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

People who are open and curious orient their lives around an appreciation of novelty and a strong urge to explore, discover, and grow. Researchers have recently shown that being an open, curious person is linked to healthy social outcomes. To better understand the benefits (and liabilities) of being a curious person, we used a multimethod design of social behavior to assess the perspectives of multiple informants (including self, friends, and parents) and behavior coded from direct observations in unstructured social interactions. We found an impressive degree of convergence among self, friend, and parent reports of curiosity, and observer-rated behavioral correlates of curiosity. A curious personality was linked to a wide range of adaptive behaviors, including tolerance of anxiety and uncertainty, positive emotional expressiveness, initiation of humor and playfulness, unconventional thinking, and a nondefensive, noncritical attitude. This characterization of curious people provides insights into mechanisms underlying associated healthy social outcomes.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Many character strengths are similar or identical to personality traits detailed for decades in models of human behavior. For example, curiosity is a lower-order facet of the Big Five under openness to experience (John & Srivastava, 1999;Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro, & Funder, 2013) and now, considered a character strength under the core value of wisdom (see for their taxonomy). Proponents of the character strength model argue that the presence of moral virtue differeniates a character strength from a traditional personality trait (McCullough & Snyder, 2000;Park et al., 2004). ...
... Self-injuring young adults high on grit are more likely to exhibit suicidal behaviors (Anestis & Selby, 2015). Highly curious people are not viewed as universally healthy by strangers observing them socialize or the reports by close friends and parents (Kashdan et al., 2013). In addition to variation across people and situations, strengths may have a tipping point where they become too elevated (Peterson, 2006). ...
... These questions are best answered with methodologies that ask people to report on their strengths on multiple days across naturally occurring everyday situations. Third, researchers can use behavioral measures of strengths (see Kashdan et al., 2013 for a behavioral measure that was applied to curiosity and relevant to other strengths). We know little about the behavioral indicators of a given strength. ...
Article
Following the advent of modern positive psychology, there has been a surge of empirical research on strengths and a call for incorporating strengths into clinical models of psychopathology. In this review, we conceptualize strengths as a subset of personality traits and dissect the criteria used to define strengths. In hopes of improving theoretical models of strengths, we reconsider the personal choice to deploy strengths, the implications of strength use for well-being, and the costs of over-relying on particular strengths. As an illustration, we critically examine a new model of strengths with suggestions for defining, measuring, and developing interventions for strengths. These insights are offered to encourage critical examination of the conditions under which strengths best facilitate well-being.
... We asked participants to define curiosity and interest in their own words, and examined the similarities and differences of these terms in a bottom-up manner. There are several studies that examined people's perceptions about curiosity/interest [43,44]. Kashdan et al. examined the relationship between self-ratings and other ratings (provided by friends and parents) of a person's curiosity traits and found moderate correlations between them, indicating that people have a common idea of what curiosity means [44]. ...
... There are several studies that examined people's perceptions about curiosity/interest [43,44]. Kashdan et al. examined the relationship between self-ratings and other ratings (provided by friends and parents) of a person's curiosity traits and found moderate correlations between them, indicating that people have a common idea of what curiosity means [44]. Thoman et al. examined people's implicit theory of interest regulation-whether people believe that they can change and regulate their own interest or not [43]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to critically examine how people perceive the definitions, differences and similarities of interest and curiosity, and address the subjective boundaries between interest and curiosity. We used a qualitative research approach given the research questions and the goal to develop an in-depth understanding of people’s meaning of interest and curiosity. We used data from a sample of 126 U.S. adults (48.5% male) recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk ( M age = 40.7, SD age = 11.7). Semi-structured questions were used and thematic analysis was applied. The results showed two themes relating to differences between curiosity and interest; active/stable feelings and certainty/uncertainty. Curiosity was defined as an active feeling (more specifically a first, fleeting feeling) and a child-like emotion that often involves a strong urge to think actively and differently, whereas interest was described as stable and sustainable feeling, which is characterized as involved engagement and personal preferences (e.g., hobbies). In addition, participants related curiosity to uncertainty, e.g., trying new things and risk-taking behaviour. Certainty, on the other hand, was deemed as an important component in the definition of interest, which helps individuals acquire deep knowledge. Both curiosity and interest were reported to be innate and positive feelings that support motivation and knowledge-seeking during the learning process.
... Burton andRevell (2018, p. 1512) suggest that: "curiosity is characterised by growth, exploration and development". A curious personality is linked to a range of adaptive behaviours, which include tolerance to unconventional thinking, the ability to adapt and a non-defensive and non-critical attitude (Kashdan et al., 2013). According to the literature, curious practitioners not only desire to learn but are keen to analyse what is being presented in order to know what might be happening, or what is expected but missing from what has been observed, in order to question what is presented (Burton and Revell, 2018;Kashdan et al., 2013). ...
... A curious personality is linked to a range of adaptive behaviours, which include tolerance to unconventional thinking, the ability to adapt and a non-defensive and non-critical attitude (Kashdan et al., 2013). According to the literature, curious practitioners not only desire to learn but are keen to analyse what is being presented in order to know what might be happening, or what is expected but missing from what has been observed, in order to question what is presented (Burton and Revell, 2018;Kashdan et al., 2013). Kashdan and colleagues (2013, p. 142) also posit that curious people have: "predispositions to recognize and search for new knowledge". ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to consider the importance of professional curiosity and partnership work in safeguarding adults from serious harm, abuse and neglect. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on a range of materials including: review of published materials in relation to professional curiosity, reports from adult serious case reviews (SCRs) and safeguarding adult reviews (SARs); relevant materials drawn from the SAR Library, thematic reviews of SARs and Google searches; observations from practice and experience. It also refers to the relevant academic literature. Findings Lessons from SCRs and SARs show that a lack of professional curiosity and poor coordination of support can lead to poor assessments and intervention measures that can fail to support those at risk of harm and abuse. There are a number of barriers to professionals practicing with curiosity. Working in partnership enhances the likelihood that professional curiosity will flourish. Practical implications There are clear implications for improving practice by increasing professional curiosity amongst professionals. The authors argue that there is a scope to improve professional curiosity by utilising and developing existing partnerships, and ultimately to help reduce the number of deaths and incidents of serious harm. Originality/value The paper considers the importance of employing professional curiosity and partnership work in safeguarding adults’ practice, so enabling practitioners to better safeguard adults at risk of abuse and neglect.
... These dispositional tendencies and experiential correlates can also translate into more general well-being effects. The positive relation between trait curiosity and happiness/well-being is well-established [23,27,28]. It is explained by a higher probability of pleasurable and meaningful moments in life [23] and higher openness to things that are unknown or difficult to understand-for instance, when viewing art [29], acquiring reading and math competence [30], engaging with contradictory political information [31], or dealing with rejection [32]. ...
... The positive relation between trait curiosity and happiness/well-being is well-established [23,27,28]. It is explained by a higher probability of pleasurable and meaningful moments in life [23] and higher openness to things that are unknown or difficult to understand-for instance, when viewing art [29], acquiring reading and math competence [30], engaging with contradictory political information [31], or dealing with rejection [32]. While these studies do not typically focus on the affective experience of curiosity per se, they show that a curious disposition is a positive predictor of positive feelings. ...
Article
Full-text available
Curiosity is evoked when people experience an information-gap between what they know and what they do not (yet) know. Curious people are motivated to find the information they are missing. This motivation has different components: People want to reduce the uncertainty of not knowing something (deprivation motive) and they want to discover new information to expand their knowledge (discovery motive). We discuss recent research that shows that the affective experience of curiosity is the result of the relative strength of the deprivation and discovery motives. This, in turn, is contingent on individual differences, anticipated features of the actual target, and features of the information-gap.
... Curiosity has been broadly defined as "the recognition, pursuit, and desire to explore novel, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous events" (Kashdan et al., 2018, p. 130). However, limited empirical investigation is available regarding work-related curiosity, despite its association with value-added outcomes such as creativity (Hagtvedt et al., 2019;Hardy et al., 2017;Hunter et al., 2016), social competency (Harrison et al., 2011;Kashdan et al., 2013Kashdan et al., , 2018Mussel, 2013), and coping efficacy (Denneson et al., 2017;Silvia, 2008). Due to the paucity of work-related curiosity research, a clear and common understanding is lacking regarding what curiosity is and how it may be cultivated and applied in the work contexts (Wagstaff et al., 2020). ...
... This negative feedback-internal or external-could stimulate anxiety. For example, a portion of the study participants reported that while in states of curiosity, they experimented with nonconformist beliefs and behavior, in turn, possibly violating conventional norms and making other people uncomfortable (Kashdan et al., 2013). Some individuals had the inner wherewithal to continue to tolerate the inherent stress, doubt, or confusion associated with conceptual testing and potentially negative feedback (Kashdan et al., 2018), thus supporting and sustaining their curiosity state . ...
Article
Full-text available
Anxiety, stress, dissatisfaction, and disengagement at work have continued to rise in the United States, due partly to global conditions of volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. The persistent cadence of associated change requires individuals to develop an embodied integration of sophisticated cognitive, emotional, social, and meaning-making dexterity. In effect, in such conditions, individuals need curiosity. This phenomenological study examined the lived experience of curiosity of an individual within the context of receiving humanistic coaching based on a sample of nine executives. The resulting data revealed a biopsychosocial, multi-componential process associated with curiosity. Contextualizing state curiosity in this way may encourage researchers and practitioners to forgo the perspective that curiosity occurs in relatively discrete intervals and, instead, embrace the concept that curiosity states encompass experiential variability across the mind-body dimensions (e.g., cognitive activation, emotional intensity, somatic sensation) associated with distinct stages within a state curiosity framework. This multi-componential process view also suggests that the stages of state curiosity may involve a mechanism of linking separate states, thereby, influencing the intensity, sustainability and/or frequency of episodic curiosity. Finally, framing state curiosity as a multi-componential process may also help to bring a humanistic texturization, which could contribute to our intersubjective understanding of how individuals are curious.
... In the social field, curiosity is visible to others (Kashdan et al., 2013) and is relevant to healthy social interactions and relationships (McCrae & Sutin, 2009), but also when challenging and, at times, violating social norms (Kashdan et al., 2013). Curiosity has been associated with: a) self-efficacy to potentially overcome challenging environments (Bandura, 1997); b) a coping potential based on greater confidence (Silvia, 2008;Silvia et al., 2009); c) a competence motive to master one's environment (White, 1959); d) better adaptiveness to all sorts of situational demands (Matsumoto et al., 2000); e) less defensive reactions (Kashdan et al., 2011); f) motivation to have new experiences with peers (García & Valdez, 2017). ...
... In the social field, curiosity is visible to others (Kashdan et al., 2013) and is relevant to healthy social interactions and relationships (McCrae & Sutin, 2009), but also when challenging and, at times, violating social norms (Kashdan et al., 2013). Curiosity has been associated with: a) self-efficacy to potentially overcome challenging environments (Bandura, 1997); b) a coping potential based on greater confidence (Silvia, 2008;Silvia et al., 2009); c) a competence motive to master one's environment (White, 1959); d) better adaptiveness to all sorts of situational demands (Matsumoto et al., 2000); e) less defensive reactions (Kashdan et al., 2011); f) motivation to have new experiences with peers (García & Valdez, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
This manuscript explores the psychometric properties of a scale measuring self-curiosity, a facet of general curiosity, consisting of the attitude and interest people have in understanding themselves better. In this study, we provide data on the comparison between the Self-Curiosity Attitude-Interest Scale in an Italian and a Mexican sample, paired for gender, age, and education. The scale reliability was satisfactory , and the two-factor structure of the scale showed a good fit in the Mexican sample. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed configural, metric, partial scalar, and strict invariance between samples. Overall, results indicated that the concept of self-curiosity is meaningfully measured by the SCAI items. In line with previous studies, construct validity of the scale highlighted the expected correlations with measures of trait openness, awareness, and general curiosity. In conclusion, the results show that the two-factor model of the Self-Curiosity Attitude-Interest Scale is similarly adequate in both countries.
... Experiencing tension is a central element of a curious approach (Kashdan et al., 2013;Litman and Jimerson, 2004), suggesting that anxious thoughts and discomfort are a natural part of this process-again, a curious parallel with the emotional dimension of child protection practice. In her analysis of the Victoria Climbié Inquiry Report, Rustin (2005, p. 11) suggests that of significance is the role of psychological defence mechanisms for workers in child protection cases. ...
... The manifestation of tension is a central concept in relation to our previous discussion regarding professional curiosity and also appears to be important in regard to limitations of knowledge and experience. This has some resonance with other characteristics of curiosity as suggested by Kashdan et al. (2013) including the necessity for higher-order skills including flexibility, adaptability and a desire to look for new knowledge which synthesises with the importance of retaining openness to new knowledge (Akister, 2011). Again, the safety valve is reflective practice and external scrutiny of practice via supervisory processes and training to engender rigorous practice. ...
Article
This conceptual paper explores the notion of professional curiosity within child protection practice considering the barriers that can inhibit social workers invoking curiosity. The authors contend that definitions of professional curiosity are lacking in clarity and transparency; at the time of writing, we are not aware of any other endeavours to create a definitional reference point or analysis of this concept. Furthermore, invoking professional curiosity is challenging when the social work task is pressurised, stressful and operates within a system that is stretched to breaking point. Drawing on messages from Serious Case Reviews in the UK which identify social work failings in context of a lack of professional curiosity, this paper initially focuses on constructing some definitional reference point, moving on to explore factors that may inhibit curiosity in practice. We cement connections between the emotional dimension of child protection practice, organisational context and the wider neo-liberal political climate, constructing these as potential barriers to invoking curiosity. We contend the interplay of such complicated relational dynamics has the potential to distort professional judgement, including enacting curiosity. Finally, we consider realistic mechanisms by which social workers could be supported to generate creativity and curiosity in their practice. © © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The British Association of Social Workers. All rights reserved.
... Curiosity is essential for scientific discovery and innovation [1,2] and, more universally, is a natural and irrepressible characteristic of young children [3,4,5]. Yet it is also sometimes considered maladaptive in its influence later in development [6]. ...
... Studies of neural activation and memory show that when people are more curious, they better remember information related to what they are curious about, and also have better memory for unrelated material observed during their curious state, effects which last over time [12]. In addition to learning benefits, curiosity relates to positive social outcomes [25], including adaptive social behaviors as rated both by friends and independent observers [2]. At a more basic level, curiosity is positively related to general well-being [26]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Curiosity is essential for scientific discovery and innovation [1, 2] and, more universally, is a natural and irrepressible characteristic of young children [3, 4, 5]. Yet it is also sometimes considered maladaptive in its influence later in development [6]. In the U. S. education system, which is now heavily focused on students meeting fixed standards and performing well on standardized tests, curiosity can actually create a type of risk for teachers, insofar as it threatens performance toward these rigid goals [5]. While curiosity and learning have traditionally been viewed as symbiotic, there are ample reasons to be concerned that our current education system suppresses rather than promotes students' natural curiosity. Why does this inconsistency exist? What would curiosity-promoting educational practice look like, and how does this differ from what happens more typically in classrooms? In this chapter, we explore these questions. After a brief review of why curiosity should be a priority in education, we discuss how curiosity might be promoted or suppressed in educational settings based on prior research, what curiosity in classrooms might look like, and how research on curiosity can be applied to educational settings. We will focus on the process of qualitatively observing educational practice and linking the observations to this prior work to identify ways of influencing students' preferences for uncertainty. We will then shift direction to argue for the need to study curiosity in classrooms and naturalistic learning environments, and the difficulty in doing this if curiosity is understood and studied as a unitary, independent construct. We end with potential future directions to bridge and broaden research on curiosity for educational application.
... For instance, the dispositional trait openness to experience entails an open mind to feelings, actions, and ideas in all kinds of situations (Flynn, 2005) and a motivation to clarify unexpected and new experiences (Canaday, 1980;McCrae & Costa, 1997). Openness has been linked to social curiosity (Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro, & Funder, 2013) and social competence (Schneider, Ackerman, & Kanfer, 1996), and has been found to stimulate more accurate perceptions of others (Hall, Andrzejewski, & Yopchick, 2009). Similarly, emotional intelligence, defined as a form of "social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and actions" (Mayer & Salovey, 1993, p. 433), contributes to a leader's social perceptiveness and ability to diagnose relational processes in teams (Ayoko & Konrad, 2012;Homan et al., 2015;Jordan & Troth, 2002;Joseph & Newman, 2010;Little, Gooty, & Williams, 2016;Lopes et al., 2004;Wang, 2015). ...
Article
The importance of leaders as diversity managers is widely acknowledged. However, a dynamic and comprehensive theory on the interplay between team diversity and team leadership is missing. We provide a review of the extant (scattered) research on the interplay between team diversity and team leadership, which reveals critical shortcomings in the current scholarly understanding. This calls for an integrative theoretical account of functional diversity leadership in teams. Here we outline such an integrative theory. We propose that functional diversity leadership requires (a) knowledge of the favorable and unfavorable processes that can be instigated by diversity, (b) mastery of task- and person-focused leadership behaviors necessary to address associated team needs, and (c) competencies to predict and/or diagnose team needs and to apply corresponding leadership behaviors to address those needs. We integrate findings of existing studies on the interplay between leadership and team diversity with insights from separate literatures on team diversity and (team) leadership. The resulting Leading Diversity model (LeaD) posits that effective leadership of diverse teams requires proactive as well as reactive attention to teams' needs in terms of informational versus intergroup processes and adequate management of these processes through task- versus person-focused leadership. LeaD offers new insights into specific competencies and actions that allow leaders to shape the influence of team diversity on team outcomes and, thereby, harvest the potential value in diversity. Organizations can capitalize on this model to promote optimal processes and performance in diverse teams. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Research on social situations, behavior, and their interactions has become a classic research topic and been undertaken by many social psychologists, thus nurturing different schools of thought along this line of research. One school of researchers insists that behavior is mainly caused by a person's inherent personality and tries to provide evidence and proof of the consistency of behavior across different social situations [Cattell 1965;Kashdan et al. 2013;Sterling 2010], whereas another school of researchers insists that behavior is mainly caused by social situations and tries to provide evidence of how behavior changes depending on the social setting and situation [Cervin 1955;Lee 2013]. A third school of researchers tries to combine these two extremes by arguing that the person and the situation interact, so that a person is simultaneously influenced by and adapts to the situation [Ekehammar 1974;Gecas 1986;Krueger 2009;Witt 1990]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the mushrooming development of Online Communities (OCs) has ushered a new paradigm of research for organizational sustainability in IS. In essence, the growth and survival of an online community relies predominantly on the continuous participation of its members. Given that the emergence of OCs may decay or even diminish due to the lack of consistent involvement of members, it is of paramount importance to fathom how to retain and entice members of OCs in terms of their continuous participation in the online platform. Extant studies have focused mostly on personal belief constructs and subjective norm constructs to study users' continuous behavior. However, the important role of social situations has not been sufficiently explored and investigated in IS, particularly in the emerging context of OCs. Drawing on the Triandis model, this study proposes a research model incorporating social situations as the moderator on the continuance participation intention in OCs. We collected data from two large OCs to examine whether congruence exists between situation perceptions and situation reactions. The empirical results show that social situations play an important role in determining the strength of the relationships between affect, social factors, and perceived consequences and the continuance intention in OCs.
... Thrill Seeking and Covert Social Curiosity are often linked to disadvantageous outcomes such as unwanted negative emotional experiences and impulsive decision-making (e.g., Renner, 2006;Zuckerman, 1994). When highly curious people are observed by friends and strangers, some of the qualities pinpointed such as rebelliousness, non-conformist thinking, and the tendency to conduct interviews instead of two-sided conversations, can lead to healthy change or difficult social interactions (Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro, & Funder, 2013). Future work should explore the consequences of when and how particular dimensions of curiosity are underplayed and overplayed. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Curiosity is a fundamental human motivation that influences learning, the acquisition of knowledge, and life fulfillment. Our ability to understand the benefits (and costs) of being a curious person hinges on adequate assessment. Synthesizing decades of prior research, our goal was to improve a well-validated, multi-dimensional measure of curiosity (Kashdan et al., 2018). First, we sought to distinguish between two types of social curiosity: the general desire to learn from other people versus covert, surreptitious interest in what other people say and do. Second, we sought to remove weaker items and reduce the length of each subscale. Using data from a survey of 483 working adults (Study 1) and 460 adults (Study 2), we found evidence to support the pre-existing four dimensions of curiosity (Joyous Exploration, Deprivation Sensitivity, Stress Tolerance, and Thrill Seeking) along with the separation of the fifth dimension into General Overt Social Curiosity and Covert Social Curiosity. Each factor of the Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale Revised (5DCR) had substantive relations with a battery of personality (e.g., Big Five, intellectual humility) and well-being (e.g., psychological need satisfaction) measures. With greater bandwidth and predictive power, the 5DCR offers new opportunities for basic research and the evaluation of curiosity enhancing interventions.
... Third, according to a study conducted by a psychologist, (Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro, & Funder, 2013), it is known that people who suffer from social anxiety and have a high curiosity may be more likely to engage in behaviors that avoid conflict. Helping to overcome anxiety is a normal thing when you are anxious or nervous before facing the big day. ...
Article
Full-text available
EFL learner strategy has become a popular issue since English considered as an International language which goes through with international public communication tools. In this study, the researcher focused on verifying learner strategy in enhancing English mastery inside classroom context of Indonesian college student. This study was qualitative research applied case study approach, which involves grounded theory method. The subject of this study was a learner which was considered as good EFL learner. Findings indicated that; a) Good EFL learner acts to obey a rule of learners (discipline). b) Good EFL learner tends to be relaxed and not easily upset (easy going). c) Good EFL learner has an eager to learn or to know something (curiosity). d) Good EFL learner dare to be different or prefers to act differently. In addition, e) Good EFL learner usually determined to follow a particular plan of action and sometimes using words in a clever and funny way (serious and witty).
... Nevertheless, the CEI-II already has been associated with several indicators of personal and social wellbeing (Kashdan et al., 2009). Moreover, Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro, and Funder (2013) showed that there is a high convergence among self-, friend-, parent-reports of curiosity, and observer-rated behavioral correlates of curiosity, suggesting that individuals' self-reported curiosity reflects something of their curious behavior in the real world. Furthermore, also the weighting bias of the BeanFest Task has been related to a variety of exploratory judgments and behaviors towards novel stimuli in the environment (e.g., hypothetical and actual risk behavior; Pietri et al., 2013b;Rocklage & Fazio, 2014). ...
Article
Attachment theory assumes that trust in caregivers’ support and exploration are closely related. Little research tried to investigate this link, nor focuses on mechanisms that might explain this association. The present studies examined whether trust is related to exploration through a serial indirect effect of openness to negative affect and self-regulation. In Study 1, 212 children, aged 8-13, completed questionnaires assessing trust, openness to negative affect, self-regulation and exploration. The results showed that trust predicted exploration, but only to the extent to which openness to negative affect and self-regulation were involved too. Study 2 refined these findings (n = 59, aged 9-12) using a behavioral measure of openness to negative affect and exploration, and with mother-reported self-regulation. Replicating this serial indirect effect of openness to negative affect and self-regulation with multiple informants and methods, the present studies advance our understanding of how trust might foster exploration in preadolescence.
... Though researchers seem to agree that all these emotions are triggered when gaps in our existing knowledge are made salient (Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro, & Funder, 2013;Loewenstein, 1994;Silvia & Kashdan, 2009), and are thought to influence processes related to acquiring or revising that knowledge, there are important distinctions between them. In what follows we flesh out these distinctions and why their unique properties matter for our proposal that the experience of awe in particular would be particularly conducive to early science learning. ...
Article
Full-text available
Scientists from Einstein to Sagan have linked emotions like awe with the motivation for scientific inquiry, but no research has tested this possibility. Theoretical and empirical work from affective science, however, suggests that awe might be unique in motivating explanation and exploration of the physical world. We synthesize theories of awe with theories of the cognitive mechanisms related to learning, and offer a generative theoretical framework that can be used to test the effect of this emotion on early science learning.
... Thrill Seeking and Covert Social Curiosity are often linked to disadvantageous outcomes such as unwanted negative emotional experiences and impulsive decision-making (e.g., Renner, 2006;Zuckerman, 1994). When highly curious people are observed by friends and strangers, some of the qualities pinpointed such as rebelliousness, non-conformist thinking, and the tendency to conduct interviews instead of two-sided conversations, can lead to healthy change or difficult social interactions (Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro, & Funder, 2013). Future work should explore the consequences of when and how particular dimensions of curiosity are underplayed and overplayed. ...
Article
Curiosity is a fundamental human motivation that influences learning, the acquisition of knowledge, and life fulfillment. Our ability to understand the benefits (and costs) of being a curious person hinges on adequate assessment. Synthesizing decades of prior research, our goal was to improve a well-validated, multi-dimensional measure of curiosity (Kashdan et al., 2018). First, we sought to distinguish between two types of social curiosity: the overt desire to learn from other people versus covert, surreptitious interest in what other people say and do. Second, we sought to remove weaker items and reduce the length of each subscale. Using data from a survey of 483 working adults (Study 1) and 460 community adults (Study 2), we found evidence to support the pre-existing four dimensions of curiosity (Joyous Exploration, Deprivation Sensitivity, Stress Tolerance, and Thrill Seeking) along with the separation of the fifth dimension into Overt Social Curiosity and Covert Social Curiosity. Each factor of the Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale Revised (5DCR) had substantive relations with a battery of personality (e.g., Big Five, intellectual humility) and well-being (e.g., psychological need satisfaction) measures. With greater bandwidth and predictive power, the 5DCR offers new opportunities for basic research and the evaluation of curiosity enhancing interventions.
... Curiosity involves recognizing and wanting to explore novel, uncertain, complex and ambiguous events (Kashdan et al., 2017). Higher levels of curiosity have been linked to work and life satisfaction as well as having more adaptive cognitive, emotional and behavioral attributes (Kashdan et al., 2013). Furthermore, exercising curiosity also has been associated with lower levels of anxiety, stress and aggression; more sophisticated and creative problem solving; and higher tolerance for risk-taking (Kashdan et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper aims to describe mind–body infused coaching and to explain four distinct effects it can have on organizational executives and employees. Design/methodology/approach A review of theory and research on mind–body practices, emotional intelligence and work performance was conducted. A case study from the author’s experience also is included. Findings Mind–body infused coaching activates employees’ awareness, ignites a strengths-based approach, improves inner workings of the brain, boosts emotional intelligence and promotes curiosity. Practical implications HR professionals and managers are encouraged to obtain training in evidence-based mind–body principles to improve and sustain outcomes when coaching organizational executives and employees. Originality/value Conventional coaching approaches tend to be highly reductionistic by focusing solely on employees’ personality types, soft skills or achievement of specific goals. This paper discusses a holistic approach to coaching the whole person and outlines four specific benefits that could be anticipated as a result.
... Continuing to work toward current goals while remaining open to potentially-serendipitous opportunities are the hallmarks of adopting a serendipitous orientation (Napolitano, 2013). Although likely associated with a person's agency (Little, Snyder, & Wehmeyer, 2006 (Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro, & Funder, 2013), here, a serendipitous orientation centers on a person's intentional choice to be open to serendipity. Why is it necessary to emphasize intentionality in serendipitous orientations? ...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes how actions transform chance events into sustained positive development. I argue that serendipity is intentional, and involves the coaction of self-regulatory actions and chance life events. To provide a foundation for research on both serendipity and self-regulation more generally, I introduce a model of self-regulation research organized across the nomothetic-idio- graphic spectrum. In this model, every self-regulatory action should be simultaneously studied at various levels of generality and specificity. Using the example case of serendipity, I argue that self- regulation research should adopt this model to capture the full richness of goal striving.
... Following Berlyne's influential theory of curiosity as a drive for knowledge acquisition prompted by conceptual conflict and physiological arousal (Berlyne, 1960), researchers correlated it positively with creativity and negatively with anxiety (Leherissey, 1971;Maddi & Berne, 1964;Spielberger & Starr, 1994). Today, scholars continue to explore curiosity's correlation with openness to experience (Kaufman, 2013), appetitive social interactions (Kashdan & Roberts, 2006), and tolerance for uncertainty (Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro, & Funder, 2013), all while granting that curiosity requires a modicum of anxiety, as a source of optimal stimulus. Importantly for our purposes, Beswick's cognitive process theory of curiosity provides a protonetwork approach, defining curiosity as the practice of negotiating novel information and cognitive maps or category systems (Beswick, 1971;Beswick 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Human personality is reflected in patterns—or networks —of behavior, either in thought or action. Curiosity is an oft-treasured component of one’s personality, commonly associated with information-seeking proclivities with distinct neurophysiological correlates. The markers of curiosity can differ substantially across people, suggesting the possibility that personality also determines the architectural style of one’s curiosity. Yet progress in defining those styles, and marking their neurophysiological basis, has been hampered by fairly fundamental difficulties in defining curiosity itself. Here, we offer and exercise a definition of the practice of curiosity as knowledge network building, one particular pattern of thought behavior. To unpack this definition and motivate its utility, we begin with a short primer on network science and describe how the mathematical object of a network can be used to map items and relations that are characteristic of bodies of knowledge. Next, we turn to a discussion of how networks grow, how their growth can be modeled, and how the practice of curiosity can be formalized as a process of network growth. We pay particular attention to how individuals may differ in how they build their knowledge networks, and discuss how the sort, manner, and action of building can be modulated by experience. We discuss how this definition of the practice of curiosity motivates new experiments and theory development at the interdisciplinary intersection of network science, personality neuroscience, education, and curiosity studies. We close with a note on the potential of network science to inform studies of other domains of personality, and the patterns of thought– or action–behavior characteristic thereof.
... The predisposition to recognise and search for new knowledge (Kashdan et al, 2013). A state of arousal brought about by complex stimuli that leads to exploratory behaviour (Shenaar-Golan and Gutman, 2013). ...
Research
This briefing explores what is needed to support the development of compassionate leadership skills in both supervisors and those they directly supervise and work with. It includes: Examples of leadership models and styles of leadership that lend themselves to compassionate practice and which promote an environment and culture that help compassionate practice to flourish in adult social care. The links between national frameworks and opportunities which guide the development of compassionate leadership practice in adult social care. An exploration of what compassionate leadership looks like and the role of supervisors in enabling leadership to be developed in others. The challenges of ‘compassion fatigue’ and the need for resilience. The briefing also provides some practical tools to support the development of compassionate leadership skills across organisations. Designed for: Supervisors in adult social care Available for purchase of subscribers download from https://www.ripfa.org.uk/resources/publications/supervisors-briefing/
... (6) Dominating the interaction: children who are curious might dominate the interaction more than the non-curious children. This observation is consistent with the findings of Kashdan et al. [28] who showed that domination correlates positively with curiosity. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Curiosity plays a crucial role in learning and education of children. Given its complex nature, it is extremely challenging to automatically understand and recognize it. In this paper, we discuss the contexts under which curiosity can be elicited and provide an associated taxonomy. We present an initial empirical study of curiosity that includes the analysis of co-occurring emotions and the valence associated with it, together with gender-specific analysis. We also discuss the visual, acoustic and verbal behavior indicators of curiosity. Our discussions and analysis uncover some of the underlying complexities of curiosity and its temporal evolution, which is a step towards its automatic understanding and recognition. Finally, considering the central role of curiosity in education, we present two education-centered application areas that could greatly benefit from its automatic recognition.
... 'Social curiosity' has been defined in previous work by Renner (2016, p. 306) as "…an interest in gaining new information and knowledge about the social world." Curiosity has also been found to generate greater intimacy, positive social interactions and increase opportunities to satisfy the need for relatedness (Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham & Rose, 2011), while it is also associated positively with other adaptive behaviours such as humour, dealing with social anxieties and tendencies to avoid negatively judging other people (Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro & Funder, 2013 In a sign that interest in the very subject of 'interest' is growing, Tin (2016) dedicated a book to the construct applied in SLA research and its potential power in language learning. The meaning of 'interest' for her is centred more around the meaning of engagement, but there are valuable lessons in terms of her overview of the literature and how it appertains to answering key questions she presents at the start of the book, (pp. ...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Abstract: One issue that has been identified in classrooms teaching English in Japan is that for many students learning the language often has little meaning other than preparing them for sections of their university entrance exams. It seems an intuitive proposition that the more curiosity and interest one feels toward studying a language, one would have corresponding greater associations with positive attitudes, affect and intended learning effort toward it. This exploratory research found support for this supposition through regression analyses of Likert scale questionnaire data from 269 Japanese high school students. Dimensions of Kashdan et al's (2018) Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale (5DC) were found to relate to second language acquisition (SLA) constructs at differing levels of explanatory variance: 26% of a measure of language anxiety's variance being explained by stress tolerance; 40% of international posture's variance being primarily accounted for by joyous exploration; 52% of the variance in a new construct labelled 'curiosity in English studies' (CiES), again explained by joyous exploration. International posture and CiES were then found to subsequently relate to a measure of intended learning effort toward studying English, accounting for a high amount of explanatory variance at 72%, with CiES acting as the much more substantial predictor. The results found here suggest that curiosity, as measured by the 5DC, should be further probed as to how its associations and potential causal relations with language acquisition constructs may be leveraged to help students in Japan and beyond form meaningful connections to their English studies. (Changes from original submission: university ethics documentation & data declaration removed; error in Appendix 3 edited).
... Curiosity has been found to facilitate building close and intimate relationships because curious people engage in behaviors (e.g., being more responsive, seeking more self-disclosures among interaction partners) that are particularly relevant for increasing the likelihood of positive social outcomes and healthy social relationships. Along these lines, there is also marked convergence in the positive traits and adaptive behaviors ascribed to curious people (Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro, & Funder, 2013). Examples of such positive traits include tolerance of anxiety and uncertainty, positive emotional expressiveness, humor and playfulness, unconventional thinking, and a nondefensive, noncritical attitude. ...
... These actions of the mind become possible through curiosity because the mind engages in the latent exploration of such events. Curiosity is an indispensable mechanism for knowledge discovery, innovation and, more unanimously, an accepted and uncontrollable component of learners (Engel, 2013;Livio, 2017;Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro, & Funder, 2013). According to Litman (2010) and Litman, Crowson, and Kolinski (2010), curiosity is the craving for novel information anticipated to arouse encouraging feelings of "interest" (I) or reject unknowns to progress in understanding when feeling "deprived" (D) of familiarity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Curiosity and academic self-concept as psychological constructs are often mentioned in education and psychology. These constructs are elusive in terms of how they are exhibited or portrayed and measured. Despite their elusive nature, they are highly significant to the success or otherwise of learners. Therefore, the current study explored curiosity and academic self-concept among students of category "A" Senior High schools in the Central Region of Ghana. Using a descriptive-quantitative method, a sample of 400 students was selected through proportionate-stratified and systematic sampling techniques. Adapted curiosity (Kashdan et al., 2018) and academic self-concept (Liu & Wang, 2005) scales were used for the data collection. The data collected were analysed using frequencies, percentages, and structural equation modelling (SEM). The study revealed that the majority of the students possessed low curious abilities and low academic self-concepts. The study further revealed that curiosity of deprivation sensitivity (b=.577, p<.001), the curiosity of stress tolerance (b=.248, p=.007), and curiosity of thrill-seeking (b=.544, p<.001) positively and significantly predicted academic self-concept of students but the curiosity of joyful exploration and social curiosity did not predict academic self-concept of students. It was concluded that students' curious abilities were precursors to their academic self-concept. Thereupon, teachers need to devise new approaches by allowing students to engage in other learning opportunities without much restrictions so that they could hone their natural potentials.
... Despite decades of research into curiosity (see Berlyne, 1954;Day, 1982;Beswick, 1971;Loewenstein, 1994;Litman, 2005Litman, , 2008Engel, 2011;Kashdan et al., 2013), it remains a curious concept and, for particular types of curiosity, it remains an area where further educational research may contribute to knowledge. Post and Walma van der Molen (2017) have emphasised this by explaining that the literature does not agree on what causes children to be curious, that there have been many behavioural descriptions and instruments which have resulted in 'a multitude of theories about the nature, determinants and behavioural characteristics of curiosity' (Post and Walma van der Molen, 2018, p.3) and that this has created a digression from consensus. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to critically analyse teachers pedagogical approaches and how voice technology was used by students as a more knowledgeable other and the extent to which it affected students’ epistemic curiosity. Using an exploratory ethnographic approach, Amazon’s Echo Dot voice technology was studied in lessons at Hillview School. Data was collected through participant observation, informal interviews and recordings of students’ interactions with ‘Alexa’. Students asked questions to Alexa in large numbers. Alexa was asked 87 questions during two lessons suggesting that Alexa was a digital more knowledgeable other. Types of questions asked to Alexa, such as ‘Can fish see water?’, were epistemic questions and suggestive of epistemic curiosity. Teachers used the Echo Dots infrequently and in a limited number of ways. Teachers relied upon a pedagogical approach and talk oriented around performance which overlooked students’ learning talk. The answer to why students might not be curious was not found. However, evidence to understand how and why they might appear not curious was revealed. The study makes contributions to knowledge through the novel use of the Echo Dots to collect data and through a new data visualisation technique called ‘heatmaps’. The study contributes to knowledge by proposing three tentative notions that emerged inductively from the research: ‘performance-oriented talk’, ‘metricalisation’ and ‘regulativity’. The study aims to make a further contribution to knowledge by suggesting evidence of a ‘pedagogy of performance’. The study recommends ‘learning-oriented talk’ and development of Alexa ‘Skills’ as a way to disrupt the pedagogy of performance and as an area for further research.
... An experimental study indicated that gratitude interventions offer more favorable outcomes for people who are more open to new experiences (Senf & Liau, 2012). Because curious people to have more positive experiences and positive evaluations of themselves and the world (Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro, & Funder, 2013;Kashdan & Steger, 2007), they may be motivated to initiate a gratitude intervention. Positive experiences ensure more opportunities to feel and express gratitude, increasing the usefulness and ease of gratitude exercises. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research found that greater trait curiosity, fewer depressive symptoms, and being a woman increase the likelihood that a person will start a gratitude intervention on their own. Yet, little is known as to why these individual differences lead to self-initiation. In the present study, we examined motivational mechanisms that might account for these effects. In-home interviews were conducted with 257 adults from the community. Participants received a leaflet about gratitude interventions that asked about gratitude social belief norms (what other important people they care about would do), utility and self-control beliefs (e.g., usefulness, perceived difficulty), and intentions to start a gratitude intervention. They also completed measures of curiosity and depressive symptoms. Afterwards, participants received codes that allowed them to take part in a web-based gratitude intervention (strictly voluntary). Using structural equation modeling, we found that greater trait curiosity, fewer depressive symptoms, and being a woman indirectly led to the initiation of the gratitude intervention as a function of utility beliefs, social norm beliefs, and perceived self-control. Results suggest specific motivational pathways through which curiosity, depression, and sex influence the development of grateful people.
... Future research should consider examining these associations in relation to use of conversational and non-conversational digital media across screen platforms. Future research should also examine other features of curiosity that might help mitigate the poverty achievement gap [59], and consider other adaptive outcomes associated with early childhood curiosity [60]. Despite these limitations, we believe that our results have some important implications for caregivers and pediatricians. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To examine the main and interactive effects of the amount of daily television exposure and frequency of parent conversation during shared television viewing on parent ratings of curiosity at kindergarten, and to test for moderation by socioeconomic status (SES). Study design Sample included 5100 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Hours of daily television exposure and frequency of parent screen-time conversation were assessed from a parent interview at preschool, and the outcome of early childhood curiosity was derived from a child behavior questionnaire at kindergarten. Multivariate linear regression examined the main and interactive effects of television exposure and parent screen-time conversation on kindergarten curiosity and tested for moderation by SES. Results In adjusted models, greater number of hours of daily television viewing at preschool was associated with lower curiosity at kindergarten (B = -0.14, p = .008). More frequent parent conversation during shared screen-time was associated with higher parent-reported curiosity at kindergarten with evidence of moderation by SES. The magnitude of association between frequency of parent conversation during television viewing and curiosity was greater for children from low SES environments, compared to children from high SES environments: (SES ≤ median): B = 0.29, p < .001; (SES > median): B = 0.11, p < .001. Conclusions Higher curiosity at kindergarten was associated with greater frequency of parent conversation during shared television viewing, with a greater magnitude of association in low-SES families. While the study could not include measures of television program content, digital media use and non-screen time conversation, our results suggest the importance of parent conversation to promote early childhood curiosity, especially for children with socioeconomic disadvantage.
... Trait curiosity is also related to better social engagement. For instance, Kashdan and colleagues [4] found that people with more curious personality displayed more adaptive social behaviors, including more positive emotional expressiveness and less defensive attitudes. Interestingly, a link between trait curiosity and physical health was suggested by a longitudinal study where people with more curious disposition at baseline showed lower risk of mortality 5 years later [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Curiosity, or the desire for novel information and/or experience, is associated with improved well-being and more informed decisions, which has implications on older adults' (OAs') adoption of novel technologies. There have been suggestions that curiosity tends to decline with age. However, it was rarely studied under specific contexts, and there were relatively limited attempts to enhance OAs' curiosity. Under the theoretical framework of selective engagement theory, we examined age differences of curiosity in the context of learning a novel technology and investigated the moderating role of personal relevance. Method: This study utilized a pretest-posttest experimental design with a total of 50 younger adults (YAs) and 50 OAs from Hong Kong to measure their trait curiosity, perceived personal relevance, and state curiosity toward robots after interacting with a robot. Results: OAs showed significantly lower trait curiosity than YAs, but OAs showed a higher level of state curiosity toward a robot than YAs when they perceived an increase in personal relevance after interacting with the robot. Conclusion: Findings replicated previous findings that trait curiosity declined with age, but they also illustrated the distinctions between trait and state curiosity in the context of aging and highlighted the potential role of personal relevance in enhancing curiosity of OAs.
... As a result, the entrepreneur may misjudge the potential risk which might occur and, in the end, it will also influence the perception of an opportunity. Kashdan, et al. (2013) view curiosity as a human's natural behaviour to find some information that can help one make some adjustments to a new situation. This behaviour usually occurs because it is triggered by an uncertain situation. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to see the effect of curiosity toward business opportunity recognition process and to assess the moderating effect of motivation. By undertaking a survey to collect data from 316 small medium enterprises entrepreneurs and performed interaction analysis using PROCESS macro V3.5.5, this study successfully revealed that curiosity contribute positively toward opportunity perception. From interaction analysis result revealed that the effect of financial motivation toward curiosity-opportunity perception are different from the effect of time flexibility motivation. The result of this study is expected to fill the gap in entrepreneurship literature by providing clear explanation regarding to the role of curiosity in entrepreneurial opportunity recognition process. This study also intends to contribute in SME entrepreneur's capacity development process in order to be able to identify new business opportunities.
... The latter refers to the assessed individual (self-report) vs. others, which comprise human informants vs. technological tools. Human informants include those who know the assessed individual well, such as relatives and friends or observers with no prior acquaintance with the respondent (Kashdan et al., 2013). Technological tools might comprise robots (Epstein & Gordon, 2018) and digital games (Tor & Gordon, 2020). ...
Article
Evidence regarding curiosity collected from autobiographies of renowned scientists and inventors written in the 20th and 21st centuries were analyzed to detect authentic expressions related to the five-dimensional model of curiosity and personality, in addition to other personal attributes. Explored were also profiles of contextual and personal factors leading scientifically-curious individuals to well-known professional expertise. Statistical analysis yielded three distinct profiles of those factors: The first depicted established families that offered the writers an intellectual home environment occasioning meaningful interactions and exposure to diverse fields and experiences. The writers also mentioned the influence of others throughout their professional development. The second profile depicted difficult background circumstances rendering the writers' areas of interest quite unusual in their family. While not mentioning receiving help from mentors or others, the writers express resilience and determination throughout their professional development. The third profile depicted the middle class's supportive and loving families who provided the writers a safe environment for development yet did not push them in a definite direction. Characterized are highly versatile individuals who considered exploration and learning pure pleasure. The study's contribution to deepening understanding of curious minds and their developmental trajectories was discussed with reference to autobiographical data's advantages and disadvantages.
... Curiosity is defined as the predisposition to recognize and seek new knowledge and experiences (Kashdan, Sherman, Yarbro, & Funder, 2013). Kashdan (2004) assumes that curiosity emerges from a person's self-development, and is therefore related to the nature of the organis- mic needs established in self-determination theory (Silvia, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental tenet of self-determination theory is that the satisfaction of three basic, innate psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness is necessary for optimal functioning. The aim of this research was to propose novelty as a basic psychological need in self-determination theory and develop a new measure to assess novelty need satisfaction, the Novelty Need Satisfaction Scale (NNSS). Two studies were performed, one at the global lifestyle level (Study 1: general adults, N = 399, Mage = 31.30 years) and the other at a contextual level in physical education (Study 2: first-year post-compulsory secondary school students, N = 1035, Mage = 16.20 years). Participants completed the NNSS alongside measures of psychological needs and regulation styles from self-determination theory and psychological well-being. The six-item NNSS showed adequate psychometric properties and discriminant validity with other psychological needs in both studies. Novelty need satisfaction predicted life satisfaction (Study 1) and intrinsic motivation in physical education (Study 2) independent of the other three psychological needs. Results provide preliminary evidence that need for novelty is a unique candidate need alongside existing needs from self-determination theory, but further confirmatory and experimental research is required.
... Even though they accustomed to entrance level stage, the higher stage gamers play, the harder they work for survival. Overcoming the barrier is the essential of fun in playing game (Kashdan et al., 2013). On average, mobile gamers usually play three or four (3.6 in Japan) different games at the same time though 80% of them are free to play (F2P) (KOCCA, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Thanks to the proliferation of smartphones, most people can access mobile game easily. But they play it very differently. This research focus on the gamer's attributes, not the game attributes as the cause of the behavioral difference. Authors suggested a research model in which perceptual game switching costs precede the continuous play intention, and personal attributes affect also the switching costs and the intention at the same time. To test the model and the research hypotheses, authors used the structural equation modeling method and multiple linear regression analysis. As results, the personal I-typed, and D-typed epistemic curiosity could account for gamers’ perceptual switching costs and the play intent well. The continuity cost and the sunk cost positively affected the retention intent, but there was no significant effect from learning cost. Focusing the gamer into as the male gamer, the learning cost was significant but negatively to the intent. Gamer group in high I-typed and low D-typed curiosity showed the highest retention intent, and the lowest retention intent took place in the group of low I-typed and high D-typed. The combinations of epistemic curiosity gave new insights on the playing intent for mobile game. The personal epistemic curiosity is an effective instrument for building a consumer clustering framework for mobile gamer.
Article
Curiosity, the tendency to engage in novel and challenging opportunities, may be an important source of resilience for those at risk for suicide. We hypothesized that curiosity would have a buffering effect against risk conferred by multiple sources of distress, whereby curiosity would be associated with reduced suicidal ideation and increased coping efficacy. As part of a larger intervention trial designed to improve coping skills and reduce suicidal ideation, 117 military veterans with suicidal ideation completed measures of curiosity and distress (perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances) at baseline, and completed measures of suicidal ideation and coping efficacy (to stop negative thoughts, to enlist support from friends and family) at baseline and 3-, 6-, and 12-week follow up. Growth curve models showed that curiosity moderated the association between distress and suicidal ideation at baseline and that curiosity moderated the association between distress and increased coping efficacy to stop negative thoughts over time. Findings suggest that curiosity may buffer against the effect of heightened levels of distress on suicidal ideation and help facilitate stronger gains in coping efficacy over time. Additional work should further examine the role of curiosity as a protective factor for veterans with suicidal ideation.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: We investigated the interplay between the personality trait exploration and objective socioecological conditions in shaping individual differences in the experience of two individual-level benefits of current social change: New lifestyle options, which arise from the societal trend toward individualization; and new learning opportunities, which accrue from the societal trend toward lifelong learning. We hypothesized that people higher in trait exploration experience a greater increase in lifestyle options and learning opportunities--but more so in social ecologies in which individualization and lifelong learning are stronger, thus offering greater latitude for exploring these trends. Method: Structural equation modeling in two parallel adult samples from Germany (N = 2,448) and Poland (N = 2,571), using regional divorce rates as a proxy of individualization and Internet domain registration rates as proxy of lifelong learning. Results: Higher exploration was related to a greater perceived increase in lifestyle options and in learning opportunities over the past five years. These associations were stronger in regions in which the trends toward individualization and lifelong learning, respectively, were more prominent. Conclusion: Individuals higher in exploration are better equipped to reap the benefits of current social change--but the effects of exploration are bounded by the conditions in the social ecology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
The existence of individual differences in personality can be puzzling from an evolutionary perspective. This paper offers a general framework for addressing this puzzle by combining insights from evolutionary, situational, and personality perspectives. To arrive at this framework, we first discuss three key evolutionary models for explaining personality variation: (1) selective neutrality, (2) mutation-selection balance, and (3) balancing selection. Second, we review four models of personality: (1) the General Factor of Personality, (2) The Big Two, (3) the Big Five, and (4) the six-dimensional HEXACO model. Third, we use situational affordances and trait activation perspectives to offer an integrative model of HEXACO domain-specific situational affordances. Finally, we use these perspectives to provide 18 propositions about situation, trait, and outcome activation (STOA) mechanisms which may help explain the maintenance of individual differences in six dimensions of personality.
Article
Full-text available
Although existing literature demonstrates that youth positive developmental benefits are associated with support for urban youths, little is understood about the multiple roles of positive identity and commitment to learning influence on positive values. This study examines the multiple mediation effects of positive identity and commitment to learning on the relationship between support and positive values embraced by urban youths living in the inner city of Kuala Lumpur. The participants of the study were 243 urban youths, ages ranging between 15 and 24 years. The average age is 17.2 (SD=2.45). These youths are predominantly Malay (91%) while the others are Chinese and Indian. Using the Hayes and Preacher procedure, the bootstrap analysis shows that commitment to learning, jointly and partially mediates the effects of support on positive values, whilst positive identity does not contribute to the relation between support and positive values. The analyses provide support for the meditational assumptions that support influence positive values through school engagement. Suggestions for further research and implications for positive youth development are considered.
Article
Recent studies have revealed that curiosity—seeking new information and experiences—can improve psychological and social functioning. However, the social nature of curiosity remains poorly understood. We tested whether curious people show better psychological adaptation because (1) they have less rejection sensitivity, and (2) they are less susceptible to daily social rejection experiences. These two hypotheses were supported by a cross-sectional study (N = 500, 20–39 years old). We found that rejection sensitivity partially mediates the relationship between curiosity and psychological adaptation (life satisfaction and depression). Furthermore, curiosity moderated the relationships between perceived daily social rejection experiences and life satisfaction: Curious people are buffered against such aversive effects, relative to less curious people. Our findings suggest one possible explanation for why curious people experience better psychological functioning: They appear to be less affected by social rejection.
Chapter
In this paper we describe an approach that combines MOOCs with games to stimulate creativity in teachers’ design and production of learning scenarios. This approach is exemplified by DoCENT MOOC, the final product of the European DoCENT project, where innovative training stimulates the creative use of technology in the teaching/learning processes. DoCENT MOOC is built in strict connection with serious gaming, as they were both designed according to an innovative methodology called Situated Psychological Agents (SPA). SPA allows to design and implement educational products by representing the flows inside the educational product in terms of agents interacting with educational, psychological, and pedagogical features, implemented with AI methods. The study describes theoretical underpinnings, designing the approach of both MOOC and Game. A pilot study is reported to support the effectiveness of this approach discussing the implications of using AI tools embedded in agent-based models to support teaching/learning processes.
Article
Objective: Guided by a functional account of awe, we aimed to test the hypothesis that people who often feel awe are also more curious (Studies 1 and 2), and that this relationship in turn related to academic outcomes (Study 3). Method: In Study 1 (n = 1,005), we used a self-report approach to test the relationship between dispositional awe and curiosity. In Study 2 (n = 100), we used a peer-report approach to test if participants' dispositional awe related to how curious they were rated by their friends. In Study 3, in a sample of 447 high school adolescents we tested if dispositional awe predicted academic outcomes via curiosity. Results: We found that dispositional awe was positively related to people's self-rated curiosity (Study 1) and how curious they were rated by their friends (Study 2). In Study 3, we found that dispositional awe was related to academic outcomes via curiosity. Conclusions: We conclude that among the seven positive emotion dispositions tested, awe was related to unique variance in curiosity, and this link in turn predicted academic outcomes. This work further characterizes awe as an epistemic emotion and suggests that activities that inspire awe may improve academic outcomes.
Article
Since the origins of psychology, curiosity has occupied a pivotal position in the study of motivation, emotion, and cognition; and disciplines as far-ranging as biology, economics, robotics, and leadership. Theorists have disagreed about the basic tenets of curiosity; some researchers contend that the rewards arise when resolving ambiguity and uncertainty whereas others argue that being curious is an intrinsically pleasurable experience. Three studies were conducted to consolidate competing theories and isolated bodies of research. Using data from a community survey of 508 adults (Study 1), 403 adults on MTurk (Study 2), and a nationally representative household survey of 3,000 adults (Study 3), we found evidence for five distinct factors: Joyous Exploration, Deprivation Sensitivity, Stress Tolerance, Social Curiosity, and Thrill Seeking - forming The Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale (5DC). Each factor had substantive relations with a battery of personality, emotion, and well-being measures. Taking advantage of this multidimensional model, we found evidence for four distinct types of curious people in Study 3 referred to as The Fascinated (28% of sample), Problem Solvers (28%), Empathizers (25%), and Avoiders (19%). Subgroups differed in their passionate interests, areas of expertise, consumer behavior, and social media use; challenging an assumption that there is a homogenous population to be discriminated on a single dimension from incurious to very curious. With greater bandwidth and predictive power, the 5DC offers new opportunities for research on origins, consequences, life outcomes, and intervention strategies to enhance curiosity.
Article
Full-text available
Awe is described as an a “epistemic emotion” because it is hypothesised to make gaps in one’s knowledge salient. However, no empirical evidence for this yet exists. Awe is also hypothesised to be an antecedent to interest in science because science is one way to fill those knowledge gaps. Results from four pre-registered studies (N = 1518) indicate that manipulating awe through online (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c) and virtual reality (Study 2) videos, led to greater awareness of knowledge gaps. Awareness of knowledge gaps was consistently associated with greater science interest and to choosing tickets to a science museum over tickets to an art museum (Study 1b). These effects were not consistently observed on, nor moderated by, other measures related to cognition, religion, and spirituality. However, exploratory analyses showed that science interest was better predicted by positive emotions than by awe. Still, these results provide the first empirical evidence of awe as an “epistemic emotion” by demonstrating its effects on awareness of knowledge gaps. These findings are also extended to the effects of awe on science interest as one possible outcome of awareness of knowledge gaps.
Article
Pain-related fear and –avoidance crucially contribute to pain chronification. People with chronic pain may adopt costly avoidance strategies above and beyond what is necessary, aligning with experimental findings of excessive fear generalization to safe movements in these populations. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that, when avoidance is costly, it can dissociate from fear. Here, we investigated whether concurrently measured pain-related fear and costly avoidance generalization correspond in one task. We also explored whether healthy participants avoid excessively despite associated costs, and if avoidance would decrease as a function of dissimilarity from a pain-associated movement. In a robotic arm-reaching task, participants could avoid a low-cost, pain-associated movement trajectory (T+), by choosing a high-cost non-painful movement trajectory (T-), at opposite ends of a movement plane. Subsequently, in the absence of pain, we introduced three movement trajectories (G1-3) between T+ and T-, and one movement trajectory on the side of T- opposite to T+ (G4), linearly increasing in costs from T+ to G4. Avoidance was operationalized as maximal deviation from T+, and as trajectory choice. Fear learning was measured using self-reported pain-expectancy, pain-related fear, and startle eye-blink EMG. Self-reports generalized, both decreasing with increasing distance from T+. In contrast, all generalization trajectories were chosen equally, suggesting that avoidance-costs and previous pain balanced each other out. No effects emerged in the EMG. These results add to a growing body of literature showing that (pain-related) avoidance, especially when costly, can dissociate from fear, calling for a better understanding of the factors motivating, and mitigating, disabling avoidance.
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to examine the underlying mechanism behind the association of age and intellectual curiosity. Previous studies generally showed a negative association between age and intellectual curiosity. To shed light on this association, we hypothesize that older adults become more selective in where they invest their curiosity compared with younger adults. The present study (N = 857) first examined the association between age and intellectual curiosity and then the mediation roles of future time perspective and perceived importance of curiosity in the association. The moderation effect of culture was also included to test the generalizability of this model across European Americans, Chinese Americans, and Hong Kong Chinese. The findings suggested that there was a significant negative association between age and intellectual curiosity, even after controlling for sex, culture, and education level. The moderated serial multiple mediation model demonstrated that the indirect effect of age on curiosity through future time perspective and importance of curiosity was significant across all three cultural groups while age did not have a direct effect on intellectual curiosity. This finding suggested that, as future time becomes more limited with age, curiosity is less valued; hence, curiosity is negatively associated with the advance of age. This study illustrates the importance of future time and perceived importance of curiosity in explaining age-related differences in curiosity and sheds light on the situations in which older adults may be as intellectually curious as younger adults.
Article
Full-text available
We show the relevance of extant international business (IB) research, and more specifically work on international human resources management (IHRM), to address COVID-19 pandemic challenges. Decision-makers in multinational enterprises have undertaken various types of actions to alleviate the impacts of the pandemic. In most cases these actions relate in some way to managing distance and to rethinking boundaries, whether at the macro- or firm-levels. Managing distance and rethinking boundaries have been the primary focus of much IB research since the IB field was established as a legitimate area of academic inquiry. The pandemic has led to increased cross-border distance problems (e.g., as the result of travel bans and reduced international mobility), and often also to new intra-firm distancing challenges imposed upon previously co-located employees. Prior IHRM research has highlighted the difficulties presented by distance, in terms of employee selection, training, support, health and safety, as well as leadership and virtual collaboration. Much of this thinking is applicable to solve pandemic-related distance challenges. The present, extreme cases of requisite physical distancing need not imply equivalent increases in psychological distance, and also offer firms some insight into the unanticipated benefits of a virtual workforce – a type of workforce that, quite possibly, will influence the ‘new normal’ of the post-COVID world. Extant IHRM research does offer actionable insight for today, but outstanding knowledge gaps remain. Looking ahead, we offer three domains for future IHRM research: managing under uncertainty, facilitating international and even global work, and redefining organizational performance.
Article
In the current review, we propose to look at curiosity from the goal systemic perspective and differentiate between curiosity as a motive/goal, which engenders various activities (means) aimed at satisfying it, and information-seeking behaviors which can, but do not have to be, driven by the curiosity motivation as such. We thus assume that people can adopt various behaviors in order to satisfy their curiosity. On the other hand, they can behave in a curious and inquisitive manner in order to satisfy 'incurious' motives (e.g. to obtain a reward or attain cognitive closure). We also analyze a special case in which the mere activity of information gathering and exploration becomes the goal in itself. Then, mere performance of this activity can be rewarding.
Article
Recent years have witnessed a multi-disciplinary surge in the scientific study of curiosity that is characterized by a deep schism. Gap theories conceptualize curiosity as a pressing drive that needs to be satiated, much like hunger or thirst. On the other hand stand theories that conceptualize curiosity as a central component of long-term learning and maximization of reward. Both approaches treat curiosity as unidimensional and tend to neglect its temporal dynamics. The new model proposed here conceptualizes curiosity as a bi-dimensional psychological phenomenon, where one factor is the urge to approach information, and the other is an evaluation of how interesting it might be. These factors define a space, in which one can locate different states, people, and species. Crucial to the model is the postulation that the factors are characterized by different temporal dynamics, that create interesting challenges to rational behavior. The model allows us to cross the schism and account for the two basic approaches to curiosity under the same roof.
Article
Full-text available
There has been a world alarming and warming situation due to global outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic taking along most important the human cost, mentally, physically with economic cost too. All of a sudden organization across have been alerted themselves to adapt toward this unforeseen unprecedented event and thereby find new solutions. Organizations around the world are taking measures as it’s important to stay at home for social distancing, this leading to drastic increase in economic loss, poor job satisfaction, reduced motivation and workplace depression crisis among organization’s employees with far reaching impacts. The sudden work culture shift has created new challenges for Human Resource (HR) professionals and in this time of global critical condition, the companies and organizations need their HR professionals to help the employees out of this badly driven health and economic crisis. The HR Professionals has been actively partnering with Business to solve some of the trickiest questions the business world faces today. This article discusses some of the priorities and challenges faced by HR professionals in helping the employees to adjust and cope with their changed work environment during COVID-19 pandemic.
Article
Professional curiosity is vital in early intervention and in keeping children safe from abuse and neglect, its significance has been a recurrent theme in inquiries into child abuse and neglect in the UK over the last decade. However, there is a notable lack of research into the lived experience of practitioners in being professionally curious with parents and carers, perhaps particularly so regarding practitioners in schools, who hold significant safeguarding responsibilities, as part of a wider landscape of services responsible for keeping children safe. We present a qualitative empirical study into the lived experience of practitioners in pastoral support roles in schools across two local authorities in England. We found that professional curiosity was a highly emotive concept for participants, characterised by a myriad of emotional responses, support which appears inconsistent, expressed as a question of ‘luck’. Professional identity was found to be deeply significant in enacting curious practice, but this existed in a spectrum from determined and compassionate, to rejection of the need for curiosity and in these examples we also found othering, and less compassion for families. Overall, we call for consistent support for practitioners required to employ professional curiosity, both in terms of the emotional labour in this work, and the transition to seeing family orientated practice as part of the key function of their role.
Article
Much has been discovered about well-being since 1998, when positive psychology entered the lexicon. Among the wide range of areas in positive psychology, in this commentary we discuss recent discoveries on (1) distinctions between meaning in life, a sense of purpose, and happiness, (2) psychological or personality strengths and the benefits of particular combinations, and (3) resilience after exposure to adversity. We propose a series of questions about this literature with the hope that well-being researchers and practitioners continue to update their perspectives based on high-quality scientific findings and revise old views that rely on shaky empirical ground.
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of the study presented in this article was to examine the relationship between trait curiosity and two self-concept constructs which are gaining popularity in the creativity literature - creative self-efficacy (CSE) and creative personal identity (CPI). Although the role of curiosity in creativity seems well established, in fact there is little empirical evidence of the relationship between curiosity treated as a trait and both CSE and CPI. In a study conducted on a sample of middle and high school Polish students (N = 284; 55% female, aged 13-18, M = 14.74, SD = 1.14), curiosity was measured by the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI-II; Kashdan, Gallagher, Silvia, Winterstein, Breen, Terhar, & Steger, 2009) and CSE and CPI by the Short Scale of Creative Self (SSCS; Karwowski, Lebuda, & Wiśniewska, in press). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the existence of substantial correlations between measured constructs. Latent factor of CSE correlated strongly with a tendency to seek out new experiences (stretching, r =.72) and an acceptance of unpredictability (embracing, r =.67), while CPI correlated substantially with stretching (r =.62) and slightly less with embracing (r =.48) - all correlations were highly reliable (p <.001). Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis showed the existence of a strong relationship between the higher-order factor of curiosity (composed of stretching and embracing) and creative self (composed of CSE and CPI): r =.75, which may indicate common basis of creativity and curiosity. The consequences of curiosity for the development of CSE and CPI are discussed.
Chapter
Full-text available
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the openness which cannot be understood as the culture that is acquired through education or good breeding, not as intellect or any other cognitive ability. Openness must be viewed in both structural and motivational terms. Openness is seen in the breadth, depth, and permeability of consciousness and in the recurrent need to enlarge and examine experience. Openness also suggests a passive or uncritical receptivity, which is clearly inappropriate. Open people actively seek out experience and are apt to be particularly reflective and thoughtful about the ideas they encounter. A structural account of openness may be necessary, but it does not seem to be sufficient. Open people are not the passive recipients of a barrage of experiences they are unable to screen out; they actively seek out new and varied experiences. Openness involves motivation, needs for variety cognition sentience, and understanding. The heritability of openness might be explained by the heritability of intelligence. Psychologists have spent more time and effort studying intelligence, than any other trait by adopting the term “Intellect.” Personality psychologists could claim this vast literature as their own. Openness could be construed as intelligence itself or as the reflection of intelligence in the personality sphere.
Article
Full-text available
Film and television are major parts of everyday aesthetic experience, but not much is known about viewers' aesthetic experience of motion picture media. We explored how interest and confusion in response to film were predicted by people's cognitive appraisals and level of expertise. People who varied in expertise viewed 10 film clips taken from submissions to a local film festival. For each film, people gave ratings of interest, confusion, and their relevant appraisals. Expertise was measured with a preliminary Aesthetic Fluency in Film scale. Multilevel models showed that appraising a film clip as complex and comprehensible predicted interest, a finding that replicates past interest research. Additionally, appraising a film clip as complex and incomprehensible predicted confusion. Experts in film found the films more interesting and less confusing overall, and their interest was more strongly predicted by complexity.
Book
Full-text available
You can spend years in graduate school, internship, and clinical practice. You can learn to skillfully conceptualize cases and structure interventions for your clients. You can have every skill and advantage as a therapist, but if you want to make the most of every session, both you and your client need to show up in the therapy room. Really show up. And this kind of mindful presence can be a lot harder than it sounds. Mindfulness for Two is a practical and theoretical guide to the role mindfulness plays in psychotherapy, specifically acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). In the book, author Kelly Wilson carefully defines mindfulness from an ACT perspective and explores its relationship to the six ACT processes an d to the therapeutic relationship itself. With unprecedented clarity, he explains the principles that anchor the ACT model to basic behavioral science. The latter half of the book is a practical guide to observing and fostering mindfulness in your clients and in yourself--good advice you can put to use in your practice right away. Wilson, coauthor of the seminal Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, guides you through this sometimes-challenging material with the clarity, humor, and warmth for which he is known around the world. More than any other resource available, Mindfulness for Two gets at the heart of Wilsons unique brand of experiential ACT training. The book includes a DVD-ROM with more than six hours of sample therapy sessions with a variety of therapists on QuickTime video, DRM-free audio tracks of Wilson leading guided mindfulness exercises, and more. Kelly Wilson does a masterful job of framing the many different ways in which a therapist grounded in mindfulness might skillfully nurture greater awareness and self-knowing in his or her clients. His approach is a very creative use of mindfulness within the dyadic relationship, both verbal and non-verbal. Of course, it is impossible to engage authentically without continually listening deeply to and learning from the myriad dyadic relationships we have within ourselves, as he so aptly and honestly recounts. This book makes a seminal contribution to the growing literature on ACT and its interface with mindfulness theory and practice. --Jon Kabat-Zinn, author of Full Catastrophe Living and Letting Everything Become Your Teacher and coauthor of The Mindful Way Through Depression This is a book of enormous breadth and depth, a book full of wisdom from an internationally acclaimed clinician and researcher. Wilson builds bridges between therapy traditions in a wonderful way. For those who already teach mindfulness as part of their therapy, this is a must-read. For those who have yet to do so, this book is the best invitation possible.
Article
Full-text available
Recent meta-analyses investigating the relationship between personality and job performance have found that openness to experience is the least predictive of the Big Five factors. Unlike other research that has sought to explain the low criterion-validity with relation to job performance, this study explores the actual construct of openness to experience, suggesting that it consists of two dimensions that relate differentially to job performance thus reducing correlations between overall measures of openness to experience and performance criteria. Exploratory factor analysis of the six sub-dimensions, or facets, of the NEO PI-R (a popular measure of the Big Five factors) produced two factors of openness to experience corresponding to different areas to which people are open. A confirmatory factor analysis on a second set of data provided some support for this result. A pattern of differential relationships between the two factors and other variables including personality, biodata and supervisor-rated performance offered further support for the multidimensionality of openness to experience. The implications of these findings for future research in the selection context are discussed.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores the adaptive significance of humor.
Article
Full-text available
Interest is a positive emotion associated with increased approach motivation, effort, attention, and persistence. Although experiencing interest promotes behaviors that demand cognitive resources, interest is as a coping resource in frustrating learning situations and is central to self-regulation and sustained motivation. Positive affect, in general, tends to replenish resources, but based on the functions of interest and what interest promotes we suggest that interest, in particular, promotes greater resource replenishment. Across three experiments, experiencing interest during activity engagement (Studies 1 and 2), even when interest is activated via priming (Study 3), caused greater effort and persistence in subsequent tasks than did positive affect. This effect occurred only when participants' psychological resources were previously depleted (Study 1). Paradoxically, engaging an interesting task replenished resources (vs. positive and neutral tasks) even though the interesting task was more complex and required more effort.
Article
Full-text available
Do personality traits predict the goals a person chooses to pursue in life? The present study examined the relation between personality traits and major life goals, which are broad, far-reaching agendas for important life domains (N = 672). The authors used both theoretical and empirical procedures to organize a set of life goals into thematic content clusters (economic, aesthetic, social, relationship, political, hedonistic, religious); the resulting goal clusters constitute a preliminary taxonomy of motive units based on the fundamental value domains identified in the literature. The authors examined gender differences on each goal cluster and related the goal clusters to individual differences in the Big Five and narcissism. High extraversion and low agreeableness (e.g., narcissism) was the most common profile associated with major life goals, and neuroticism was essentially unrelated to the importance of major life goals. Findings confirmed expectations derived from previous research and from Socioanalytic and narcissism theories.
Article
Full-text available
How does personality influence the relationship between appraisals and emotions? Recent research suggests individual differences in appraisal structures: people may differ in an emotion's appraisal pattern. We explored individual differences in interest's appraisal structure, assessed as the within-person covariance of appraisals with interest. People viewed images of abstract visual art and provided ratings of interest and of interest's appraisals (novelty–complexity and coping potential) for each picture. A multilevel mixture model found two between-person classes that reflected distinct within-person appraisal styles. For people in the larger class (68%), the novelty–complexity appraisal had a stronger effect on interest; for people in the smaller class (32%), the coping potential appraisal had a stronger effect. People in the larger class were significantly higher in appetitive traits related to novelty seeking (e.g., sensation seeking, openness to experience, and trait curiosity), suggesting that the appraisal classes have substantive meaning. We conclude by discussing the value of within-person mixture models for the study of personality and appraisal.
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a new theoretical model of curiosity that incorporates the neuroscience of “wanting” and “liking”, which are two systems hypothesised to underlie motivation and affective experience for a broad class of appetites. In developing the new model, the paper discusses empirical and theoretical limitations inherent to drive and optimal arousal theories of curiosity, and evaluates these models in relation to Litman and Jimerson's (2004) recently developed interest-deprivation (I/D) theory of curiosity. A detailed discussion of the I/D model and its relationship to the neuroscience of wanting and liking is provided, and an integrative I/D/wanting-liking model is proposed, with the aim of clarifying the complex nature of curiosity as an emotional-motivational state, and to shed light on the different ways in which acquiring knowledge can be pleasurable.
Article
Full-text available
Individual differences related to emotions are typically represented as emotion traits. Although important, these descriptive models often do not address the psychological dynamics that underlie the trait. Appraisal theories of emotion assume that individual differences in emotions can be traced to differences in patterns of appraisal, but this hypothesis has largely gone untested. The present research explored whether individual differences in the emotion of interest, known as trait curiosity, consist of patterns of appraisal. After completing several measures of trait curiosity, participants read complex poems (Experiment 1) or viewed simple and complex pictures (Experiment 2) and then gave ratings of interest and interest's appraisal components. The effect of trait curiosity on interest was fully mediated by appraisals. Multilevel analyses suggested that curious people differ in the amount of appraisal rather than in the kinds of appraisals relevant to interest. Appraisal theories can offer a process-oriented explanation of emotion traits that bridges state and trait emotional experience.
Chapter
Full-text available
The Concept of CuriosityA Framework for Factors that Support CuriosityElaborating the Framework for Curiosity Supportive FactorsCuriosity InterventionsConclusion
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
This article develops a perspective on interest and interests as aspects of motivation, emotion, and personality. Interest is viewed as a capricious emotion with few, if any, immediate adaptational functions; it serves long-term adaptational goals by cultivating knowledge and diversifying skills and experience. Interests are viewed as idiosyncratic intrinsic motives that promote expertise. Theories of how interests arise are reviewed and organized. A model of how the emotion of interest participates in the development of enduring interests is proposed. The author concludes that apparently frivolous aspects of motivation and personality such as "idle curiosity" and avocations seem to play complex roles in human experience and development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The dimensionality of personality ratings on the California Adult Q-set (CAQ) is examined in a sample of 940 Ss. Solutions of between 5 and 15 factors are examined; interrater agreement is assessed for items, factors, and items partialing factors. Results suggest that the 5 personality factors are important yet not exhaustive in accounting for common factor variance in the CAQ. Furthermore, interjudge agreement extends beyond the 5 dimensions. Likely explanations for these results are considered, and implications are addressed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Typically, models of self-regulation include motivation in terms of goals. Motivation is proposed to fluctuate according to how much individuals value goals and expect to attain them. Missing from these models is the motivation that arises from the process of goal-pursuit. We suggest that an important aspect of self-regulation is monitoring and regulating our motivation, not just our progress toward goals. Although we can regulate motivation by enhancing the value or expectancy of attaining the outcome, we suggest that regulating the interest experience can be just as, if not more, powerful. We first present our model, which integrates self-regulation of interest within the goal-striving process. We then briefly review existing evidence, distinguishing between two broad classes of potential interest-enhancing strategies: intrapersonal and interpersonal. For each class of strategies we note what is known about developmental and individual differences in whether and how these kinds of strategies are used. We also discuss implications, including the potential trade-offs between regulating interest and performance, and how recognizing the role of the interest experience may shed new light on earlier research in domains such as close relationships, psychiatric disorders, and females' choice to drop out of math and science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Research on curiosity has undergone 2 waves of intense activity. The 1st, in the 1960s, focused mainly on curiosity's psychological underpinnings. The 2nd, in the 1970s and 1980s, was characterized by attempts to measure curiosity and assess its dimensionality. This article reviews these contributions with a concentration on the 1st wave. It is argued that theoretical accounts of curiosity proposed during the 1st period fell short in 2 areas: They did not offer an adequate explanation for why people voluntarily seek out curiosity, and they failed to delineate situational determinants of curiosity. Furthermore, these accounts did not draw attention to, and thus did not explain, certain salient characteristics of curiosity: its intensity, transience, association with impulsivity, and tendency to disappoint when satisfied. A new account of curiosity is offered that attempts to address these shortcomings. The new account interprets curiosity as a form of cognitively induced deprivation that arises from the perception of a gap in knowledge or understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Brains elaborate several distinct forms of primary-process affective experiences. Some arise from the way we perceive the world with our externally directed senses (sensory affects). Others arise from the way our brains interoceptively monitor what is happening inside our bodies (homeostatic affects). Yet others reflect intrinsic activities of our brain (emotional affects). They all presumably contribute to our lingering moods. Thus, our affective feelings come in many forms, and the failure to distinguish them causes much confusion in emotion research and affective science. This chapter focuses on those most mysterious feelings that originate within the brain itself-the emotional affects that are not tightly restricted to specific exteroceptive and interoceptive body state channels like the sensory and homeostatic varieties.
Chapter
Publisher Summary The dominant paradigm in current personality psychology is a reinvigorated version of one of the oldest approaches, trait psychology. Personality traits are “dimensions of individual differences in tendencies to show consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions.” In this context, trait structure refers to the pattern of co-variation among individual traits, usually expressed as dimensions of personality identified in factor analyses. For decades, the field of personality psychology was characterized by competing systems of trait structure; more recently a consensus has developed that most traits can be understood in terms of the dimensions of the Five-Factor Model. The consensus on personality trait structure is not paralleled by consensus on the structure of affects. The chapter discusses a three-dimensional model, defined by pleasure, arousal, and dominance factors in which it is possible to classify such state-descriptive terms as mighty, fascinated, unperturbed, docile, insolent, aghast, uncaring, and bored. More common are two-dimensional systems with axes of pleasure and arousal or positive and negative affect. These two schemes are interpreted as rotational variants—positive affect is midway between pleasure and arousal, whereas negative affect lies between arousal and low pleasure.
Article
A theoretical framework is outlined in which the key construct is the need for(nonspecific) cognitive closure. The need for closure is a desire for definite knowledge on some issue. It represents a dimension of stable individual differences as well as a situationally evocable state. The need for closure has widely ramifying consequences for social-cognitive phenomena at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and group levels of analysis. Those consequences derive from 2 general tendencies, those of urgency and permanence. The urgency tendency represents an individual's inclination to attain closure as soon as possible, and the permanence tendency represents an individual's inclination to maintain it for as long as possible. Empirical evidence for present theory attests to diverse need for closure effects on fundamental social psychological phenomena, including impression formation, stereotyping, attribution, persuasion, group decision making, and language use in intergroup contexts.
Book
Human emotions
Book
Psychologists have always been intrigued in interest, and modern research on interest can be found in nearly every area of the field: researchers studying emotions, cognition, development, education, aesthetics, personality, motivation, and vocations have developed intriguing ideas about what interest is and how it works. This book presents an integrated picture of how interest has been studied in all of the wide-ranging areas of psychology. Using modern theories of cognition and emotion as an integrative framework, it examines the nature of interest, what makes things interesting, the role of interest in personality, and the development of people's idiosyncratic interests, hobbies, and avocations. The examination reveals deep similarities between seemingly different fields of psychology and illustrates the profound importance of interest, curiosity, and intrinsic motivation for understanding why people do what they do. A comprehensive work devoted to interest, this book reviews the history of psychological thought on interest, presents classic and modern research, and suggests fruitful directions for future work.
Article
We examined the roles of curiosity, social anxiety, and positive affect (PA) and neg- ative affect (NA) in the development of interpersonal closeness. A reciprocal self-disclosure task was used wherein participants and trained confederates asked and answered questions escalating in personal and emotional depth (mimicking closeness-development). Relationships between curiosity and relationship out- comes were examined using regression analyses. Controlling for trait measures of social anxiety, PA, and NA, trait curiosity predicted greater partner ratings of attrac- tion and closeness. Social anxiety moderated the relationship between trait curios- ity and self-ratings of attraction such that curiosity was associated with greater attraction among those low in social anxiety compared to those high in social anxi- ety. In contrast, trait PA was related to greater self-ratings of attraction but had no relationship with partners' ratings. Trait curiosity predicted positive relationship outcomes as a function of state curiosity generated during the interaction, even after controlling for state PA.
Article
Recent research, treating interest as an emotion, indicates the cognitive appraisals of novelty-complexity and coping potential predict interest. This appraisal-based model of interest has not yet been applied to educational research. The present study evaluated the significance of the model regarding the activity of reading expository, academic-oriented text, and assessed whether a third previously untested appraisal of goal relevance could predict interest as well. Sixty-five undergraduate psychology students, 41 females and 24 males, completed several instruments—assessments of interest and three appraisals across time, experimental texts, and a measure trait curiosity as a control variable. Goal relevance, was shown to predict interest across the sample to a statistically significant degree (Unstandardized β=.567; t=6.258; p
Article
• In the last half-generation or so there has been increased emphasis on an understanding of personality functioning. It is asked what, if anything, is known or agreed to in this field. Is there a typical mother of schizophrenics, for example? In all the talk about the "creative personality" or the "authoritarian personality" just what is meant by these terms? What really is "hysteria"? Doctor Jack Block's monograph introduces the California Q-set—a method for describing comprehensively in contemporary psychodynamic terms an individual's personality. This method for encoding personality evaluation will prove highly useful in research applications by psychiatrists, psychologists, and sociologists, for it permits quantitative comparisons and calibrations of their evaluations of patients. He compares the Q-sort procedure with conventional rating methods and adjective check lists. He considers in detail the various forms of application of Q-sort procedure and appropriate statistical procedures to employ for these applications. Included in the Appendices are conversion tables for calculation of Q-sort correlations, California Q-set descriptions of various clinical concepts to be employed for calibration purposes, and an adjective Q-set for use by non-professional sorters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) • In the last half-generation or so there has been increased emphasis on an understanding of personality functioning. It is asked what, if anything, is known or agreed to in this field. Is there a typical mother of schizophrenics, for example? In all the talk about the "creative personality" or the "authoritarian personality" just what is meant by these terms? What really is "hysteria"? Doctor Jack Block's monograph introduces the California Q-set—a method for describing comprehensively in contemporary psychodynamic terms an individual's personality. This method for encoding personality evaluation will prove highly useful in research applications by psychiatrists, psychologists, and sociologists, for it permits quantitative comparisons and calibrations of their evaluations of patients. He compares the Q-sort procedure with conventional rating methods and adjective check lists. He considers in detail the various forms of application of Q-sort procedure and appropriate statistical procedures to employ for these applications. Included in the Appendices are conversion tables for calculation of Q-sort correlations, California Q-set descriptions of various clinical concepts to be employed for calibration purposes, and an adjective Q-set for use by non-professional sorters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Psychology calls itself the science of behavior, and the American Psychological Association's current "Decade of Behavior" was intended to increase awareness and appreciation of this aspect of the science. Yet some psychological subdisciplines have never directly studied behavior, and studies on behavior are dwindling rapidly in other subdisciplines. We discuss the eclipse of behavior in personality and social psychology, in which direct observation of behavior has been increasingly supplanted by introspective self-reports, hypothetical scenarios, and questionnaire ratings. We advocate a renewed commitment to including direct observation of behavior whenever possible and in at least a healthy minority of research projects. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.
Article
The aims of this symposium were "to consider problems relevant to education, to allow researchers already in this area to communicate directly about common problems and to suggest new ideas and directions for research in the field of psychology in education." The proceedings were published because, in addition to the fact that there is no text or overview of the different theoretical positions on intrinsic motivation, there has been no attempt to relate the various theoretical positions to educationally relevant problems. Among the 15 contributions are: 1) Toward a History of Intrinsic Motivation; 2) The Psychological Significance of Success in Competitive Achievement Situations: A Threat as Well as a Promise; 3) Motivation Inherent in the Pursuit of Meaning: Or the Desire to Inquire; 4) Differences in the Personalities of Children Differing in Curiosity; and, 5) Intrinsic Motivation: Unlearned, Learned, and Modifiable. A few of the contributors to the book have extended their research on intrinsic motivation into an examination of maturity, mental health, creativity, vocational choice, and other factors in growth and development. Bibliographic references accompany each essay. (Author/JLB)
Article
When large numbers of statistical tests are computed, such as in broad investigations of personality and behavior, the number of significant findings required before the total can be confidently considered beyond chance is typically unknown. Employing modern software, specially written code, and new procedures, the present article uses three sets of personality data to demonstrate how approximate randomization tests can evaluate (a) the number of significant correlations between a single variable and a large number of other variables, (b) the number of significant correlations between two large sets of variables, and (c) the average size of a large number of effects. Randomization tests can free researchers to fully explore large data sets and potentially have even wider applicability.
Article
The developing consensus that much of the psychologically interesting variance in behavior will be found in the interaction between the person and the situation suggests the need for a common language of description for both persons and situations. Accordingly, it is proposed that a situation be characterized by a set of template–behavior pairs, which is a set of personality descriptions (Q sorts) of hypothetical "ideal" persons, each one associated with a particular behavior. The Q-sort description of a particular individual is then matched against each template, and he or she is predicted to display the behavior associated with the most similar template. The heuristic and predictive utility of this template matching technique is demonstrated in 3 classical experimental settings: (a) the delay-of-gratification situation, (b) the mixed-motive game, and (c) the forced-compliance experiment. This technique can also be used to assess the ecological validity of laboratory experiments and to test competing theories of psychological phenomena. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Offers a phenomenological overview of the elements, evolution, and development of conscience. The related psychoanalytic ideas of the superego and ego ideal are discussed along with the origins of conscience in narcissism, aggression, mastery, parental standards, and mutual love. Ego development is outlined through presocial, impulsive, self-protective, conformist, and conscientious stages, and these are related to the growth of conscience. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The 5th factor in the Big Five Model of personality traits is best described as Intellect when it is based on trait adjectives, but as Openness to Experience (OE) when it is derived from psychological constructs. Intellect as a construct is problematic because it erroneously suggests an equivalence of Factor V with intelligence, describes aspects of Factor III (Conscientiousness) as well as of Factor V, and fails to suggest the diverse psychological correlates that Factor V is known to have. By contrast, OE is a broader construct that implies both receptivity to many varieties of experience and a fluid and permeable structure of consciousness. Data from analyses of adjectives, established personality questionnaires, and E. Hartmann's (1991) Boundary Questionnaire support these interpretations. OE can be transported across geographical and cultural boundaries to function as a universal dimension of personality structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
AN ATTEMPT TO ARRIVE AT A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF REINFORCEMENT BY STUDYING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AROUSAL AND REINFORCEMENT. EFFECTS OF AROUSAL LEVEL AND THE INTERACTION OF AROUSAL LEVEL AND AROUSAL POTENTIAL ARE DISCUSSED USING FINDINGS FROM HUMAN AND ANIMAL, VERBAL LEARNING, AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES. PSYCHOPHYSICAL, ECOLOGICAL, AND COLLATIVE STIMULUS PROPERTIES ARE FOUND TO "AFFECT REWARD VALUE AND, MORE GENERALLY, REINFORCEMENT VALUE IN SIMILAR WAYS." AROUSAL REDUCTION IS REJECTED AS NECESSARY FOR PRODUCING REINFORCEMENT. (322 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The topics that are to be treated in this book were unduly neglected by psychology for many years but are now beginning to come to the fore. My own researches into attention and exploratory behavior began in 1947, and at about the same time several other psychologists became independently impressed with the importance of these matters and started to study them experimentally. It is interesting that those were also the years when information theory was making its appearance and when the reticular formation of the brain stem was first attracting the notice of neurophysiologists. During the last ten years, the tempo of research into exploratory behavior and related phenomena has been steadily quickening. The book is prompted by the feeling that it is now time to pause and take stock: to review relevant data contributed by several different specialties, to consider what conclusions, whether firm or tentative, are justified at the present juncture, and to clarify what remains to be done. The primary aim of the book is, in fact, to raise problems. The book is intended as a contribution to behavior theory, i.e., to psychology conceived as a branch of science with the circumscribed objective of explaining and predicting behavior. But interest in attention and exploratory behavior and in other topics indissociably bound up with them, such as art, humor and thinking, has by no means been confined to professional psychologists. The book has two features that would have surprised me when I first set out to plan it. One is that it ends up sketching a highly modified form of drive-reduction theory. Drive-reduction theory has appeared more and more to be full of shortcomings, even for the phenomena that it was originally designed to handle. The second surprising feature is the prominence of neurophysiology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
a b s t r a c t Epistemic curiosity, the ''desire for knowledge that motivates individuals to learn new ideas, eliminate information-gaps, and solve intellectual problems" (Litman, 2008), has been identified as a crucial vari-able in different areas and stages of life. However, several constructs have been proposed that might be highly similar regarding construct domain, but are based on different theoretical positions and were investigated under different labels. Three of these constructs, namely need for cognition, typical intellec-tual engagement, and openness for ideas, were investigated regarding discriminant validity. Based on two studies with 395 and 191 participants, no evidence of discriminant validity could be found. Especially, correlations within several measures of curiosity, interpreted as convergent validity, had mean correla-tions of .60 and .59 for the two studies, respectively. Correlations between curiosity measures and the related constructs need for cognition, typical intellectual engagement, and openness for ideas, inter-preted as discriminant validity, were virtually identical (.59 and .57, respectively). Furthermore, explor-atory factor analysis indicated that one factor explained the variance of the investigated constructs reasonably well. It is concluded that integrating the body of research that has been built around these constructs might stimulate future research on epistemic curiosity.
Article
Using a terror management theory paradigm, the present research assessed whether people characterized by both an attitude of curiosity, as well as mindful attention, would exhibit non-defensive reactions to targets that threaten their worldview. Participants (N = 118) were randomly assigned to an existential threat (mortality salience) condition or a control condition then asked to read an essay describing humans as just another animal or an essay describing the uniqueness of humans. Participants higher in both curiosity and mindful attention responded non-defensively, rating the humans as animals essay writer as likeable and intelligent, with a valid opinion. Participants who were high in mindfulness but low in curiosity responded defensively, with negative judgments of the essay writer. Mindlessness (endorsing low curiosity and mindful attention) also mitigated defensive responding. Although mindful and mindless people both showed non-defensive reactions, we theorize about distinct causal paths. Results suggest that curiosity plays a