Article

The Two Pathways to Being an (Un-)Popular Narcissist

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Abstract

Narcissism affects social relationships from the very first interactions. The overall positivity of social impressions narcissists evoke is, however, unclear—with previous research reporting positive, negative, or null effects on popularity at short-term acquaintance. Here we postulate a dual-pathway model, which explains the effects of narcissism on (un-)popularity as the result of two opposing behavioral pathways: assertiveness and aggressiveness. In two studies, unacquainted German college students (N = 100; N = 68) met in groups of four to six persons and engaged in group discussions. Afterward, they provided ratings of each other's assertiveness, aggressiveness, and likeability. In Study 2, we additionally videotaped the sessions and assessed participants’ actual behavior. Results of both studies confirm our dual-pathway hypothesis: There was a “positive” and a “negative” path from targets’ narcissism to being liked or not—dependent upon being seen as assertive or aggressive. Behavioral observations showed that expressive and dominant behaviors mediated the positive path, whereas arrogant and combative behaviors mediated the negative path. Initial (un-)popularity of narcissists at early stages of interpersonal interactions depends on the behavioral pathway that is triggered in the given situational context.

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... Until recently, grandiose narcissism had been conceptualized and treated as a unidimensional construct. Thus, previous research on the link between narcissism and popularity (Carlson, Naumann, & Vazire, 2011;Heatherton & Vohs, 2000;Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013;Paulhus, 1998;Rauthmann, 2012) has mainly focused on narcissism total scores from the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1979). Empirical evidence and conceptual advances in recent years, however, have converged on the importance of systematically distinguishing agentic, antagonistic, and neurotic aspects of narcissism (Back, 2018;Back & Morf, in press;Back et al., 2013;Brown, Budzek, & Tamborski, 2009;Krizan & Herlache, 2018;Miller et al., 2015;Miller, Lynam, Hyatt, & Campbell, 2017;Paulhus, 2001). ...
... In line with this, the NARC proposes two process pathways that link agentic and antagonistic aspects of narcissism to (un)popularity. Each pathway is defined by specific behavioral expressions, interpersonal perceptions, and evaluation processes Back, Küfner, & Leckelt, 2018;Küfner et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015). ...
... Each pathway is defined by specific behavioral expression, interpersonal perception, and evaluation processes Back et al., 2018;Küfner et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015). Figure 1 gives an overview of this conceptual model. ...
Article
Grandiose narcissism has been linked to initial popularity but to later unpopularity in peer groups and laboratory contexts. Do these effects on peer relationships also emerge in larger real-life contexts and what are the underlying behavioral processes (i.e., behavioral expressions, interpersonal perceptions)? Using data from the longitudinal CONNECT field study ( N = 126), we investigated effects of agentic and antagonistic aspects of grandiose narcissism on emerging popularity in a complete peer network. A cohort of psychology first-year students was assessed with a quasiexperimental, experience-sampling methodology involving online surveys, diaries, and behavioral observations. In contrast to previous laboratory research, narcissism was unrelated to popularity at the level of zero-order correlations. However, results indicated that (a) an agentic behavioral pathway fostered popularity across time, and an antagonistic behavioral pathway drove the long-term decline in popularity, and (b) the two pathways were differentially related to agentic (admiration) and antagonistic (rivalry) aspects of narcissism.
... How successful, then, are narcissists at gaining popularity? The "dual-pathway model" (Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013;Leckelt, Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2015) explains how narcissism may influence popularity in the early stages of relationship formation. This model posits that narcissism can influence the degree to which individuals become popular or unpopular, depending on whether their interpersonal style predominantly manifests in narcissistic assertive behaviors (e.g., dominance, agentic tendencies) or narcissistic adversarial behaviors (e.g., self-centeredness, lack of genuine concern for others, competitiveness, envy). ...
... This model posits that narcissism can influence the degree to which individuals become popular or unpopular, depending on whether their interpersonal style predominantly manifests in narcissistic assertive behaviors (e.g., dominance, agentic tendencies) or narcissistic adversarial behaviors (e.g., self-centeredness, lack of genuine concern for others, competitiveness, envy). Küfner et al. (2013) illustrated the model in research involving college students. In the context of a brief (<15 min) group discussion with unacquainted peers, narcissism was positively related to peer judgments of both "assertiveness" and "aggressiveness." ...
... We found no indications that the popularity of those narcissists whose popularity increased across the school transition waned over time when peers got to know them better. Previous evidence that narcissists can make both positive and negative impressions on their peers was obtained in get-acquainted tasks involving college students who first introduced themselves and then engaged in group discussions (Carlson & Lawless DesJardins, 2015;Küfner et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015). Our results extend this evidence in that they are based on a sample of young adolescents who were followed over an extended period of time, in a naturalistic setting, and following a major life transition. ...
Article
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The dual-pathway model posits that narcissism can both benefit and compromise popularity, depending upon whether narcissists’ assertive or adversarial interpersonal tendencies surface in social interaction. A 5-wave longitudinal study followed Dutch adolescents (N = 322, 53% female, Mage = 12.2) who transitioned from primary into secondary school and examined how narcissism, along with self-esteem (measured at the end of primary school), contributes to cross-transition change in peer-rated popularity. Narcissism predicted rank-order increases in popularity among children with modest self-esteem but decreases in popularity among children with high self-esteem. These effects emerged shortly after the transition and were maintained throughout the school year. The results illustrate how self-esteem can act as a marker for the different faces of youth narcissism.
... Positive associations between narcissism and being liked were also found in other selfpresentational and dyadic small-talk contexts Miller et al., 2011; see Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013, for an overview). ...
... There are, however, also a couple of studies that revealed no or even negative effects of narcissism on initial evaluations, such as in ambiguous decision-making tasks (Rauthmann, 2012), get-to-know-you conversations in small groups (Carlson, Naumann, et al., 2011), and intimacy-creating dyadic conversations after ego-threat (Heatherton & Vohs, 2000) (see Küfner et al., 2013, for an overview). Thus, initial impressions of narcissists not only contain 6 positive aspects pointing to a certain charm and self-assuredness but also negative aspects such as arrogance and lack of trust. ...
... In order to resolve these seemingly opposite effects, we propose a dual-pathway account that describes two behavioral process pathways mediating the effects of narcissism on resulting impressions. This model has proven useful in sorting existing findings and to derive novel predictions regarding the factors that moderate the narcissism-impression links (see Küfner et al., 2013, andLeckelt et al., 2015, for details). ...
Chapter
Getting-to-know situations are complex social contexts both for narcissists (who love to present themselves but are not inherently interested in others) and their social partners (who are fascinated but also turned off by narcissists). In this chapter, we give an empirical and conceptual overview on the early impressions grandiose narcissists make. We first summarize the existing empirical findings on the association between narcissism and personality impressions as well as liking at zero- and short-term acquaintance. This research indicates that narcissists tend to impress others despite the fact that others are able to accurately detect their narcissistic characteristics. We then present a dual-pathway framework that organizes these findings and specifies the moderating conditions of more or less positive first impressions of narcissists. The agentic pathway includes the tendency to behave dominant and expressive, which leads to being seen as assertive, which is evaluated positively and, thus, fosters popularity. The antagonistic pathway includes arrogant and combative behavior, which leads to being seen as aggressive, which is evaluated negatively and, thus, fosters unpopularity. Depending on which of the two pathways is triggered more in a given situation, at a given acquaintance level, and by a given facet of narcissism, a more or less positive/ negative association between narcissism and popularity can result. Initial empirical investigations of unfolding laboratory group interactions underline the validity and utility of the dual-pathway perspective. We close with a number of suggestions for future research that applies the dual-pathway perspective across samples, contexts, and designs. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.
... It is used in a number of psychological and nonpsychological disciplines, including personality and social psychology, educational psychology, clinical psychology, political science, and anthropology, to disentangle the components that underlie interpersonal phenomena. For example, social and personality psychologists use the SRM to better understand liking between unacquainted individuals (e.g., Küfner et al., 2012;Leckelt et al., 2015;Salazar-Kämpf et al., 2018). Clinical psychologists have used the model to investigate interpersonal processes in group psychotherapy (e.g., Christensen & Feeney, 2016), and educational psychologists have examined students' performance in learning groups to determine which students profit the most from such groups (e.g., Horn et al., 1998). ...
... How would an applied SRM researcher currently examine such longitudinal round-robin data? Three approaches have been used or suggested (see also Nestler et al., 2017, for a similar discussion): using multiple cross-sectional SRMs (e.g., Gill & Swartz, 2007;Hoff, 2005), a two-step approach in which time-point-specific SRM effects are estimated and then used in standard longitudinal models (e.g., Küfner et al., 2012;Leckelt et al., 2015), and the social relations growth model (Nestler et al., 2017). Below, we discuss the limitations of these three approaches. ...
... This approach uses cross-sectional SRMs to estimate individual-level or dyad-level SRM effects for each time point. Thereafter, the time-point-specific effects are used in standard longitudinal models such as a growth model or an autoregressive model to examine the respective research question (see Küfner et al., 2012;Leckelt et al., 2015;Nestler et al., 2015;van Zalk & Denissen, 2015, for an application). In our example, a researcher may have estimated the target effects at each of the three time points and entered these effects into an autoregressive panel model in the second step of the analyses. ...
Article
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The social relations model (SRM) is very often used in psychology to examine the components, determinants, and consequences of interpersonal judgments and behaviors that arise in social groups. The standard SRM was developed to analyze cross-sectional data. Based on a recently suggested integration of the SRM with structural equation models (SEM) framework, we show here how longitudinal SRM data can be analyzed using the SR-SEM. Two examples are presented to illustrate the model, and we also present the results of a small simulation study comparing the SR-SEM approach to a two-step approach. Altogether, the SR-SEM has a number of advantages compared to earlier suggestions for analyzing longitudinal SRM data, making it extremely useful for applied research.
... Grandiose narcissism 2 is a multifaceted construct consisting of several interrelated aspects. Although conceptual and taxonomic questions (as to the exact number, nature, and labeling of these dimensions) are a matter of an ongoing debate (e.g., Back et al., 2013;Barry & Kauten, 2014;Brown, Budzek, & Tamborski, 2009;Miller & Campbell, 2008), researchers have recognized that not all aspects of narcissism are associated with negative emotional or behavioral outcomes (e.g., Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2010;Back et al., 2013;Barry, Frick, Adler, & Grafeman, 2007;Barry & Wallace, 2010;Campbell, 2001;Campbell & Campbell, 2009;Rose, 2002;Washburn, McMahon, King, Reinecke, & Silver, 2004;Wink, 1991). These findings have also inspired researchers to acknowledge that the heterogeneity of the narcissism construct has to be taken into consideration when examining its associated correlates (e.g., Back et al., 2013;Brown et al., 2009;Krizan & Herlache, 2018;Miller, Lynam, Hyatt, & Campbell, 2017;Wright & Edershile, 2018), especially in the domain of SECA (Vonk et al., 2013). ...
... Grandiose narcissism 2 is a multifaceted construct consisting of several interrelated aspects. Although conceptual and taxonomic questions (as to the exact number, nature, and labeling of these dimensions) are a matter of an ongoing debate (e.g., Back et al., 2013;Barry & Kauten, 2014;Brown, Budzek, & Tamborski, 2009;Miller & Campbell, 2008), researchers have recognized that not all aspects of narcissism are associated with negative emotional or behavioral outcomes (e.g., Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2010;Back et al., 2013;Barry, Frick, Adler, & Grafeman, 2007;Barry & Wallace, 2010;Campbell, 2001;Campbell & Campbell, 2009;Rose, 2002;Washburn, McMahon, King, Reinecke, & Silver, 2004;Wink, 1991). These findings have also inspired researchers to acknowledge that the heterogeneity of the narcissism construct has to be taken into consideration when examining its associated correlates (e.g., Back et al., 2013;Brown et al., 2009;Krizan & Herlache, 2018;Miller, Lynam, Hyatt, & Campbell, 2017;Wright & Edershile, 2018), especially in the domain of SECA (Vonk et al., 2013). ...
... Although conceptual and taxonomic questions (as to the exact number, nature, and labeling of these dimensions) are a matter of an ongoing debate (e.g., Back et al., 2013;Barry & Kauten, 2014;Brown, Budzek, & Tamborski, 2009;Miller & Campbell, 2008), researchers have recognized that not all aspects of narcissism are associated with negative emotional or behavioral outcomes (e.g., Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2010;Back et al., 2013;Barry, Frick, Adler, & Grafeman, 2007;Barry & Wallace, 2010;Campbell, 2001;Campbell & Campbell, 2009;Rose, 2002;Washburn, McMahon, King, Reinecke, & Silver, 2004;Wink, 1991). These findings have also inspired researchers to acknowledge that the heterogeneity of the narcissism construct has to be taken into consideration when examining its associated correlates (e.g., Back et al., 2013;Brown et al., 2009;Krizan & Herlache, 2018;Miller, Lynam, Hyatt, & Campbell, 2017;Wright & Edershile, 2018), especially in the domain of SECA (Vonk et al., 2013). According to a recent twodimensional reconceptualization of grandiose narcissism, the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Concept (NARC; Back et al., 2013), the wealth of narcissistic processes and correlates can be better understood by distinguishing between agentic and antagonistic aspects of grandiose narcissism (also see Paulhus, 2001). ...
Article
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Narcissists are assumed to lack the motivation and ability to share and understand the mental states of others. Prior empirical research, however, has yielded inconclusive findings and has differed with respect to the specific aspects of narcissism and socioemotional cognition that have been examined. Here, we propose a differentiated facet approach that can be applied across research traditions and that distinguishes between facets of narcissism (agentic vs. antagonistic) on the one hand, and facets of socioemotional cognition ability (SECA; self-perceived vs. actual) on the other. Using five nonclinical samples in two studies (total N = 602), we investigated the effect of facets of grandiose narcissism on aspects of socioemotional cognition across measures of affective and cognitive empathy, Theory of Mind, and emotional intelligence, while also controlling for general reasoning ability. Across both studies, agentic facets of narcissism were found to be positively related to perceived SECA, whereas antagonistic facets of narcissism were found to be negatively related to perceived SECA. However, both narcissism facets were negatively related to actual SECA. Exploratory condition-based regression analyses further showed that agentic narcissists had a higher directed discrepancy between perceived and actual SECA: They self-enhanced their socio-emotional capacities. Implications of these results for the multifaceted theoretical understanding of the narcissism-SECA link are discussed.
... Key features of narcissism include entitlement, dominancy, and superiority, along with the self-centered pursuit of admiration. Küfner et al. (2013) proposed a dual-pathway model for understanding the social consequences of this trait. Here, the social effects of narcissism are conveyed via two paths, one where narcissists are perceived as dominant and expressive, and the other where they are seen as aggressive and arrogant. ...
... Regarding the promotion of problematic trait-based behaviors, it has been argued that stressful and ambiguous situations are associated with the overuse of troublesome behavioral strategies, as such situations can tax the self-regulatory capacity necessary to conceal socially unacceptable tendencies (Gaddis & Foster, 2015). Consistent with this, Küfner et al. (2013) reviewed research showing that narcissism, for example, is more likely to evoke negative reactions from others during intense and ambiguous interactions. Beyond this, at least two other factors are likely responsible for the increased expression and negative consequences of negative traits under volatile, ambiguous, or stressful conditions. ...
... One possible explanation for these effects could be the nature with which high narcissism was behaviorally displayed in our study. Küfner et al. (2013) theorized that narcissism manifests in either agentic or antagonistic behavior, with the former being associated with more positive social interactions and occurring earlier whereas the latter being associated with more negative interactions and occurring during the later stages of social relations. Although teams were actively performing across 6 weeks, perhaps this was an inadequate duration for members with high levels of narcissism to transition from agentic behavior (e.g., assertiveness) to antagonistic behavior (e.g., arrogance) that would damage team functioning. ...
Article
Despite the well-established importance of team composition, there has been relatively little research that focuses on compositions regarding problematic personality traits. This study examines the impact of Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, and sadism—all operationalized as team composition variables—on team cooperation and performance over time. This was done in a sample of 43 graduate student teams (n = 269) engaged in an immersive business simulation that unfolded over a 6-week duration. In addition, the parameters of the simulation task were altered midway through the simulation without forewarning, in turn creating a shock event that allowed for an examination of whether team composition for negative personality had similar effects under conditions of business-as-usual versus a disruptive change. Results indicated that both team average Machiavellianism and sadism had deleterious effects on team cooperation and performance over time, while controlling for two closely associated positive personality traits (honesty-humility and agreeableness). These damaging effects were further revealed to especially detract from performance trajectories after teams experienced a disruptive event. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of including problematic personality traits in considerations pertaining to team composition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... After some time, narcissistic individuals and their behavior is perceived and evaluated to be self-serving, antagonistic, risky, and financially and ethically questionable. However, some studies found no or even a negative narcissism-status link at the first meeting (e.g., [36,42]) Thus, the Dual Pathway Model has been proposed [1, 31**, 36]. According to the model, one-sided self-presentational situations lead to a positive narcissismstatus link because they (a) evoke or allow for differences in charming and self-assured behaviors, (b) make this behavior salient as an indicator of assertiveness, and (c) emphasize the value of assertiveness (Figure 1). ...
... After some time, narcissistic individuals and their behavior is perceived and evaluated to be self-serving, antagonistic, risky, and financially and ethically questionable. However, some studies found no or even a negative narcissism-status link at the first meeting (e.g., [36,42]) Thus, the Dual Pathway Model has been proposed [1, 31**, 36]. According to the model, one-sided self-presentational situations lead to a positive narcissismstatus link because they (a) evoke or allow for differences in charming and self-assured behaviors, (b) make this behavior salient as an indicator of assertiveness, and (c) emphasize the value of assertiveness (Figure 1). ...
Article
The current review summarizes recent advances in research on personality predictors of status attainment. In line with previous research, recent studies indicate that extraverted and narcissistic individuals tend to attain status in groups. Research on mediating processes includes a wide range of underlying motivational, behavioral, and interpersonal perception processes. Most generally speaking, those high in extraversion and narcissism attain status because they are more motivated to do so and thus display assertive behavior that makes them look competent. Situational contexts, group tasks, and cultural contexts can moderate the personality-status links by shaping these processes. For example, studies inspired by evolutionary psychology suggest that dominant individuals are more likely to attain status when dominance is instrumental to address a threatening environment.
... On the other hand, narcissists also show hostile behaviours (Bushman & Baumeister, 1998;Morf & Rhodewalt, 1993) leading others to see them as aggressive, less trustworthy, or bragging towards competitors Paulhus, 1998), which undermines their social relationships Campbell et al., 2002;Carlson & DesJardins, 2015;Leckelt, Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2015;Paulhus, 1998). The paradox culminates in the finding that narcissism can simultaneously contribute to being popular and unpopular at zero acquaintance Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013). Back et al. (2013) and Leckelt et al. (2015) have recently developed the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Concept (NARC) as a process model that accounts for these diverging behavioural and social outcomes. ...
... The current research offers converging empirical support for all stages of the dynamic of narcissists' motivations and social outcomes, as conceptualized in Back et al.'s (2013) NARC. Furthermore, it establishes envy as a potential emotional pathway connected to this dynamic and suggests that narcissists' cognitive appraisal patterns in social comparison situations contribute to it. ...
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It is widely assumed that narcissists are envious. Nevertheless, evidence supporting this claim has remained elusive. In five studies (combined N = 1225), we disentangle how grandiose narcissism predicts divergent envious inclinations. Specific facets of narcissism and forms of envy shared the same underlying motivational orientations (Study 1) and distinctively related to each other (Studies 1 to 5) via differences in emotional appraisal (Study 4). Moreover, envy was linked to opposing social consequences of different narcissism facets (Study 5). Specifically, hope for success related to narcissistic admiration, predicting benign envy, which entails the motivation to improve performance, translating into the ascription of social potency by the self and others. In contrast, fear of failure related to narcissistic rivalry, predicting malicious envy, which entails hostility, translating into the ascription of a proneness for social conflict by others. These results converged with envy measured as a trait (Studies 1 and 5) or state in recall tasks (Studies 2 and 4) and as response to an upward standard in the situation (Study 3). The findings provide important insights into narcissists’ emotional complexities, integrate prior isolated and conflicting evidence, and open up new avenues for research on narcissism and envy.
... Once others observe such tendencies and inequitable exchanges, they learn to withhold resources so as to restore equity. Similarly, Küfner, Nestler, and Back (2013) explored the decline of positive evaluations of narcissists by others over the course of their interactions. The authors suggested an initial reliance by narcissists on agentic behaviors such as exerting dominance and assertiveness, which then transitions to more antagonistic behaviors like aggression and arrogance. ...
... The authors suggested an initial reliance by narcissists on agentic behaviors such as exerting dominance and assertiveness, which then transitions to more antagonistic behaviors like aggression and arrogance. Leckelt, Küfner, Nestler, and Back (2015) offered empirical support of Küfner et al.'s (2013) theoretical proposal in a longitudinal study that tracked agentic and antagonistic behaviors among individuals (unacquainted) working in groups over the course of three weeks. ...
Article
Shifting from the much-studied five-factor model of personality, this paper focuses on dark personality (i.e. the “Dark Triad”: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) to advance understanding of team composition, processes, and performance. The research responds to a call to explore dark personality's manifestation within – and impact on – teams. Specifically, this paper will examine the impact of within-team heterogeneity in dark personality on team performance, with shared leadership as mediator of this relationship. Additionally, I propose two moderators of the relationship between within-team dark triad heterogeneity and shared leadership – team network centrality of the team member scoring highest on the Dark Triad, and team mean Dark Triad score. This research aims to make a uniquely valuable contribution to scholarship on leadership within teams through bridging literatures on social network analysis, teams, leadership, and the dark triad and should have implications for team selection and performance.
... Pregledom literature, ustanovili smo da se pretpostavljeno sedmofaktorsko rešenje vrlo retko ponavlja, i da su neki autori (Kubarych, 2004), smatrali da se radi o trofaktorskoj strukturi, odnosno da narcizam čine osobine moći, egzibicionizma i posebnosti. Različite provere instrumenta su dovele do saznanja da je sam konstrukt narcizma vrlo kompleksan, i da je poželjno istraživati njegove dimenzije posebnim instrumentima (upitnik za merenje grandioznog -vulnerabilnog narcizma ( Miller et al, 2011); asertivnog -antagonističkog narcizma (Barry & Wallace, 2010;Küfner, Nestler & Back 2013); patološkog i adaptibilnog narcizma (Barry, Frick, Adler, & Grafeman 2007;Barry & Kauten,2014). ...
... Dobijeni profil narcističke ličnosti kao i korelacije narcizma sa ostalim psihološkim osobinama, u velikoj meri odgovaraju profilu asertivnog narcisa. Naime, istraživanja (Back, Schmuckle & Egloff, 2010;Küfner et al, 2013) pokazuju da narcizam sačinjavaju dve dimenzije - asertivnost i antagonizam. Zahvaljujući prvoj dimeniziji, koja odreduje zdrav narcizam, narcisi ostavljaju utisak privlačnih, šarmantnih i sposobnih ljudi. ...
Chapter
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Dosadašnja istraživanja kriminala, uglavnom su ispitivala etiopatološke činioce ličnosti prestupnika. Međutim, nas je interesovalo da li se subklinički sklop ličnosti ljudi koji nisu presuđeni, može dovesti u vezu sa maladaptivnim ponašanjem, koje (paradoksalno) okolina procenjuje kao uspešno. Pretpostavka je da se u osnovi ovih malignih fenomena nalazi narcistička struktura, koja je grandiozna, sujetna, manipulativna, smatra da je posebna i afektivno je isključena, i kao takva, nosi visok stepen kriminogenog rizika. Takođe, želeli smo da utvrdimo stepen izraženosti narcističkih osobina, kao i opravdanost primene Upitnika za merenje narcizma NPI-40, koji je preveden sa engleskog i modifikovan u petostepenu skalu Likertovog tipa. Testirano je 2243 srednjoškolaca i studenata iz Srbije. Utvrđeno je da Upitnik NPI-40 ima visoku pouzdanost, sa faktorskom strukturom različitom od pretpostavljene, a koja mlade kvalifikuje kao asertivne narcise. Narcizam pozitivno korelira sa makijavelizmom, subkliničkom psihopatijom, željom za slavom, materijalizmom, samopoštovanjem, manipulativnim ljubavnim strategijama, dok sa kognitivnim sposobnostima nema povezanosti. Narcizam negativno korelira sa empatijom i konformizmom, kao i osobinama neurotičnosti. U društvenim odnosima narcizam predviđa emocionalnu distancu, koristoljublje i isključuje prosocijalne obrasce, što čini suštinu maladaptivnih ponašanja. Izraženost narcizma je moguća adaptacija na javno promovisane vrednosti, što ukazuje na pravac institucionalnog delovanja u prevenciji maladaptivnog i kriminalnog ponašanja.
... These two forms of narcissism represent quite different -but not mutually exclusive -social strategies for maintaining grandiose self-views (i.e., an agentic strategy vs. an antagonistic strategy). The NARC model has provided insights into some of the seemingly paradoxical interpersonal behaviors that are associated with narcissism including the tendency to be self-assured and charming (which is consistent with narcissistic admiration; e.g., Campbell & Campbell, 2009;Carlson, Vazire, & Oltmanns, 2011;Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013;Raskin & Terry, 1988) as well as defensive, insensitive, and aggressive when threatened (which is consistent with narcissistic rivalry; e.g., Bushman & Baumeister, 1998;Campbell, Bush, Brunell, & Shelton, 2005;Kernis & Sun, 1994;Küfner et al., 2013;Morf & Rhodewalt, 1993;Twenge & Campbell, 2003). Although research concerning the NARC model is still in its earliest stages, narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry have been found to have opposing associations with a wide variety of outcomes such that narcissistic admiration tends to be linked with relatively positive outcomes (e.g., high self-esteem, assertiveness, the benign form of envy, romantic appeal), whereas narcissistic rivalry is often associated with relatively negative outcomes (e.g., unstable self-esteem, arrogance, the malicious form of envy, romantic problems; Back et al., 2013;Geukes et al., 2017;Lange, Crusius, & Hagemeyer, 2016;Leckelt, Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2015;Wurst et al., 2017;Zeigler-Hill & Trombly, 2018). ...
... These two forms of narcissism represent quite different -but not mutually exclusive -social strategies for maintaining grandiose self-views (i.e., an agentic strategy vs. an antagonistic strategy). The NARC model has provided insights into some of the seemingly paradoxical interpersonal behaviors that are associated with narcissism including the tendency to be self-assured and charming (which is consistent with narcissistic admiration; e.g., Campbell & Campbell, 2009;Carlson, Vazire, & Oltmanns, 2011;Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013;Raskin & Terry, 1988) as well as defensive, insensitive, and aggressive when threatened (which is consistent with narcissistic rivalry; e.g., Bushman & Baumeister, 1998;Campbell, Bush, Brunell, & Shelton, 2005;Kernis & Sun, 1994;Küfner et al., 2013;Morf & Rhodewalt, 1993;Twenge & Campbell, 2003). Although research concerning the NARC model is still in its earliest stages, narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry have been found to have opposing associations with a wide variety of outcomes such that narcissistic admiration tends to be linked with relatively positive outcomes (e.g., high self-esteem, assertiveness, the benign form of envy, romantic appeal), whereas narcissistic rivalry is often associated with relatively negative outcomes (e.g., unstable self-esteem, arrogance, the malicious form of envy, romantic problems; Back et al., 2013;Geukes et al., 2017;Lange, Crusius, & Hagemeyer, 2016;Leckelt, Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2015;Wurst et al., 2017;Zeigler-Hill & Trombly, 2018). ...
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Objective: The purpose of the present studies was to examine the connections that narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry had with various aspects of status. Method: Study 1 examined the associations that narcissism had with the motivation to seek status in a sample of 1,219 community members. Study 2 examined whether narcissism interacted with the status seeking motive to predict how individuals pursued status in a sample of 760 community members and college students. Study 3 used a daily diary approach to examine whether narcissism moderated the associations that daily perceptions of status and affiliation had with state self-esteem in 356 college students. Results: Our results revealed that narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry were somewhat similar in their desire for status but had divergent associations with other aspects of status (e.g., strategies employed to attain status, perceptions of status, reactions to perceived status). Conclusion: The results of the present studies suggest that narcissistic admiration is associated with an agentic orientation to the pursuit of status, whereas narcissistic rivalry is associated with an antagonistic orientation to the pursuit of status. Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for our understanding of the connections between narcissism and status. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... In the present study, we examined the role of two personality traits that could underlie such links: extraversion and narcissism. Extraversion and narcissism are two of the most frequently examined and significant predictors of both social media use and social outcomes in in-person interactions (Amichai-Hamburger & Vinitzky, 2010;Amiel & Sargent, 2004;Back et al., 2013;Chen & Marcus, 2012;Hamburger & Ben-Artzi, 2000;Kraut et al., 2002;Küfner et al., 2013;Kuo & Tang, 2014;Leckelt et al., 2015Leckelt et al., , 2018Ross et al., 2009;Ryan & Xenos, 2011;Tosun & Lajunen, 2010;Wyatt & Phillips, 2005). For example, extraversion, which includes being more outgoing and talkative, is associated with both offline and online positive social experiences, such as greater offline and online civic engagement (Elshaug & Metzer, 2001;Kavanaugh et al., 2005;Russo & Amnå, 2016) and communication (Akert & Panter, 1988;Seidman, 2013). ...
... For example, extraversion, which includes being more outgoing and talkative, is associated with both offline and online positive social experiences, such as greater offline and online civic engagement (Elshaug & Metzer, 2001;Kavanaugh et al., 2005;Russo & Amnå, 2016) and communication (Akert & Panter, 1988;Seidman, 2013). Similarly, narcissism, defined as having an excessive positive self-image, feelings of superiority, and desire for admiration (Bosson et al., 2008;Morf & Rhodewalt, 2001), has been linked to indicators of more positive social media use, such as having more friends on social media (McKinney et al., 2012), and more positive, charming social behavior, particularly for more agentic aspects of narcissism such as narcissistic admiration Küfner et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015Leckelt et al., , 2018. ...
Article
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Does how people generally engage with their online social networks relate to offline initial social interactions? Using a large-scale study of first impressions ( N = 806, N dyad = 4,565), we examined how different indicators of social media use relate to the positivity of dyadic in-person first impressions, from the perspective of the participants and their interaction partners. Many forms of social media use (e.g., Instagram, Snapchat, passive) were associated with liking and being liked by others more, although some forms of use (e.g., Facebook, active) were not associated with liking others or being liked by others. Furthermore, most associations held controlling for extraversion and narcissism. Thus, while some social media use may be generally beneficial for offline social interactions, some may be unrelated, highlighting the idea that how, rather than how much, people use social media can play a role in their offline social interactions.
... Interestingly, in a longitudinal study, Ong et al. (2016) found that narcissists initially emerged as leaders within unacquainted groups, but this initial favorability was followed by a decline in peer-rated leadership over time. Küfner et al. (2013) provided a theoretical frame for understanding how narcissistic individuals gain initial favor (due to peer perceptions of confidence and social dominance), but such positive valuations decline over time as the interactions with the leader become more antagonistic and hostile. ...
... However, to date there has been limited empirical research on the impact of DT traits within team contexts. Küfner et al. (2013) proposed a dual-pathway approach for understanding why narcissists are initially held in high regard but their positive evaluations decline with more interactions. They suggest that narcissistic individuals utilize agentic behaviors (e.g., dominance and assertiveness) initially and transition to more antagonistic behaviors (e.g., aggression and arrogance) as interpersonal relationships develop. ...
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Over the last 15 years, there has been growing fascination among scholars in studying “dark behaviors” and “dark traits,” especially as they are expressed in organizational contexts. One taxonomy of dark traits that has garnered special interest is the dark triad (DT), which is comprised of three toxic and malevolent traits: psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism. This chapter offers a review of DT research, with a particular focus on research relevant to the organizational sciences.Webegin with a definition of personality in general and the traits of the DT in particular, including a discussion of the clinical and subclinical variants of these traits. We then review literature linking the DT traits to an array of organizational outcomes, discuss how the DT traits may be assessed, and conclude with recommendations for future work. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior Volume 5 is January 21, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... As outlined above, narcissistic individuals make favorable impressions in the short run, but in the long run their aggressive, arrogant, and combative characteristics come into play (Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013;Leckelt, Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2015). Consistent with this, a study examining the temporal relationship between narcissism and leadership qualities revealed that narcissists initially attain but later lose their attractiveness as a leader (Ong, Roberts, Arthur, Woodman, & Akehurst, 2016). ...
Article
Research on narcissism continues to develop at a rapid pace. Yet, researchers from different disciplines are still divided over whether narcissists are good versus bad leaders. On the one hand, narcissists' bright qualities (e.g., charisma) are associated with positive outcomes at different levels of analysis from subordinates, to peers, and the organization as a whole. On the other hand, however, narcissists' dark qualities (e.g., entitlement) are associated with a number of counterproductive work behaviors, causing organizations to falter. The present article adds to and extends the traditional good-versus-bad debate about narcissistic leadership and pursues three goals: (a) to critically review the literature on narcissistic leaders and their behaviors in the workplace, (b) to provide tangible recommendations for how to best assess, select, and develop narcissistic leaders, and (c) to highlight future directions and ongoing challenges ahead in the field of narcissistic leadership.
... Many factors contribute to narcissists' initial popularity. Narcissists display more dominance and self-assuredness than non-narcissists; the positive impressions they convey also depend on the extent to which they behave assertively rather than aggressively in interactions (e.g., Back et al., 2010;Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013;Leckelt, Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2015). These findings help identify behaviors that af- fect impressions of narcissists, but people can perceive nar- cissism without observing any behavior, based on physical appearance alone. ...
Article
Objective We examine why people form positive first impressions of grandiose narcissists, even though they can identify others’ narcissism. We test whether this occurs because narcissists are perceived to have especially high self‐esteem, which is socially valued. Method Across four studies, undergraduate perceivers viewed photographs of targets (for whom narcissism and self‐esteem were known) and rated perceptions of their narcissism, self‐esteem, and how much they liked them. Results Perceivers rated more narcissistic targets to be higher in self‐esteem (even compared to targets with equally high self‐esteem) and liked them more. Perceptions of self‐esteem, moreover, mediated the effect of target narcissism on liking (Study 1). This effect disappeared when targets’ narcissism was made salient, suggesting that trait narcissism is not inherently attractive (Study 2). Finally, path models reveal a negative effect of perceptions of narcissism on liking that is suppressed by a positive effect of perceptions of self‐esteem on liking (Study 3a), even for ratings of people's online dating profiles (Study 3b). Conclusion Positive initial impressions of narcissists may be driven by inflated perceptions that they have high self‐esteem. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Second, agentic narcissists' lack of empathy results in an antagonistic interpersonal style Bushman & Baumeister, 1998;Raskin, Novacek, & Hogan, 1991). That style threatens others and, thus, renders agentic narcissists less likable (Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015;Paulhus, 1998). Those two explanations possess a notable communality. ...
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Among well-acquainted people, those high on agentic narcissism are less popular than those low on agentic narcissism. That popularity-difference figures prominently in the narcissism literature. But why are agentic narcissists less popular? We propose a novel answer―the tit-for-tat hypothesis. It states that agentic narcissists like other people less than non-narcissists do and that others reciprocate by liking agentic narcissists less in return. We also examine whether the tit-for-tat hypothesis generalizes to communal narcissism. A large round-robin study (N=474) assessed agentic and communal narcissism (wave 1) and included two round-robin waves (waves 2-3). The round-robin waves assessed participants’ liking for all round-robin group-members (2,488 informant-reports). The tit-for-tat hypothesis applied to agentic narcissists. It also applied to communal narcissists, albeit in a different way. Compared to non-narcissists, communal narcissists liked other people more and―in return―those others liked communal narcissists more. Our results elaborate on and qualify the thriving literature on narcissists’ popularity.
... Second, our methods for assessing narcissism and self-esteem were based on self-reports, which have limited value for assessing personality [98]. In future studies, negative behaviors associated with narcissism in real life situations should be compared between individuals raised in the former East and West Germany [99][100][101]. Third, we cannot determine whether our participants answered the online questionnaire honestly. This criticism also applies to offline questionnaires; therefore peer reports or naturalistic observation methods might represent a better approach towards investigating the interpersonal behavior of narcissists [102,103]. ...
Article
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Narcissism scores are higher in individualistic cultures compared with more collectivistic cultures. However, the impact of sociocultural factors on narcissism and self-esteem has not been well described. Germany was formerly divided into two different social systems, each with distinct economic, political and national cultures, and was reunified in 1989/90. Between 1949 and 1989/90, West Germany had an individualistic culture, whereas East Germany had a more collectivistic culture. The German reunification provides an exceptional opportunity to investigate the impact of sociocultural and generational differences on narcissism and self-esteem. In this study, we used an anonymous online survey to assess grandiose narcissism with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) to assess grandiose and vulnerable aspects of narcissism, and self-esteem with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) in 1,025 German individuals. Data were analyzed according to age and place of birth. Our results showed that grandiose narcissism was higher and self-esteem was lower in individuals who grew up in former West Germany compared with former East Germany. Further analyses indicated no significant differences in grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism or self-esteem in individuals that entered school after the German reunification (≤ 5 years of age in 1989). In the middle age cohort (6–18 years of age in 1989), significant differences in vulnerable narcissism, grandiose narcissism and self-esteem were observed. In the oldest age cohort (> 19 years of age in 1989), significant differences were only found in one of the two scales assessing grandiose narcissism (NPI). Our data provides empirical evidence that sociocultural factors are associated with differences in narcissism and self-esteem.
... leader effectivity). This is also in line with other research demonstrating that narcissists' initial positive appearance and effects diminish after prolonged interactions (Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015;Paulhus, 1998). ...
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For a long time, leadership research has focused too much on idealized, romantic, and “good” forms of leadership (e.g., transformational, empowering, authentic, and ethical leadership), but neglected the antagonistic part: the dark side of leadership. Current personality and leadership literature suggests that, due to their high need for power and social dominance orientation, a variety of dark triad personalities (narcissists, Machiavellians, and psychopaths) can be found in leadership positions. Accordingly, dark leadership reflects a part of leadership reality. Nevertheless, the dark side of leadership is still relatively understudied. This chapter combines dark triad personality with dark leadership research to describe narcissistic, Machiavellian, and psychopathic leadership. Additionally, the role of the dark triad in leader development is described. Dark leaders may be selfish, impulsive, exploitative, and toxic but still be as effective or successful as prosocial, self-controlled, and “good” leaders. The focus on leaders’ dark traits and leadership could improve our understanding of the complex, dynamic, and challenging field of leadership research. Thus, knowledge on the strengths and weaknesses of the dark triad can be utilized in leader development.
... First, based on the observation that some narcissistic individuals report less interpersonal distress than others, grandiose narcissism has been contrasted with vulnerable narcissism (e.g., Dickinson & Pincus, 2003;Miller et al., 2011;Wink, 1991). Second, grandiose narcissism has been further subdivided into an assertive or extraverted dimension (i.e., narcissistic admiration) and an antagonistic or disagreeable dimension (i.e., narcissistic rivalry; Back et al., 2013; see also Brown, Budzek, & Tamborski, 2009;Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013;Paulhus, 2001). ...
Article
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We investigated the development of narcissistic admiration (i.e., the assertive or extraverted dimension of narcissism; Back et al., 2013) and Machiavellianism (Mach) in early adulthood. Specifically, we examined (a) mean-level changes in narcissistic admiration and Mach during early adulthood and (b) how studying economics and experiencing any of 30 life events were related to individual differences in changes in narcissistic admiration and Mach. We used longitudinal data from two cohorts of young adults in Germany (N1 = 4,962 and N2 = 2,572). The mean levels of narcissistic admiration remained stable over time. Life events analyses indicated that narcissistic admiration increased among people who experienced a positively evaluated change in their eating or sleeping habits, a positively evaluated romantic break-up, or a negatively evaluated failure on an important exam. The mean levels of Mach decreased during early adulthood in both cohorts. Life events analyses showed that Mach decreased for only the 91% of young adults who had started a new job and evaluated it positively, suggesting that mastering occupational roles mitigates Mach in early adulthood. The results will be discussed in the light of previous longitudinal studies on narcissism and the Big Five in early adulthood and cross-sectional studies on how age is related to narcissism and Mach.
... In the short term, narcissists come across as energetic, interesting, and entertaining (Back et al., 2010;Paulhus, 1998). With the passage of time, however, their arrogance and antagonism come to the fore (Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013) and their acquaintances begin to dislike them and may end up rejecting them altogether (Back et al., 2010;Ong, Roberts, Arthur, Woodman, & Akehurst, 2016;Paulhus, 1998). The narcissistic self-presentational style has unintended consequences for close relationships as well. ...
Article
People routinely manage the impressions they make on others, attempting to project a favorable self-image. The bulk of the literature has portrayed people as savvy self-presenters who typically succeed at conveying a desired impression. When people fail at making a favorable impression, such as when they come across as braggers, regulatory resource depletion is to blame. Recent research, however, has identified antecedents and strategies that foster systematic impression management failures (independently of regulatory resource depletion), suggesting that self-presenters are far from savvy. In fact, they commonly mismanage their impressions without recognizing it. We review failed perspective taking and narcissism as two prominent antecedents of impression mismanagement. Further, we argue that failed perspective taking, exacerbated by narcissism, contributes to suboptimal impression management strategies, such as hubris, humblebragging, hypocrisy, and backhanded compliments. We conclude by discussing how self-presenters might overcome some of the common traps of impression mismanagement.
... Yet, on the other hand, grandiosely narcissistic individuals are arrogant, entitled, and aggressive (Krizan & Herlache, 2018;Miller et al., 2011;Vazire & Funder, 2006). Their popularity with others tends to decline over time, with their relationships being riddled with conflict and exploitative behaviors (Grijalva & Newman, 2015;Küfner et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2020;Paulhus, 1998). ...
Article
Little is known about how individuals high in grandiose narcissism think about what could have been. Across four studies (three online surveys and one online experiment; N = 801), we addressed this gap by examining the relationship between grandiose narcissism, its admiration and rivalry dimensions, and counterfactual thinking and regret. Unlike anticipated, high rivalry was associated with more rather than fewer upward counterfactuals in Study 1. Yet, high rivalry predicted an increased likelihood of generating a downward (vs. upward) counterfactual in a feedback situation (Study 3). Moreover, grandiose narcissism (preliminary study) and admiration (Study 2) negatively correlated with regret. Collectively, our findings stress the importance of considering grandiose narcissism’s dimensions separately and highlight a novel dispositional moderator of counterfactual thinking.
... Studies focusing on the formation of affiliative bonds among previously unacquainted individuals found that, at early stages of acquaintance, narcissists were more likely to increase in status and likeability. However, as interactions grew more intimate, narcissists were more likely to lose their initially high status and to become less trusted and liked over time, especially because of their antagonistic behaviors (Carlson & Lawless DesJardins, 2015;Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015;Paulhus, 1998). ...
Preprint
We propose a self-regulation model of grandiose narcissism. This model illustrates an interconnected set of processes through which narcissists (i.e., individuals with relatively high levels of grandiose narcissism) pursue social status in their moment-by-moment transactions with their environments. According to the model, narcissists select situations that afford status. Narcissists vigilantly attend to cues related to the status they and others have in these situations. Based on these perceived cues, narcissists appraise whether they can elevate their status or reduce the status of others. In accordance with these appraisals, narcissists engage in self-promotion (admiration pathway) or other-derogation (rivalry pathway). Each pathway has unique consequences for how narcissists are perceived by others, thus shaping their social status over time. The model we offer helps understand how narcissism manifests itself as a stable and consistent cluster of behaviors in pursuit of social status and how it develops and maintains itself over time. More broadly, the model might offer useful insights for future process models of other personality traits.
... Keeping in mind that individuals high in grandiose narcissism often are successful in social circles and climb to leadership positions easily (Brunell et al. 2008;Küfner et al. 2013), the results of this study help us to understand who grandiose narcissists might favor and what motivates their decisions. Grandiose narcissism was positively correlated with deciding to distribute more money to similar others because they liked them and less to others exemplifying vulnerable narcissistic traits because they disliked them. ...
Article
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Purpose: This research investigates how individuals high in grandiose or vulnerable narcissism make decisions and what motivates them. This study asked 98 (67 female, ages 18-34) participants to decide how to distribute $200 amongst a fictitious set of group members, two of which exemplified vulnerable or grandiose narcissistic traits. The participants completed questionnaires measuring their levels of grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, and how much they liked and identified with each fictitious group member. Results: Individuals high in grandiose or vulnerable narcissism did not identify with any group member; however, individuals high in grandiose narcissism liked and decided to distribute more money to the group member with grandiose narcissistic traits. In addition, individuals high in grandiose or vulnerable narcissism strongly disliked and distributed less money to the group member with vulnerable narcissistic traits. Conclusions: Implications for the similarity-liking principle and narcissists’ decisionmaking processes are discussed.
... Self-presentational, and short-term acquaintance contexts, for example, foster positive effects of narcissism on peer popularity via an agentic pathway (behaving self-assured and being perceived as assertive). In PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION 34 contrast, more intimate, intense, and longer-term acquaintance contexts foster negative effects of narcissism on peer popularity via an antagonistic pathway (behaving combative and being perceived as aggressive/uncommunal) Küfner et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015;Leckelt et al., in press). Generally speaking, the more outcomes belong to the "getting ahead" domain (e.g., status, leadership emergence; evaluations in more superficial and selfpresentational short-term acquaintance contexts), the stronger are effects of agentic traits such as interpersonal dominance and extraversion. ...
Chapter
Social interactions are one of the most relevant contexts of our lives and they are intimately connected to the conceptualization, dynamics, development, and consequences of personality. In this chapter, I will first analyze the way social interactions unfold via interaction states of all interaction partners and describe how people differ in social interaction processes. Following the PERSOC model, I will argue that these individual differences are a key window to understanding the nature of some of the most popular personality traits (e.g., extraversion, dominance, shyness, agreeableness, narcissism), as well as their effects on and development in social relationships. Empirical research on individual differences in interaction state levels, contingencies, and fluctuations is summarized. In closing, I describe a couple of current limitations, and outline perspectives for understanding and assessing personality traits as dynamic social interaction systems.
... For example, workplaces can incentivize collaboration over competition, make power-related cues less salient (e.g., highlight collective rather than individual achievements), encourage employees to interpret feedback as opportunities for growth rather than a threat to their power, and offer employees the means to pursue power in socially adaptive ways (e.g., by assigning them a leadership position to facilitative withingroup collaboration in the service of between-group competition). More broadly, interventions can inform narcissists about the potentially undesirable interpersonal consequences of the unmitigated pursuit of power (e.g., decrease in status and likeability and a reputation of low affiliation; Carlson & DesJardins, 2015;Imhoff & Koch, 2017;Küfner et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015;Scopelliti et al., 2015). Of course, these are not ready-to-implement interventions. ...
Article
Several theories propose that narcissism is rooted in affective contingencies. Given narcissists' focus on power, these contingencies should be strong in the power domain but not in the affiliation domain. We systematically investigated narcissists' contingencies and explored whether these contingencies might link narcissism to social behavior. In a multimethod longitudinal study, we assessed unidimensional narcissism levels as well as two main narcissistic strategies: Admiration and rivalry. We measured 209 participants' affective contingencies (i.e., affective responses to satisfying and frustrating experiences of power and affiliation) via self-reports (n = 207) and facial electromyography (fEMG, n = 201). In a 1-year follow-up, we observed participants' power- and affiliation-related behaviors in the laboratory (valid n = 123). Results indicated that narcissism was linked to increased affective reactivity to power, and this pattern was present for both admiration and rivalry. Narcissism was unrelated to affective reactivity to affiliation, with an important exception: Individuals with higher levels of narcissistic rivalry exhibited decreased reactivity toward satisfactions and increased reactivity toward frustrations of affiliation. Results were more robust for self-reported than for fEMG-indexed reactivity. Although overall narcissism and narcissistic admiration were related to power-related behaviors 1 year later, affective contingencies did not generally account for these links. These findings inform why narcissists have a relatively strong power motive and why some narcissists high in rivalry have a relatively weak affiliation motive. More broadly, these findings provide insight into the affective contingencies underlying personality traits and call for research on the contexts in which these contingencies guide behavior. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Narcissistic characteristics such as assertiveness, dominance, and power (Bradlee & Emmons, 1992;Küfner et al., 2013) might allow narcissistic leaders to wield significant control over resources or decisions (Chatterjee & Hambrick, 2007;Nevicka et al., 2011). These dominant characteristics might offer a route for narcissists to be perceived as emergent leaders. ...
Article
Objective: Narcissistic leaders’ engagement in strategies of dominance and/or prestige at different times across their leadership tenure could explain why they are perceived favorably as leaders early on, and unfavorably later on. Method: Over a 12-week period, we found that narcissism was positively associated with peer-rated leadership during initial group formation, but not later. Results: Dominance and prestige mediated these initial positive perceptions of narcissists as leaders. However, neither dominance nor prestige mediated the relationship between narcissism and leadership later on. Conclusions: The findings highlight a mechanistic role for dominance and prestige in explaining the rise and fall of narcissistic leaders over time.
... Lastly, we contend that exaggerated self-enhancement will be negatively related to coworker trust. Over the course of a relatively long-term relationship, coworkers may become aware of the dishonesty and baselessness of overstated claims (Jones & Pittman, 1982) and dislike and reject people engaging in exaggerated self-enhancement on the basis of arrogance (Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013), thereby eroding the perceptions of integrity that are critical for building trust (Li, 2007;Mayer & Gavin, 2005). Supporting this idea, several studies note that observers may view exaggerated self-enhancement as conceited and immodest (Turnley & Bolino, 2001) and label employees using this form of self-presentation as self-centered braggarts (Giacalone & Rosenfeld, 1986) who are unlikeable and lack integrity (Van Tongeren et al., 2014). ...
Article
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We theorized and tested an integrated model that examines the simultaneous effects of authentic self-expression and self-enhancement (including authentic and exaggerated self enhancement) on employee outcomes. Using a multi-source, two-wave survey design and a sample of 143 working groups from 566 employees, we tested the indirect effects of self-presentation on job performance through (a) trust from coworkers and (b) felt trust from coworkers. We found that through trust from coworkers, authentic self-expression had a positive indirect effect on job performance, whereas authentic and exaggerated self-enhancement had negative indirect effects. Via felt trust from coworkers, authentic self-enhancement had a positive indirect effect on job performance, whereas exaggerated self-enhancement had a negative indirect effect. In addition, we identified a boundary condition of these relationships. The positive relationship between authentic self-expression and trust from coworkers and the negative relationship between exaggerated self-enhancement and trust from coworkers were stronger when working for highly authentic leaders. Contrary to expectations, the relationship between authentic self-enhancement and trust from coworkers was negative and significant when working for less authentic leaders.
... This creation of a harmless workplace persona indicates that coworkers and supervisors should come to believe that a high-low individual is essentially no different than a low-low individual when it comes to their behaviors and interplay with others. Although the long-term trend indicates that an ability to maintain this harmless persona is not sustainable, there are instances in which these strategies work-at least temporarily (e.g., Kufner et al., 2012). ...
Article
Previous research examining the Dark Triad (DT) of personality (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) in the workplace has theorized and assessed the DT almost exclusively from a “self” view perspective (e.g., self‐ratings). In this paper, we extend what is known about dark personality by drawing from socioanalytic theory to make the case that the identity (i.e., “self” view) and reputation (i.e., “other” view) elements of the DT are distinct and complimentary concepts that must be examined in concert. Specifically, we hypothesize and demonstrate that understanding the interaction of identity‐based DT and reputation‐based DT enhances our ability to predict supervisor‐rated organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Utilizing response surface techniques to test our hypotheses, we demonstrate that significant differences exist between different combinations of identity‐ and reputation‐based assessments of the DT and their relationship with OCB. More specifically, we find that supervisor‐rated citizenship decreases at an accelerating rate when both self‐views and coworker‐views of the DT are considered. As such, accounting for DT identity and reputation simultaneously provides a more comprehensive understanding of how the DT relates to OCB. Therefore, we show that reputation‐based aspects of the DT, in concert with identity‐based DT, enhance our knowledge about how dark personality impacts OCB.
... Research (Furnham & Crump, 2014) showed that bold individuals have moderately high scores on assertiveness, competence and achievement striving. Research also showed that narcissists behave more dominantly and expressively and are judged as assertive, which leads to positive perceptions and popularity (Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013). ...
Article
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Disturbances in emotion are associated with the most of the diagnostic criteria of the personality disorders, though the role of emotional intelligence in the diagnosis of personality disorders has been the subject of limited research. The present study was designed to investigate the relationships between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and personality disorder symptomatology in an undergraduate student sample. One hundred and twenty university students (28.3% male and 71.7 % female; M of age = 19.23, SD=2.45) were administered with (1) Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) (Petrides, 2009), along with (2) The Personality Disorder Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4) (Hyler E. Steven, 1994). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect for group with individuals without any personality disorder symptomatology scoring significantly higher than individuals with some personality accentuations on most TEIQue facets. The results suggest that different components of emotional intelligence contribute to the development of different personality disorder symptomatology, but more research is required to replicate the results with the clinical population. Key words: emotional intelligence, personality disorders.
... In a rebuttal to Taylor and Brown's (1988) observation that self-enhancement is universal and beneficial, Colvin, Block, & Funder (1995) argue that overly positive self-evaluations link with undesirable personality variables, including narcissism and antisocial traits. Moreover, narcissisman excess of self-enhancement marked by self-aggrandizement and egocentrism -presents as a manipulative interpersonal style (Morf, Horvath, & Torchetti, 2011;Paulhus, Westlake, Calvez, & Harms, 2013), related to reduced empathy (Hepper, Hart, & Sedikides, 2014), and increased antagonism (Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013) and aggression (Bushman & Baumeister, 1998). As Paulhus observes (1998), it is likely that self-enhancement in moderation is protective of mental health; however, more extreme and chronic self-enhancers may experience worse psychological well-being through increased interpersonal problems. ...
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Some research suggests that self-enhancement is widespread and may exacerbate ingroup favoritism. What if, rather than engaging in self-enhancement, individuals focused on enhancing others? Could enhancing others produce less prejudice than self-enhancement? Three studies tested the effect of self-enhancement versus ‘other-enhancement’ on prejudice. In Study 1 (N=95), a repeated measures design showed that participants demonstrated less negative affect and less implicit bias after reflecting on another person’s positive traits relative to their own. In Study 2 (N=169), we extended this effect to outgroup enhancement. Participants who reflected on an outgroup strength showed less negative affect and less racism than those who reflected on an ingroup strength and those in a comparison condition. Study 3 (N=380) validated these experimental effects by showing that other-enhancement is negatively associated with racism and sexism, whereas self-enhancement is not. Study 3 also examined a theorized antecedent of other-enhancement – humility. We discuss the importance of enhancing others in reducing prejudice.
... Studies focusing on the formation of affiliative bonds among previously unacquainted individuals found that, at early stages of acquaintance, narcissists were more likely to increase in status and likability. However, as interactions grew more intimate, narcissists were more likely to lose their initially high status and to become less trusted and liked over time, especially because of their antagonistic behaviors (Carlson & Lawless DesJardins, 2015;Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015;Paulhus, 1998). Therefore, narcissistic status strivings in affiliative settings might be less successful in garnering a long-term advantage in social status, while often damaging interpersonal bonds. ...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a self-regulation model of grandiose narcissism. This model illustrates an interconnected set of processes through which narcissists (i.e., individuals with relatively high levels of grandiose narcissism) pursue social status in their moment-by-moment transactions with their environments. The model shows that narcissists select situations that afford status. Narcissists vigilantly attend to cues related to the status they and others have in these situations and, on the basis of these perceived cues, appraise whether they can elevate their status or reduce the status of others. Narcissists engage in self-promotion (admiration pathway) or other-derogation (rivalry pathway) in accordance with these appraisals. Each pathway has unique consequences for how narcissists are perceived by others, thus shaping their social status over time. The model demonstrates how narcissism manifests itself as a stable and consistent cluster of behaviors in pursuit of social status and how it develops and maintains itself over time. More broadly, the model might offer useful insights for future process models of other personality traits.
... For example, future studies might attempt more often to analyze and compare accuracy levels and underlying cue processes across different trait-expression contexts and information channels (see e.g., Hirschmüller et al., 2015;Kaurin, Heil, Wessa, Egloff, & Hirschmüller, 2018). We suggest that future research also places more emphasis on the identification of robust cues involved in personality expression and impression formation separately for traits as well as the replication of the identified trait-related cues across target samples and situations (e.g., see Küfner, Nestler, & Back, 2013) and their eventual meta-analytic integration (cf. Ch. 13 by Breil et al. in this handbook). ...
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In this chapter, we present variants of Brunswik’s lens model aimed to understand whether, when, and why trait judgments are more or less accurate. After outlining the basic concepts of lens models, we describe exemplary studies which have applied the lens model to unravel personality expression and impression formation processes that lead to more or less accurate judgments. Next, we give an overview on factors that can influence the accuracy of trait judgments and explain these accuracy moderators within the lens model framework. We then describe an extension of the lens model, the dual lens model, that differentiates more controlled versus more automatic aspects on all levels of the lens model (i.e., personality self-concept, cues, personality judgments). We also briefly summarize further extensions and highlight the lens model as a flexible tool to study cue processes underlying accuracy and related interpersonal perception phenomena. Finally, we conclude the chapter by outlining suggestions for future lens model applications in accuracy research.
... This process can be traced back to the dimensions of narcissism proposed in the NARC: Narcissistic admiration is responsible for the initial positive effects of narcissism in interpersonal relationships, explained by dominant, expressive behavior and being perceived as assertive. By contrast, the negative long-term effects hail from narcissistic rivalry, manifested in exploitative, arrogant behavior and being perceived as aggressive Küfner et al. 2013;Wurst et al. 2017). Whereas the positive effects of narcissistic admiration decrease with time, the negative effects of narcissistic rivalry increase (Leckelt et al. 2015). ...
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... We investigated this in a project on the relation of narcissism and envy . In many ways, narcissists are enigmatic human beings Küfner et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015). On the one hand, they are often admired and celebrated. ...
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... Self-presentational, and short-term acquaintance contexts, for example, foster positive effects of narcissism on peer popularity via an agentic pathway (behaving self-assured and being perceived as assertive). In PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION 34 contrast, more intimate, intense, and longer-term acquaintance contexts foster negative effects of narcissism on peer popularity via an antagonistic pathway (behaving combative and being perceived as aggressive/uncommunal) Küfner et al., 2013;Leckelt et al., 2015;Leckelt et al., in press). Generally speaking, the more outcomes belong to the "getting ahead" domain (e.g., status, leadership emergence; evaluations in more superficial and selfpresentational short-term acquaintance contexts), the stronger are effects of agentic traits such as interpersonal dominance and extraversion. ...
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Social interactions are one of the most relevant contexts of our lives and they are intimately connected to the conceptualization, dynamics, development, and consequences of personality. In this chapter, I will first analyze the way social interactions unfold via interaction states of all interaction partners and describe how people differ in social interaction processes. Following the PERSOC model, I will argue that these individual differences are a key window to understanding the nature of some of the most popular personality traits (e.g., extraversion, dominance, shyness, agreeableness, narcissism), as well as their effects on and development in social relationships. Empirical research on individual differences in interaction state levels, contingencies, and fluctuations is summarized. In closing, I describe a couple of current limitations, and outline perspectives for understanding and assessing personality traits as dynamic social interaction systems.
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The past several decades have witnessed a proliferation of research on the Dark Triad (DT), a set of traits comprising Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. The bulk of DT research has been marked by several core assumptions, most notably that each DT construct is a monolithic entity that is clearly separable from its counterpart DT constructs. To examine the tenability of these assumptions, we pooled data from two samples of North American community members (ns= 312 and 351) to explore (a) the external validity and profile similarities of DT indicators and (b) the factor structure of the DT. Using general (HEXACO) personality dimensions as external criteria, we demonstrated that each DT measure is multidimensional and that subdimensions within DT measures often display sharply different and at times even opposing relations with personality domains; these opposing relations were largely obscured at the total score level adopted in most of the DT literature. In both samples, confirmatory factor analyses and exploratory structural equation models provided no clear support for the traditional tripartite DT structure delineated in the literature. Instead, various aspects of the DT constructs fractionated across a number of factors that represented more basic personality elements (e.g., emotional stability, grandiosity). Taken together, our findings raise serious questions regarding the standard model of DT research and suggest that the questions posed regarding the correlates of DT constructs hinge crucially on the specific DT measure and subdimension examined.
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The past several decades have witnessed a proliferation of research on the dark triad (DT), a set of traits comprising Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. The bulk of DT research has been marked by several core assumptions, most notably that each DT construct is a monolithic entity that is clearly separable from its counterpart DT constructs. To examine the tenability of these assumptions, we pooled data from 2 samples of North American community members (ns = 312 and 351) to explore (a) the external validity and profile similarities of DT indicators and (b) the factor structure of the DT. Using general personality dimensions as external criteria, we demonstrated that each DT measure is multidimensional and that subdimensions within DT measures often display sharply different and at times even opposing relations with personality domains; these opposing relations were largely obscured at the total score level adopted in most of the DT literature. In both samples, confirmatory factor analyses and exploratory structural equation models provided no clear support for the traditional tripartite DT structure delineated in the literature. Instead, various aspects of the DT constructs fractionated across a number of factors that represented more basic personality elements (e.g., emotional stability, grandiosity). Taken together, our findings raise serious questions regarding the standard model of DT research and suggest that the questions posed regarding the correlates of DT constructs hinge crucially on the specific DT measure and subdimension examined.
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Grandiose narcissism is a multidimensional construct consisting of agentic and antagonistic aspects with markedly distinct correlates and consequences. However, this complexity has not been reflected in how grandiose narcissism is measured and investigated in forensic contexts. To provide a more nuanced picture of narcissism in a forensic context, we harnessed the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Concept. More precisely, we investigated the psychometric properties of the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire short scale (NARQ-S) in self- and informant reports of 199 male prisoners. Results confirmed the two-dimensional structure, acceptable internal consistency, moderate self-other agreement, and a differentiated nomological network for the NARQ-S. Admiration and rivalry showed distinct associations with criminal history, institutional misbehaviors, and social status in the group of prisoners. Together, the findings provide initial evidence for the validity and utility of self- and informant reports of the NARQ-S in forensic contexts and its contribution to security and treatment recommendations.
Thesis
The first section of this thesis is a systematic literature review of interventions to increase empathy in Healthcare Professionals. A total of 17 studies were included. Definitions of empathy, measurement used, sample characteristics, and intervention characteristics were mixed, indicating a range of approaches aiming to increase empathy were considered in the review. Of those interventions examined in the review, none of them accounted for individual differences, instead adopting a ‘one glove fits all’ approach. This may explain why only seven of the reported studies reported significant improvements in empathy. Limitations of the review and areas for future research are identified and discussed. The second section consists of an empirical research paper investigating the relationship between narcissism and empathy in Healthcare Professionals. Scant research has explored narcissism levels in Healthcare populations. Narcissists lack empathy but can be empathic. Empathy is important for fostering relationships between healthcare professionals and patients. Thus, we designed a study to test whether it is possible to make empathy appealing to a narcissist – by appealing to their agentic motivations. In total, 192 Healthcare Professionals participated in the study. Amongst this population, narcissism predicted lower levels of empathy towards the hypothetical patient. However, we were not successful at making empathy appealing to healthcare professionals scoring higher in narcissism. Implications for theory, clinical practice, and future research is discussed. <br/
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Most studies have treated grandiose narcissism as a unidimensional construct and investigated its associations in cross-sectional convenience samples. The present research systematically addresses these limitations by investigating the associations of agentic and antagonistic aspects of narcissism in the interpersonal, intrapersonal, and institutional domains, cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a population-representative sample. We used data (N = 1,526) from the representative, longitudinal German Socio-economic Panel study innovation sample (SOEP-IS). Both pre-registered and exploratory research questions regarding interpersonal, intrapersonal, and institutional outcomes of agentic and antagonistic aspects of narcissism were tested. Cross-sectional associations generally confirmed the differential adaptivity of narcissism aspects: While agentic narcissism was related to 'friendship', 'happiness', 'self-esteem', 'employment', 'leadership' and 'income', antagonistic narcissism was negatively related to 'intrapsychic adjustment'. Longitudinally, agentic aspects were positively associated with holding a 'leadership position' while the antagonistic aspects were related to lower 'self-esteem' and being 'unemployed'. Additional differentiated longitudinal associations were found for different age groups with most associations being more pronounced in middle adulthood. The present research highlights the importance of studying grandiose narcissism as a two-dimensional construct, in populations that are diverse and representative of the broader population, and with outcomes relevant to the population studied.
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Grandiose narcissists (individuals with a tendency to be self-focused, egotistical, and vain) overwhelmingly desire celebrity status. Here, we examined the conditions underlying narcissists' fame motivation. In Study 1, we assessed participants' desire to become a social media user who attained high status, tried to attain status but failed, or had no status-attainment goal. In Study 2, we assessed how participants' self-perceived similarity to high-status targets (e.g., Hollywood/social media celebrities) influences their desire to become them. We found that participants reporting high narcissism were most motivated to become successful social media celebrities, disliking people who tried to attain status but failed more than they disliked people who had no goal for fame (Study 1). Moreover, narcissists emulated high-status targets only when they felt similar (vs. dissimilar) to them (Study 2). Thus, narcissists do not perceive all fame as equally desirable and only express a desire for fame when it is attainable.
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The social relations model (SRM) is widely used in psychology to investigate the components that underlie interpersonal perceptions, behaviors, and judgments. SRM researchers are often interested in investigating the multivariate relations between SRM effects. However, at present, it is not possible to investigate such relations without relying on a two-step approach that depends on potentially unreliable estimates of the true SRM effects. Here, we introduce a way to combine the SRM with the structural equation modeling (SEM) framework and show how the parameters of our combination can be estimated with a maximum likelihood (ML) approach. We illustrate the model with an example from personality psychology. We also investigate the statistical properties of the model in a small simulation study showing that our approach performs well in most simulation conditions. An R package (called srm) is available implementing the proposed methods.
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Circumplex structures are elements of various psychological domains. Most work focuses on assessing the circular ordering of circumplex indicators and their relationships with covariates. In this article, an extension procedure for Browne’s circumplex model is presented. Our approach models the relationships among circumplex indicators and the relationships of covariates with a latent circumplex simultaneously without affecting the circumplex indicators’ positions on the circumplex. The approach builds up on Browne’s Fourier series parameterization of a correlation function, which is used to model the latent circumplex correlation structure. It extends the shape of the correlation function to the profile of each covariate’s correlations with the circumplex. The model is specified in the framework of structural equation modeling, thereby making it possible to test various hypotheses. Procedures are presented for deriving interval estimates for the parameters that relate the covariates to the circumplex. The model is compared to other approaches for assessing the relationships of a circumplex with covariates. The results of the exemplary applications and a simulation study were in favor of the suggested model. The approach is furthermore illustrated with a real-data example, focusing on the relationships between the interpersonal circumplex and the rivalry and admiration aspects of narcissism.
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Narsisizm kavramı aşırı öz-güven, alkışlanma arzusu, yoğun beğenilme beklentisi, kendini oldukça özel hissetmek, özel bir muameleyi hak ettiğine inanmak, iddialılık, risk alma, saldırganlık, kıskançlık, sömürmek ve empati yoksunluğu ile ilişkilendirilir. Çalışmanın temel amacı narsisizmin örgütsel çalışmalar alanında yansıması olan CEO narsisizminin temel dinamiklerini aydınlatmaktır. Bu anlamda, CEO narsisizminin nasıl kavramsallaştırıldığı, beslendiği temel teoriler ve örgütsel çalışmalar üzerindeki etkisi hakkında detaylı ve kapsamlı değerlendirmeler yapılmıştır. Ayrıca, narsist CEO’ların nasıl düşündüğü, hissettiği/motive olduğu ve tepki verdiği üzerinde durulmuştur. CEO narsisizminin beslendiği temel teoriler, avantajlı ve dezavantajlı yönleri ile değerlendirilmiştir. CEO narsisizminin ahlaki temelini şekillendirmede erdem etiği perspektifi önerilmiştir. Paradoks teorisiyle tutarlı olarak, CEO narsisizminin CEO merhameti ve bilgeliği değişkenleriyle birlikte çalışılması önerilmiştir. Bu bağlamda, CEO narsisizm araştırmalarına kaynakların muhafazası teorisi önerilmiştir.
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Purpose This paper aims to examine the effects of the leaders’ dark triad (DT) personality traits, namely, Machiavellianism, Narcissism and Psychopathy, on the team performance variability. Furthermore, this work explores the role of team agreeableness in the above relationship. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on the longitudinal and archival data obtained from the sales team (team leaders: n = 190; team members: n = 832) of 19 firms dealing with fast-moving consumer goods in India. Findings From the finding of the study, it can be inferred that the presence of DT traits in the leaders causes high fluctuations in team performance. Besides, team agreeableness was found to moderate the relationship between the DT traits of the leaders and the team performance variability. Originality/value The theoretical and practical implications of the study are also discussed.
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The social relations model (SRM) is a mathematical model that can be used to analyze interpersonal judgment and behavior data. Typically, the SRM is applied to one (i.e., univariate SRM) or two variables (i.e., bivariate SRM), and parameter estimates are obtained by employing an analysis of variance method. Here, we present an extension of the SRM to an arbitrary number of variables and show how the parameters of this multivariate model can be estimated using a maximum likelihood or a restricted maximum likelihood approach. Overall, the two likelihood approaches provide consistent and efficient parameter estimates and can be used to investigate a multitude of interesting research questions.
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Reactions to trait self-enhancers were investigated in 2 longitudinal studies of person.perception in discussion groups. Groups of 4-6 participants met 7 times for 20 rain. After Meetings 1 and 7, group members rated their perceptions of one another. In Study 1, trait self-enhancement was indexed by measures of narcissism and self-deceptive enhancement. At the first meeting, self-enhancers made positive impressions: They were seen as agreeable, well adjusted, and competent. After 7 weeks, however, they were rated negatively and gave self-evaluations discrepant with peer evaluations they received. In Study 2, an independent sample of observers (close acquaintances) enabled a pretest index of discrepancy self-enhancement: It predicted the same deteriorating pattern of interpersonal perceptions as the other three trait measures. Nonetheless, all self-enhancement measures correlated positively with self-esteem.
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Among the Dark Triad of personality, both narcissism and psychopathy have been linked to impulsivity. What remains unclear is the pattern of associations that the Dark Triad have with functional and dysfunctional types of impulsivity. Using both student (N=142) and adult samples (N=329), we investigated the association of the Dark Triad variables with Dickman’s measures of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity. Based on regression analyses, psychopathy was most closely associated with dysfunctional impulsivity whereas narcissism was associated with functional impulsivity. It appears that narcissistic impulsivity involves venturesome social engagement whereas psychopathic impulsivity stems from poor self-regulation. As expected, Machiavellianism had no consistent association with either type of impulsivity. In short, the Dark Triad members show a coherent pattern of relations with impulsivity.
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The subclinical Dark Triad traits narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy (Paulhus & Williams, 2002) are related to antagonistic behaviors in interpersonal situations. The current study addresses whether these three traits entail different social consequences by investigating self-ratings, ratings of others, and ratings by others for the Dark Triad. In a naturalistic setting, 93 informal, minimally acquainted student dyads worked briefly on a cooperative task and subsequently provided self- and other- ratings on the Big Five and intelligence, self-ratings on the Dark Triad, and ratings on properties of the interaction. Overall, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy manifested differently: profile analyses indicated that Machiavellians diverged from narcissists and psychopaths in self-ratings, ratings of others, and ratings by others, while narcissists and psychopaths converged to a moderate degree. Findings are discussed regarding the distinction of the Dark Triad traits.
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A new model of narcissism is presented, the contextual reinforcement model. This model describes an area where narcissism will be largely beneficial to the self and, to a lesser extent, to others. This “emerging zone” includes situations involving unacquainted individuals, early-stage relationships, and short-term contexts. The costs of narcissism are seen primarily in the “enduring zone.” These are situations involving acquainted individuals, continuing relationships, and long-term consequences. A dynamic in which narcissists cyclically return to the emerging zone is described. Research on the functioning of narcissism in leadership settings is presented as a case study of the contextual reinforcement model. Implications for understanding self-enhancement more broadly are discussed.
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Zusammenfassung: Für die deutschsprachige Fassung der Rosenberg-Skala zum Selbstwertgefühl von Ferring und Filipp (1996) wird eine Teilrevision vorgeschlagen. Ein Item der bisherigen Skalenversion stellte sich in eigenen Analysen als psychometrisch unzulänglich heraus und weist eine mangelnde inhalt-liche Validität auf. Dadurch ist möglicherweise die Vergleichbarkeit mit der Originalversion und mit Adaptationen der Rosenberg-Skala in anderen Sprachen nicht gewährleistet. Die vorgeschlagene Teilre-vision der Skala versucht, diese Mängel zu beheben und erweist sich in zwei unabhängigen Untersuchun-gen als Verbesserung der bisherigen Skala auf Itemebene. Außerdem werden hier erstmals vollständige Kennwerte für alle Skalenitems mitgeteilt. Abstract: A partial revision is proposed for the German version of Rosenberg's general self-esteem scale published by Ferring und Filipp (1996). According to our results, one item of the previous scale adaptation turned out to be psychometrically weak and – in our opinion – is lacking content validity. Therefore, the comparability with the original version and with adaptations of the Rosenberg-scale in other languages might be critical. The partially revised scale tries to eliminate these shortcomings and shows improved item statistics in two independent samples. In addition, complete statistics are presented for all scale items.
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arcissism is a quality of the self that has significant implications for thinking, feeling, and behaving. Individuals with narcissistic personality possess highly inflated, unrealistically positive views of the self. Often- times, this includes strong self-focus, feelings of entitlement, and lack of regard for others. Narcissists focus on what benefits them personally, with less regard for how their actions may benefit (or harm) others. Most interesting from our perspective as self-researchers is the vast array of self-regulatory strategies used by narcissists (e.g., admiration-seeking, bragging, displaying material goods, socializing with important individuals, etc.). These strategies are both causes and consequences of narcissists' inflated self-beliefs. Our general orientation toward the narcissistic self is evident in the agency model of narcissism (Campbell, Brunell, & Finkel, 2006). As originally conceptualized, however, the agency model left out some important aspects of narcissistic self-regulation. In this chapter, we briefly review the literature on narcissism and more specifically narcissistic self-regulation. We then present an extended agency model that includes aspects of narcissistic self- regulation previously ignored by the original model. Finally, we discuss some of the current controversies surrounding narcissism in the literature.
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A widely used measure of narcissism in normal populations, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), was located within the frameworks of two more comprehensive personality models: the Interpersonal Circumplex and the Five-Factor model. The NPI was found to be highly positively correlated with Dominance and Exhibitionism markers of the Circumplex as well as with one of the orthogonal axes (Agency) but not significantly related to the other (Communion). The seven components of the NPI were all positively related to the Agency axis as well, but their relationships with the Communion axis ranged from negative to positive. Among the Big Five personality factors, the NPI was positively correlated with Extraversion and negatively correlated with Neuroticism and Agreeableness; the seven NPI components showed minor variations on this same general theme. Findings supported the viability of two alternative theoretical perspectives with respect to this construct: within a broad clinical perspective, the construct of narcissism may be used to represent a pathological deficit within the communal dimension whereas, within a more narrow perspective, narcissism may be understood to represent a limited but relatively healthy line of agentic development.
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Previous research reveals a substantial degree of variability in the extent to which narcissism (as measured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory or NPI; Emmons, 1987) and self-esteem (measured using a variety of self-report scales) are associated. Data from 329 college students provided support for the hypothesis that the variability in associations between narcissism and different measures of self-esteem may be explained in part by the degree to which a given self-esteem measure is related to dominance. These results have important implications for research on narcissism and self-esteem, as well as the broader issue of how self-esteem is conceptualized and measured in psychological research.
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This chapter describes self-esteem and provides an overview of existing perspectives on self-esteem. Self-esteem is a sociometer, essentially an internal monitor of the degree to which one is valued or devalued as a relational partner. The chapter evaluates a series of specific, testable hypotheses about self-esteem and examines laboratory and other findings in relevance to the sociometer theory and its specific hypotheses. This sociometer theory also reinterprets several interpersonal phenomena that have been explained previously in terms of the self-esteem motive. In specific, self-esteem refers to a person's appraisal of his or her value. Global self-esteem denotes a global value judgment about the self, whereas domain-specific self-esteem involves appraisals of one's value in a particular area. Self-esteem is an affectively laden self-evaluation. Self-evaluations are in turn assessments of one's behavior or attributes along evaluative dimensions. Some self-evaluations are dispassionate. whereas others are affectively laden. Self-esteem focuses primarily on individual differences in dispositional or trait self-esteem.
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In this article, we present TripleR, an R package for the calculation of social relations analyses (Kenny, 1994) based on round-robin designs. The scope of existing software solutions is ported to R and enhanced with previously unimplemented methods of significance testing in single groups (Lashley & Bond, 1997) and handling of missing values. The package requires only minimal knowledge of R, and results can be exported for subsequent analyses to other software packages. We demonstrate the use of TripleR with several didactic examples.
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Do narcissists have insight into the negative aspects of their personality and reputation? Using both clinical and subclinical measures of narcissism, the authors examined others' perceptions, self-perceptions, and meta-perceptions of narcissists across a wide range of traits for a new acquaintance and close other (Study 1), longitudinally with a group of new acquaintances (Study 2), and among coworkers (Study 3). Results bring 3 surprising conclusions about narcissists: (a) they understand that others see them less positively than they see themselves (i.e., their meta-perceptions are less biased than are their self-perceptions), (b) they have some insight into the fact that they make positive first impressions that deteriorate over time, and (c) they have insight into their narcissistic personality (e.g., they describe themselves as arrogant). These findings shed light on some of the psychological mechanisms underlying narcissism.
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The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a widely used measure of narcissism. However, debates persist about its exact factor structure with researchers proposing solutions ranging from two to seven factors. The present research aimed to clarify the factor structure of the NPI and further illuminate its nomological network. Four studies provided support for a three-factor model consisting of the dimensions of Leadership/Authority, Grandiose Exhibitionism, and Entitlement/Exploitativeness. The Leadership/Authority dimension was generally linked to adaptive outcomes whereas the other two dimensions, particularly Entitlement/Exploitativeness, were generally linked to maladaptive outcomes. These results suggest that researchers interested in the psychological and behavioral outcomes associated with the NPI should examine correlates at the facet level. In light of the findings, we propose a hierarchical model for the structure of the NPI and provide researchers with a scoring scheme for this commonly used instrument.
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The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a higher order factor structure that conforms to the theoretical structure of pathological narcissism with one factor representing narcissistic grandiosity and the other capturing narcissistic vulnerability. These results uniquely place the PNI as the only measure to broadly assess the two phenotypic themes of pathological narcissism. In the second study, results from tests of measurement invariance indicate that the PNI performs similarly in large samples of men (n = 488) and women (n = 495). These results further establish the psychometric properties of the PNI and suggest that it is well suited for the assessment of pathological narcissism.
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Zusammenfassung. An vier Stichproben wurden die psychometrischen Eigenschaften der deutschen Version des NPI (Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Raskin & Hall, 1979, 1981) untersucht. Die Skala erfasst subklinischen Narzissmus als Personlichkeitsmerkmal. Das NPI erwies sich sowohl in seiner Lang- als auch in seiner Kurzform als hinreichend konsistent und zeitlich stabil. Hinweise auf konvergente und diskriminante Validitat fanden sich u.a. in Bezug auf Selbstwertschatzung und die Dimensionen des Funf-Faktoren-Modells. Mit Hilfe von Faktorenanalysen wurde die interne Struktur der Langversion untersucht. Die empirisch ermittelte Faktorenlosung unterscheidet sich von den bei Emmons (1987) oder Raskin und Terry (1988) berichteten, ahnelt letzterer aber mehr als ersterer.
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We propose a dynamic self-regulatory processing model of narcissism and review supporting evidence. The model casts narcissism in terms of motivated self-construction, in that the narcissist's self is shaped by the dynamic interaction of cognitive and affective intrapersonal processes and interpersonal self-regulatory strategies that are played out in the social arena. A grandiose yet vulnerable self-concept appears to underlie the chronic goal of obtaining continuous external self-affirmation. Because narcissists are insensitive to others' concerns and social constraints and view others as inferior, their self-regulatory efforts often are counterproductive and ultimately prevent the positive feedback that they seek-thus undermining the self they are trying to create and maintain. We draw connections between this model and other processing models in personality and employ these models to further elucidate the construct of narcissism. Reconceptualizing narcissism as a self-regulatory processing system promises to resolve many of its apparent paradoxes, because by understanding how narcissistic cognition, affect, and motivation interrelate, their internal subjective logic and coherence come into focus.