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Abstract

Why do some women pursue relationships with men who are attractive, dominant, and charming but who do not want to be in relationships--the prototypical sexy cad? Previous research shows that women have an increased desire for such men when they are ovulating, but it is unclear why ovulating women would think it is wise to pursue men who may be unfaithful and could desert them. Using both college-age and community-based samples, in 3 studies we show that ovulating women perceive charismatic and physically attractive men, but not reliable and nice men, as more committed partners and more devoted future fathers. Ovulating women perceive that sexy cads would be good fathers to their own children but not to the children of other women. This ovulatory-induced perceptual shift is driven by women who experienced early onset of puberty. Taken together, the current research identifies a novel proximate reason why ovulating women pursue relationships with sexy cads, complementing existing research that identifies the ultimate, evolutionary reasons for this behavior.

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... In the context of mating psychology, "good genes" is perhaps the answer. Women perceive socially dominant behaviour (Kruger, Fisher, & Jobling, 2003), conspicuous consumption (Griskevicius et al., 2007), sexual attractiveness, and charisma (Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantú, & Li, 2012) as indicators of genetic quality, which are all associated with psychopathy (Babiak, Neumann, & Hare, 2010;Lee et al., 2013;Verona, Patrick, & Joiner, 2001). Men's preference for psychopathic traits in women is less well understood, perhaps because psychopathy is hypothesised to have provided fitness only to males and not to females (Jonason, Li, Webster, & Schmitt, 2009). ...
... However, the average age of our female participants was significantly higher than those in a previous study that found preference for psychopathic men in short-term relationships (Jonason et al., 2015). Indeed, during ovulation young women can erroneously judge "cads" for "good dads" (Durante et al., 2012). Nevertheless, this does not explain the pattern of mate choice in men, who are not subject to fertility time constraints (Easton, Confer, Goetz, & Buss, 2010). ...
... There are limitations to the current study. We did not control for ovulation, which can distort women's evaluations of potential mates (Durante et al., 2012). A future study could explore if psychopathy variant interacts with ovulation in influencing mate preference. ...
Article
Despite their reputation for taking advantage of other people, previous research shows that psychopathic individuals are attractive for short-term relationships. Furthermore, individuals with psychopathic traits have been found to be attracted to other psychopathic persons in both short and long-term relationships. The current study (N = 258), is the first to extend the investigation further by examining whether these findings pertain to the affective (i.e., primary) or behavioural (i.e., secondary) aspects of psychopathy, and if this varies according to sex. Using a series of personality profiles, we found that men and women evaluated individuals higher in primary or secondary psychopathic traits unattractive for both short and long-term relationships. However, those individuals higher in primary and secondary psychopathic traits found similar partners attractive in short and long-term relationships, and this was strongest in women higher in primary psychopathic traits for long-term relationships, and in women higher in secondary psychopathic traits for short and long-term relationships. Results are discussed from an evolutionary theoretical perspective.
... Table 1 summarizes five arbitrary choices in data processing, both in Study 1 and 2, and the different reasonable options we will consider for each arbitrary choice. Option (a) always corresponds to the processing choice made by Durante et al. (2012), while the remaining options correspond to alternative choices they could have reasonably made. In the following sections, we describe the alternative options in detail. ...
... Fertility. First, the classification of women into a high or low fertility group based on cycle day can be done using several reasonable alternatives: assigning women with cycle days 6-14 to the high fertility group and women with cycle days 17-27 to the low fertility group (Durante, Griskevicius, Hill, Perilloux, & Li, 2011), days 9-17 for high fertility and 18-25 for low fertility (Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantú, & Li, 2012), days 8-14 for high fertility and 1-7 and 15-28 for low fertility (Durante, Griskevicius, Cantú, & Simpson, 2014), and days 9-17 for high fertility and 1-8 and 18-28 for low fertility (Durante & Arsena, 2015). ...
... First, it is not unreasonable to exclude participants with irregular cycle lengths. This could amount to only including women with cycle lengths 25 to 35 (Durante et al., 2012). This exclusion criterion can be instantiated in two reasonable ways, using either a woman's computed cycle length or a woman's self-reported typical cycle length. ...
Article
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Empirical research inevitably includes constructing a data set by processing raw data into a form ready for statistical analysis. Data processing often involves choices among several reasonable options for excluding, transforming, and coding data. We suggest that instead of performing only one analysis, researchers could perform a multiverse analysis, which involves performing all analyses across the whole set of alternatively processed data sets corresponding to a large set of reasonable scenarios. Using an example focusing on the effect of fertility on religiosity and political attitudes, we show that analyzing a single data set can be misleading and propose a multiverse analysis as an alternative practice. A multiverse analysis offers an idea of how much the conclusions change because of arbitrary choices in data construction and gives pointers as to which choices are most consequential in the fragility of the result.
... As such, research in the evolutionary tradition has predicted and found that men's minimum possible level of parental investment-a single act of intercourse, which contrasts with women's minimum investment of a 9-month gestational period-motivates men to be more open to sex outside a primary partnership and less committed to any single relationship (Buss & Schmitt, 1993;Schmitt & Shackelford, 2003;Schmitt, Shackelford, Duntley, Tooke, & Buss, 2001). For women, research in the evolutionary tradition has found that they too exhibit increased attraction to attractive alternatives, particularly near ovulation (i.e., during the fertile phase of their reproductive cycle) and when their current partner does not possess markers of genetic fitness (e.g., social dominance; see Cantú et al., 2014;Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantu, & Li, 2012;Gangestad, Garver-Apgar, Simpson, & Cousins, 2007). s0020 2.2 Relationship Science Approaches p0065 Developing concurrently with, but largely independently from, mainstream evolutionary psychological approaches to human mating, various relationship science approaches have emerged in recent decades. ...
... Because the indirect genetic benefits of mating with men high in genetic fitness can only be obtained via sex at ovulation, the increased preference should be evident only when women consider these men as sex partners. Notably, the ovulatory shift hypothesis does not predict corresponding ovulatory shifts in sexual desire for men possessing characteristics indicative of being a good long-term partner or future father, such as being faithful, kind, and warm (Durante et al., 2012;. These characteristics could have contributed to women's reproductive success, regardless of their fertility status or the relationship context. ...
... On the basis of these predictions, a substantial body of research has found an estrus-induced increase in sexual attraction toward men who possess purported markers of genetic quality. These markers include: (a) social dominance (Cantú et al., 2014;Durante et al., 2012;Gangestad, Simpson, Cousins, Garver-Apgar, & Christensen, 2004;Gildersleeve et al., 2014aGildersleeve et al., , 2014b, (b) masculinity ( Johnston, Hagel, Franklin, Fink, & Grammer, 2001;Little, Jones, & DeBruine, 2008;Penton-Voak et al., 1999;Penton-Voak & Perrett, 2000;Peters, Simmons, & Rhodes, 2009;Puts, 2005Puts, , 2006Roney & Simmons, 2008;Welling et al., 2007), and (c) symmetry (a marker of developmental robustness; Gangestad & Thornhill, 1998;Gangestad et al., 2005aGangestad et al., , 2005bRikowski & Grammer, 1999;Thornhill & Gangestad, 1999;Thornhill et al., 2003). ...
Article
Relationship researchers and evolutionary psychologists have been studying human mating for decades, but research inspired by these two perspectives often yields fundamentally different images of how people mate. Research in the relationship science tradition frequently emphasizes ways in which committed relationship partners are motivated to maintain their relationships (e.g., by cognitively derogating attractive alternatives), whereas research in the evolutionary tradition frequently emphasizes ways in which individuals are motivated to seek out their own reproductive interests at the expense of their partners' (e.g., by surreptitiously having sex with attractive alternatives). Rather than being incompatible, the frameworks that guide each perspective have different assumptions that can generate contrasting predictions and can lead researchers to study the same behavior in different ways. This paper, which represents the first major attempt to bring the two perspectives together in a cross-fertilization of ideas, provides a framework to understand contrasting effects and guide future research. This framework-the conflict-confluence model-characterizes evolutionary and relationship science perspectives as being arranged along a continuum reflecting the extent to which mating partners' interests are misaligned versus aligned. We illustrate the utility of this model by working to integrate relationship science and evolutionary perspectives on the role of ovulatory shifts in women's mating psychology, highlighting the tension between the desire to maintain or strengthen a bond with a current partner versus seek out extra-pair mates. To underscore the generality and generativity of the model, we also illustrate its application to two additional topics: functional perspectives on the role of subjective relationship quality, and "errors" in judgments of mate value. As scholars work to integrate relationship science and evolutionary approaches on additional topics, the promise of a unitary, functional perspective on human mating comes closer to reality.
... Females appear to mask partially their fertility from males, which allows females to exert more control in their reproduction, selecting preferred males at peak fertility (Dubuc et al., 2012). In modern humans in industrialized societies, women at peak fertility in their menstrual cycle are more attracted to charismatic, dominant men (Durante et al., 2012). Men often over-estimate preference by women for male-dominated relationships (Kruger and Fitzgerald, 2011). ...
... Men often over-estimate preference by women for male-dominated relationships (Kruger and Fitzgerald, 2011). Men who use short-term mating strategies are more likely to be considered physically attractive and socially dominant but lack traits associated with long-term partnership and fatherhood (Kruger and Fitzgerald, 2011;Durante et al., 2012). Men who use long-term mating strategies tend to be less dominant, charismatic, and physically attractive but possess traits associated with long-term partnership and parenting (Kruger and Fitzgerald, 2011;Durante et al., 2012). ...
... Men who use short-term mating strategies are more likely to be considered physically attractive and socially dominant but lack traits associated with long-term partnership and fatherhood (Kruger and Fitzgerald, 2011;Durante et al., 2012). Men who use long-term mating strategies tend to be less dominant, charismatic, and physically attractive but possess traits associated with long-term partnership and parenting (Kruger and Fitzgerald, 2011;Durante et al., 2012). Women exhibit shifts in preference from long-to short-term mates as women enter fertile phases in their menstrual cycles, to capitalize on 'good genes' and the personal characteristics and investing behavior characterizing long-term males (Durante et al., 2012). ...
Article
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A complete and compelling evolutionary explanation for the origin of human menopause is wanting. Menopause onset is defined clinically as the final menses, confirmed after 1 year without menstruation. The theory proposed herein explains at multiple levels – ultimately genetic but involving (1) behavioral, (2) life history, and (3) social changes – the origin and evolution of menopause in women. Individuals in Lower Paleolithic human populations were characterized by short lifespans with diminished late-age survival and fertility, similar to contemporary chimpanzees, and thence were subject to three changes. (1) A mating behavior change was established in which only young women reproduced, thereby rendering as effectively neutral female-specific late-onset fertility-diminishing mutations, which accumulated subsequently. (2) A lifespan increase was manifested adaptively, revealing the reproductive senescence phenotype encoded in late-onset fertility-diminishing mutation genotypes, which, heretofore, had been unexpressed in the shorter lifespan. (3) A social interaction change emerged exaptively, when older non-reproductive women exclusively started assisting in rearing grandchildren rather than giving birth to and caring for their own children, ultimately leading to menstrual cycle cessation. The changes associate in a one-to-one manner with existing, non-mutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin of human menopause. Evidence for each hypothesis and its associated change having occurred are reviewed, and the hypotheses are combined in a synthetic theory for the origin of human menopause. The new theory simultaneously addresses the main theoretical problem with each hypothesis and yields predictions for future testing.
... However, the method used potentially increases the error in assessing participants' fertility because it assumes that all participants have a 28-day menstrual cycle. To address this limitation, in Study 3, we will assess participants' fertility using a reverse-cycle-day method, which accounts for variation in cycle length among different participants (Durante, Griskevicius, Hill, Perilloux, & Li, 2011; Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantu, & Li, 2012; Saad & Stenstrom, 2012). ...
... After indicating their choices, participants in Study 3 reported the typical length of their menstrual cycle, and reported the start date of their previous, last, and next (predicted) menstrual period. Using these information, we assigned women to fertile (days 8–15 in a 28-day cycle) versus non-fertile (days 1–5 and 18–28 in a 28-day cycle) groups based on the reverse-cycle-day method (Durante et al., 2011Durante et al., , 2012). ...
Article
We propose that women's increased generalized sensitivity to rewards during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle causes them to seek more variety in rewards when they are in the fertile phase than when they are not in the fertile phase of the cycle. In Studies 1–3, across the reward domains of mating and hedonic food, we show that women seek more variety in rewards when closer to ovulation. Moreover, we provide support for the proposition that women's increased reward sensitivity during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle causes their greater variety seeking. Specifically, in Study 3, we show that fertile women's greater variety seeking does not extend to non-rewards, such as non-hedonic food. Our findings suggest that behavioral effects of women's hormonal shifts during the menstrual cycle are not limited to the mating domain and may extend to a wide category of reward domains.
... And there's abundant evidence men have specialized psychological adaptations for seeking sexual variety (e.g., Buss 1998). Similarly, there's abundant evidence some women have a variety of adaptively designed mate preference shifts to promote shortterm mating with men exhibiting traits thought to signal good genes (e.g., facial symmetry, masculinity) during peak fertility (Gildersleeve et al. 2014) and even evidence these mate preference shifts are predictable by individual difference variables related to reproductive strategies (early vs. late age of first menstrual period) (Durante et al. 2012). There are also reproductive costs to unrestricted sociosexuality in both sexes (e.g., disease risk), which may produce adaptive variation in sociosexuality. ...
... Similarly, desertion by an investing partner is more costly as well. So, anti-promiscuity morality would emerge from evolved sexual psychology interacting with economic and social conditions (Durante et al. 2012). ...
Chapter
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This entry reviewed some ideas that place adaptations for sexual promiscuity and desire for sexual variety (within each sex) in a situationalized adaptive context.
... Homens ao dirigirem carros de luxo em relação a carros familiares, apresentam níveis de testosterona ainda mais significativo quando observados por uma mulher (Saad & Vongas, 2009), evidenciando a diminuição da aversão à perda e a exibição do mercado da paquera. Do lado feminino, preferências por roupas sexy (Durante, Griskevicius, Hill, Perilloux, & Li, 2011b), por indicadores de masculinidade como músculos (Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantu, & Li, 2012;Durante et al., 2012), maior atração à beleza masculina (Frederick & Haselton, 2007) e intenção de voto em políticos mais bonitos (Durante, Rae, & Griskevicius, 2013) quando do período fértil estariam relacionadas à exibição de aptidões e à procura por boas cargas genéticas. ...
... Homens ao dirigirem carros de luxo em relação a carros familiares, apresentam níveis de testosterona ainda mais significativo quando observados por uma mulher (Saad & Vongas, 2009), evidenciando a diminuição da aversão à perda e a exibição do mercado da paquera. Do lado feminino, preferências por roupas sexy (Durante, Griskevicius, Hill, Perilloux, & Li, 2011b), por indicadores de masculinidade como músculos (Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantu, & Li, 2012;Durante et al., 2012), maior atração à beleza masculina (Frederick & Haselton, 2007) e intenção de voto em políticos mais bonitos (Durante, Rae, & Griskevicius, 2013) quando do período fértil estariam relacionadas à exibição de aptidões e à procura por boas cargas genéticas. ...
Article
O homo sapiens vai às compras com uma mente moldada em um ambiente de caçadores e coletores. O estudo da biologia evolutiva não se restringe às características físicas selecionadas por meio de pressões ambientais e sua contribuição para a sobrevivência e reprodução de organismos. Características comportamentais também são selecionadas e há pouca ou nenhuma discordância a esse respeito quando o não se trata de comportamentos da espécie homo sapiens. Módulos mentais selecionados ao longo de um passado ancestral e não necessariamente adaptados ao mundo moderno influenciam, ainda que não percebidos, as decisões de seres humanos em ambientes de compra. Módulos mentais distintos como a atração de parceiros ou flerte, sua manutenção e cuidado com a prole, a reputação e status perante o grupo e a resposta frente ameaças à sobrevivência, foram selecionados, tal qual características físicas, por sua capacidade de resposta aos problemas recorrentes nesse passado ancestral. Vieses cognitivos, sintomas da irracionalidade que para os economistas comportamentais, desafiam os fundamentos da economia clássica, são, para a Psicologia Evolucionista, o resultado de uma racionalidade profunda selecionada em um ambiente ancestral para a resolução de problemas recorrentes e não perfeitamente adaptada ao mundo atual. Os vieses de hoje são resultados da racionalidade que no passado promoveu adaptação e sobrevivência. A Psicologia Evolucionista é um campo de estudo que visa unificar os domínios da Teoria da Evolução e da Psicologia Cognitiva procurando responder como um comportamento particular, cognição, emoção e/ou percepção constituiu uma solução funcional para um problema adaptativo no passado evolutivo. A incorporação de princípios da Psicologia Evolucionista ao estudo do Comportamento do Consumidor oferece uma potencial meta teoria capaz de unificar os diversos subcampos da psicologia, contribuindo para a geração e testes de hipóteses que podem auxiliar na compreensão de fenômenos de consumo universais, em tendências de consumo distintas dados estímulos que evoquem cada um dos módulos mentais e no entendimento de decisões de consumo em diferentes fases de nossa vida. O estudo da Psicologia Evolucionista pode, à luz do caráter integrativo do campo de Comportamento do Consumidor, oferecer subsídios baseados em nosso passado evolutivo para a elaboração e teste de hipóteses referentes ao desencadeamento de emoções, processo decisório e diferenças comportamentais em ambientes de compra. Apresentamos nesse ensaio, os pressupostos da Psicologia Evolucionista, fundamentados a partir dos estudos de Darwin e do surgimento das correntes comportamentais darwinistas, suas principais contribuições já publicadas no campo do Comportamento do Consumidor e desenvolvemos doze proposições de pesquisa.
... 31 U jednom od istraživanja tragalo se za odgovorom na pitanje zašto su žene u ovulaciji sklonije upravo ovakvom tipu muškaraca. 32 Rezultati su potvrdili da žene u fazi ovulacije procjenjuju fizički privlačne i muževne muškarce kao pouzdane i brižne očeve, dok su u ostalim fazama ciklusa procjene pouzdanosti tih muškaraca značajno niže. Pored navedenog, žene u plodnoj fazi muževnog muškarca procjenjuju kao odanog budućeg oca u hipotetskoj situaciji koja pretpostavlja da imaju zajedničke potomke, ali ne i u situaciji da s njim dijete ima neka druga žena. ...
... Pored navedenog, žene u plodnoj fazi muževnog muškarca procjenjuju kao odanog budućeg oca u hipotetskoj situaciji koja pretpostavlja da imaju zajedničke potomke, ali ne i u situaciji da s njim dijete ima neka druga žena. 32 Sumirajući dosadašnje nalaze, procjene nekih autora 33 ukazuju da je tijekom posljednjeg desetljeća 75% objavljenih istraživanja u kojima je testirana hipoteza ovulatornog pomaka potvrdilo da žene u vrijeme ovulacije preferiraju muškarce koji odaju znakove kvalitetnih gena. No, nekoliko je istraživanja bacilo sumnju na robusnost ovog efekta, 34,35 te se meta-analiza činila kao prigodno rješenje ovog problema. ...
Article
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Comparative research conducted on mammalian females, including women, has led to the conclusion that women have lost explicit ovulation cues throughout evolution. However, over the past decade, results of numerous studies imply that ovulation is not entirely concealed. The aim of this paper is to give a review and synthesis of previous findings which show that the most fertile period is characterized by various changes in behavior. One of those changes is shift in preference for different male characteristics. The fertile phase is also characterized by changes in sexual behavior, i.e. they feel more attractive, take more care of their physical appearance, use more beauty products, more often initiate sexual intercourse and fantasize more about sex. Furthermore, changes in the levels of jealousy are also found. All of these changes are assumed to represent revolutionary adaptive mechanisms. At the same time, different mechanisms developed that enabled men to detect a fertile phase in order to enhance their reproductive success. Detection of the fertile phase is based on olfactory, visual and auditory information.
... The ovulatory shift hypothesis posits that women should experience increased sexual attraction to men possessing purported markers of genetic fitness when fertile in their cycles . Research inspired by this hypothesis has found that ovulating women have increased sexual desire for men who display facial symmetry and attractiveness (Gangestad and Thornhill 1998;Gangestad, Thornhill, and Garver-Apgar 2005;Pillsworth and Haselton 2006), masculinity (Penton-Voak and Perrett 2000;Puts 2005Puts , 2006, and social dominance Durante et al. 2012;Gangestad et al. 2007). Each of these traits is purported to be a reliable cue to genes that were beneficial in ancestral environments. ...
... Building on the finding that decreased loyalty and felt security in social relationships leads to an increased desire for variety in consumer choice (Ybarra et al. 2012), and on previous research that suggests that fertility decreases women's relationship satisfaction and increases their desire for new options in men (Durante et al. 2012;Gildersleeve et al. 2014;Larson et al. 2012Larson et al. , 2013, we propose that the hormones that regulate fertility should lead women to desire variety in consumer products. ...
Article
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Previous research finds that ovulation—the time each month when women are most fertile—can shift women’s mating psychology and increase their desire for new options in men. However, might ovulation also increase women’s desire for new products? Four studies find that women select a greater number of unique options from consumer product sets at high fertility. This effect is especially strong for women in committed relationships. Additional findings show that the fertility shift in desire for variety in products is driven by the fertility shift in desire for new options in men activating a variety-seeking mind-set. Subsequently, loyalty to a romantic partner, whether manipulated or measured, moderated the effect of fertility on consumer variety seeking. This research contributes to the literature by revealing when, why, and how fertility influences desire for variety in consumer choice and highlights the mating motives that underlie this effect.
... Također su sklone za kratkoročnu vezu birati muževnijega i privlačnijega muškarca nego što je to njihov partner (Bellis i Baker, 1990), a preferencija potencijalnoga partnera s dominantnim crtama podudara se s povišenim razinama LH i folikulstimulirajućega hormona (Lukaszewski i Roney, 2009). U fazi visokog rizika od oplodnje žene su također manje sklone rabiti zaštitu pri spolnom odnosu (Bellis i Baker, 1990) te očekuju da će privlačniji i dominantni muškarci više ulagati u njihovo potomstvo (Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantú i Li, 2012). ...
Article
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Previous studies have shown higher jealousy in women's reaction to partner's emotional, compared to sexual infidelity. Differences in jealousy over two infidelity types might change during the menstrual cycle. According to the evolutionary hypothesis, a greater jealousy over partner's emotional infidelity was expected in the preovulatory phase when conception is possible and greater jealousy over sexual infidelity in the menstrual phase. Following this, the aim of the study was to investigate the differences in electrodermal reactions (EDR) and assessments of jealousy over partner's emotional and sexual infidelity during the menstrual and preovulatory phase. A group of 26 female participants with a regular menstrual cycle took part in the study during the 13th and the 2nd day of the menstrual cycle. EDR were registered in the control situation and in situations of imagining two infidelity types. Participants also assessed the intensity of jealousy on a five-point scale. General activation and EDR were higher in the preovulatory phase. No differences in EDR between imagining the partner's sexual and emotional infidelity were obtained. Emotional jealousy was estimated higher during the preovulatory phase, while sexual jealousy was higher during the menstrual phase.
... They inherited from their ancestors the propensity to take good genes from top-ranking males. In my view, what Durante et al. (2012) After all, the top-ranking males and sexy cads are similar in that they are socially dominant, they have good genes, and they leave the child-raising duties to their female partners. The low-ranking males and good dads are similar in that they do not have good genes, and they use the strategy of provisioning their female partners and children to spread their genes. ...
Article
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According to some psychological studies, women approaching ovulation feel the increased desire to have short-term sexual affairs with “sexy cads” while they are in long-term relations with “good dads.” I argue that this psychological property is a vestige of our evolutionary history. Early hominid females occasionally acquired good genes from top-ranking males while they were in long-term relations with low-ranking males. The Paleolithic living conditions indicate that women with the foregoing psychological trait were more likely to have viable children than (...) those without it. Sexy cads are the descendents of the top-ranking males, and good dads are the descendents of the low-ranking males. Sexy cads and good dads will continue to coexist in the future, developing better methods to detect cheaters and to escape detection.
... It is possible that women who are high in these traits mistake ''sexy cads'' for ''good dads''. Such cognitive distortions have been previously found, during ovulation, when women have increased sex-drive and a desire for masculinized partners (Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantú, & Li, 2012). Similarly, men high in psychopathy also rated high psychopathy advertisements as desirable mothers. ...
... It is possible that women who are high in these traits mistake ''sexy cads'' for ''good dads''. Such cognitive distortions have been previously found, during ovulation, when women have increased sex-drive and a desire for masculinized partners (Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantú, & Li, 2012). Similarly, men high in psychopathy also rated high psychopathy advertisements as desirable mothers. ...
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Previous research on the Dark Triad traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) has focused solely on the role the Dark Triad traits played in mate choice of actors. The current study (N = 336) extends this by manipulating the apparent levels of Dark Triad traits in targets and correlating mate choice in these targets with individual differences in the Dark Triad traits in actors. As expected, both sexes preferred partners low in the Dark Triad traits for long-term mating, while those high in these traits were preferred for one-night stands. However, women high in psychopathy considered the Dark Triad traits in potential male partners more physically attractive and desirable for an one-night stand, as well as a potential husband. Men who were high on psychopathy were likewise attracted to psychopathy in potential mothers. Our findings are discussed from an evolutionary personality paradigm.
... Even if the women believed that they were interacting with the same man (given the improbability of two men to say exactly the same thing), women's appraisal of the man based on the content of his speech may have varied across the cycle, influencing their response accordingly. Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantu, and Li (2012), for example, reported cycle-specific perceptual shifts concerning the same male stimulus. As for the fourth hypothesis (that f 0 would be higher in HP than in LP), we expected that the behavioral change (display) in HP in a simulated dating context would include elevation of pitch that accentuates the potential vocal cue to fertility. ...
Article
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In a simulated speed dating context, 36 women were audio recorded as they verbally responded to an attractive male voice heard with its fundamental frequency (f0) electronically raised or lowered. Women's responses, recorded during high-and low-fertility phases of their menstrual cycles, were analyzed acoustically and evaluated for their attractiveness by 50 male listeners. As hypothesized, fertility increased ratings of attractiveness. Against our prediction, however, it lowered f0, and the raised and lowered male voice exerted no effect on women's f0 or attractiveness ratings in either fertility phase. Results are discussed in relation to cycle-related changes in women's mating preferences and behavior, context-induced changes in speech, and subtlety in potentially dual sexual strategies.
... However, women's preference for males with resources has not only been shown in the context of long-term relationships, but also in the context of short-term, rather casual (sexual) encounters (Buss & Schmitt, 1993;Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantú, & Li, 2012). For example, Hill, Nocks, and Gardner (1987) found that females evaluated males more negatively, both as potential marital partners and as potential sex partners, when they were displayed showing more skin than when they were completely dressed. ...
... However, recent work suggests undesirable traits may play important roles in mate choice. For example, ovulating women may sometimes prefer men higher in subclinical psychopathy and narcissism (i.e., cads or bad boys; Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantú, & Li, 2012;Jonason, Valentine, Li, & Harbeson, 2011). ...
Article
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Mate preference research has focused on traits people desire in partners (i.e., dealmakers) rather than what traits they avoid (i.e., dealbreakers), but mate preferences calibrate to both maximize benefits and minimize costs. Across six studies (N > 6,500), we identified and examined relationship dealbreakers, and how they function across relationship contexts. Dealbreakers were associated with undesirable personality traits; unhealthy lifestyles in sexual, romantic, and friendship contexts; and divergent mating strategies in sexual and romantic contexts. Dealbreakers were stronger in long-term (vs. short-term) relationship contexts, and stronger in women (vs. men) in short-term contexts. People with higher mate value reported more dealbreakers; people with less-restricted mating strategies reported fewer dealbreakers. Consistent with prospect and error management theories, people weighed dealbreakers more negatively than they weighed dealmakers positively; this effect was stronger for women (vs. men) and people in committed relationships. These findings support adaptive attentional biases in human social cognition.
... The driving theory behind this research is that ovulation should lead women to prioritize the securement of genetic benefits from a mate who possesses indicators of genetic fitness (Thornhill & Gangestad, 2008). Accordingly, ovulating women have an increased desire specifically for short-term sexual relationships with men possessing purported markers of genetic fitness, such as symmetry, masculinity, and social dominance (Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantu, & Li, 2012; Gangestad, Thornhill, & Garver, 2002; Gangestad, Thornhill, & Garver-Apgar, 2005; Garver-Apgar, Gangestad, Thornhill, Miller, & Olp, 2006; Pillsworth & Haselton, 2006). In fact, in the 2008 U.S. presidential election, ovulation boosted women's preference for the more attractive and symmetrical candidate , Barack Obama, over the less attractive and less symmetrical candidate, John McCain (Navarrete, McDonald, Mott, Cesario, & Sapolsky, 2010). ...
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Each month, many women experience an ovulatory cycle that regulates fertility. Although research has found that this cycle influences women's mating preferences, we proposed that it might also change women's political and religious views. Building on theory suggesting that political and religious orientation are linked to reproductive goals, we tested how fertility influenced women's politics, religiosity, and voting in the 2012 U.S. presidential election. In two studies with large and diverse samples, ovulation had drastically different effects on single women and women in committed relationships. Ovulation led single women to become more liberal, less religious, and more likely to vote for Barack Obama. In contrast, ovulation led women in committed relationships to become more conservative, more religious, and more likely to vote for Mitt Romney. In addition, ovulation-induced changes in political orientation mediated women's voting behavior. Overall, the ovulatory cycle not only influences women's politics but also appears to do so differently for single women than for women in relationships.
... Indeed, we found that women were more likely to disperse from rural areas than from towns, which is a reflection of massive urbanization in Finland after World War 2. Prioritizing working over marriage and family can also be viewed as a choice of women, which can in turn be influenced by the perceived population sex ratio and the availability of suitable mates. Indeed, one experiment showed that a femalebiased sex ratio increased women's desire for a career (Durante et al. 2012). Furthermore, it is possible that we do not see the expected effects of sex ratios on movement decisions simply because individuals' perception of local sex ratios may not be accurate, at least in urban environments (Gilbert et al. 2016). ...
... Another possibility is that during ovulation, women have an enhanced perception of their capacity to attract a cad as a serious long-term partner. Recent research by Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantú, and Li (2012) found that during ovulation, females experience a shift in perception, which leads them to believe that cads would make good fathers to their children, whilst concurrently believing that they would not be good fathers to other people's children. Females in our study may have rated a cad highly for short-term mating not for their potential excitement value , but because they genuinely believed (at some level) that they would make good fathers for their children. ...
Article
We report the findings of two studies (N = 142; N = 28) investigating women’s preference for men in short- and long-term mating scenarios and perceptions of honesty of dating adverts written by men high or low in Machiavellianism. Overall, men low on Machiavellianism (viz., dads), were preferred as long-term mates; and men high on Machiavellianism (viz., cads) as short-term mates. Fertile women preferred cads for a short-term relationship and dads as a long-term partner. Higher ratings were given to all adverts when females were fertile, suggesting generally higher levels of desire for a partner when the possibility of conception is highest. In contrast to previous work suggesting traits like Machiavellianism may facilitate a deceptive or exploitative mating strategy in men, the present results suggest (1) women are attuned to differences in men’s personality as a function of fertility and (2) affirms that women prefer cads for short-term mating and dads for long-term mating.
... Results showed that at the peak of fertility women chose the creative man for a short-term mate. This is in line with the good genes vs good dad shift associated with the menstrual cycle (Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantú, & Li, 2012). In addition, G. F. Miller (2000) pointed out that the peak of music-interest during the lifespan is reached in young adulthood, i.e., the period of most intense courtship. ...
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Music is a remarkable universal human-unique trait based on a special genetic and neuroanatomical infrastructure, shared among vocal learners, that links auditory inputs to motor outputs via a sensorimotor feedback. This neural configuration is necessary for rhythmic synchronization, a crucial feature of music that fosters affiliation and positive affects. As a social glue, music is associated with an increased oxytocin and reduced testosterone and cortisol, an endocrine profile linked to parental care. Based on the physiological oxytocinergic loop extended to sociality, music is grounded on cooperation and affiliation. Hence, its power. Yet, how did music propagate? Sexual selection is a prominent theory, claiming that music evolved as an honest signal of cognitive, motor, and cooperative skills, thus an index of good genes positively valued by females. To empirically test sexual selection, and a possible musical division of labor, an experiment was run. The hypothesis was based on the evidence that a) the basal ganglia is a pivotal brain structure in rhythm synchronization which contains vasopressin (AVP) receptors; b) AVP is a neuropeptide similar to oxytocin abundant in males and related to music, dance, and courtship phenotypes; c) AVP peaks in women during ovulation, the most fertile period of the menstrual cycle, in which courtship receptivity reaches the maximum point. Fifteen subjects (8 men, 7 women) participated in a study that measured rhythmic skills through a tapping task. It was predicted that rhythmic synchronization is better in men than women, who perform at the best during ovulation. The hypothesis was confirmed: best synchronization and less tapping variability was recorded for men while within women, ovulation enhanced synchronization. Results point toward within- and between-sex differences in the core structure of music, rhythm, and highlight two aspects of the sexual selection theory: a) within-sex differences suggest that synchronization is a means for alignment during courtship displays; b) between-sex differences shed light on how cooperation and trust propagated. In courtship displays, synchronization is a partner test to assess compatibility. Coordinating in joint activities increases affiliation and positive feelings. By music, cooperation and trust spread in the human lineage via a selection against aggression, viz., neoteny. By reiteration, this inevitably led to a reduced sexual dimorphism and increased paternal care in our lineage, which are associated with reduced testosterone and increased oxytocin, the endocrine responses to music. In conclusion, through the extension of the oxytocin loop from physiology to the social realm, music extended trust and cooperation from blood relationships to peer relationships, allowing the emergence of a novel courtship display based on a cooperative competition.
... Indeed, we found that women were more likely to disperse from rural areas than from towns, which is a reflection of massive urbanization in Finland after World War 2. Prioritizing working over marriage and family can also be viewed as a choice of women, which can in turn be influenced by the perceived population sex ratio and the availability of suitable mates. Indeed, one experiment showed that a femalebiased sex ratio increased women's desire for a career (Durante et al. 2012). Furthermore, it is possible that we do not see the expected effects of sex ratios on movement decisions simply because individuals' perception of local sex ratios may not be accurate, at least in urban environments (Gilbert et al. 2016). ...
Article
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Because sex ratios are a key factor regulating mating success and subsequent fitness both across and within species, there is widespread interest in how population-wide sex ratio imbalances affect marriage markets and the formation of families in human societies. Although most modern cities have more women than men and suffer from low fertility rates, the effects of female-biased sex ratios have garnered less attention than male-biased ratios. Here, we analyze how sex ratios are linked to marriages, reproductive histories, dispersal, and urbanization by taking advantage of a natural experiment in which an entire population was forcibly displaced during World War II to other local Finnish populations of varying sizes and sex ratios. Using a discrete time-event generalized linear mixed-effects model, and including factors that change across time, such as annual sex ratio, we show how sex ratios, reproduction, and migration are connected in a female-dominated environment. Young childless women migrated toward urban centers where work was available to women, and away from male-biased rural areas. In such areas where there were more females, women were less likely to start reproduction. Despite this constraint, women showed little flexibility in mate choice, with no evidence for an increase in partner age difference in female-biased areas. We propose that together these behaviors and conditions combine to generate an “urban fertility trap” which may have important consequences for our understanding of the fertility dynamics of today including the current fertility decline across the developed world.
... engagement) increased women's perceptions of overall mating interest suggested by a dating partner's behaviors. Past research has demonstrated that women perceive greater commitment intent in men to whom they are sexually attracted (Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantú, & Li, 2012;Henningsen & Henningsen, 2010), making it possible that women's mating psychology does not always clearly distinguish between these motives. Further, we did not find evidence that primed paternal disengagement increased women's perceptions of general sexual interest in a man's behaviors performed outside of a dating relationship (see supplemental materials-Appendix A). ...
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Previous research demonstrates reliable associations between low paternal investment and daughters’ precocious and risky sexual behavior. However, little is known about the psychological changes that occur in response to paternal disengagement that encourage these patterns. Here, we aim to redress this empirical gap by testing the effects of paternal disengagement on women’s perceptions of male mating intent. In 4 experiments, women who described their fathers’ absence (vs. a comparison state) perceived greater: mating intent in the described actions of a hypothetical dating partner (Study 1), sexual arousal in male target faces (Studies 2 and 3), and mating interest from a male confederate (Study 4). In a mixed-methods study (Study 5), women with greater developmental exposure to harsh-deviant paternal behavior perceived greater sexual intent in men’s actions than women with lesser exposure. Moreover, these perceptual differences predicted unrestricted sociosexuality among women in this sample. An internal meta-analysis (N = 408) across studies provided support for a relationship between paternal disengagement and women’s perceptions of male sexual intent. Together, this research suggests that low paternal investment (including primed paternal disengagement and harsh-deviant fathering) causes changes in daughters’ perceptions of men that may influence their subsequent mating behavior.
... The present study did not measure the menstrual cycle phase during which women rated the facial composites. It has been argued that women experience an ovulatory-induced perceptual shift, with characteristics most suited to a short-term relationship rated as more attractive during the fertile phase (Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Canfu, & Li, 2012). However, though Aitken, Lyons, and Jonason (2013) suggest that women show some preference for highly-Machiavellian men as short-term partners at peak fertility, other researchers (e.g., report no relationship between facial preference and hormonal status. ...
Article
Women (N = 356) aged 16–68 years were recruited via online social networking sites and research participation websites. Participants were presented with 15 facial composite pairs (each pair including a high and low Dark Triad trait facial morph), and were asked to identify the most attractive individual either in the context of a short-term (n = 171) or long-term relationship (n = 185). Women also completed the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS-V, Zuckerman, 1994), containing boredom susceptibility, disinhibition, experience-seeking, thrill- and adventure-seeking subscales. Results indicate that women are averse to faces with high levels of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy for both short- and long-term romantic relationships. Sensation-seeking does not predict preference for Dark Triad traits as a short-term or long-term partner. Findings replicate previous research indicating that women dislike male faces high on Dark Triad traits for both short- and long-term relationships and are consistent with research suggesting that the aversion to men high on Dark Triad traits is resistant to individual variation.
... Independent lines of research have suggested that men may actually be born predisposed to pursue either long-term "dad" (high sexual fidelity and parental investment) or shortterm "cad" (more promiscuous and less parental investment) strategies, as evidenced by correlations between markers for testosterone (such as digit ratio), sexual precociousness, and "dark triad" (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy) traits. 52 Thus the big winners in the sex (not marriage) market tend to be effective short-term strategists. ...
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Controversially, psychologist and public intellectual Jordan Peterson advises “enforced monogamy” for societies with high percentages of “incels.” As Peterson’s proposal resonates in manosphere circles, this chapter reconstructs and briefly evaluates the argument for it. Premised on the moral importance of civilizational sustainability, advocates argue that both polygamous and socially monogamous but sexually liberal mating patterns result in unsustainable proportions of unattached young men. Given the premises, monogamous societies are probably justified in maintaining their anti-polygamist social and legal norms. The case for imposing stricter sexual norms on socially monogamous but sexually liberal societies is weaker, however, as male involuntary celibacy in those places isn’t as directly caused by male intrasexual competition, and since less intrusive social interventions are more likely to ameliorate “the incel problem.”
... Women in environments perceived to be characterized by relatively low levels of available social support are more likely to prefer partners with more feminine appearance, presumably because this phenotype signals a likelihood of providing the kind of ongoing support that would facilitate successful child rearing . Shifts in women's preferred traits often fall, roughly, along these two lines-preferences for traits that will facilitate reproductive success for one's offspring, such as physical attractiveness, strength, or assertiveness (see Weatherhead & Robertson, 1979), and traits that will facilitate successful child rearing, such as kindness, commitment and faithfulness to a partner, and the ability to provide material resources (Aitken, Lyons, & Jonason, 2013;Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantu, & Li, 2012). ...
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Cues in the environment, including the media environment, can shape the traits that women find attractive or desirable in potential romantic and sexual partners. In the present study, the possibility that advertisements for consumer goods may shape such preferences was explored. In a controlled experiment (n = 170), women were exposed to advertisements for everyday consumer goods, luxury goods, or to no advertisements before indicating their preferences for traits embodied by a desired romantic or sexual partner. Participants exposed to advertisements for everyday goods expressed preference for a constellation of traits that differed significantly from those preferred by participants who viewed no advertisements. In addition, preferences for specific traits, including intelligence, high earning potential, and muscularity, were influenced by exposure to ads for luxury goods; these effects were moderated by participants’ self-reported mate value. Results are discussed in terms of evolutionary theories of partner selection.
... These hormones have various physiological effects and can act on the mind; hence the phase of the menstrual cycle may influence female's perception of male faces (Kościński, 2008;Oinonen & Mazmanian, 2007). Comparing with females in menstrual phase (the infertile phase), females in ovulatory period (the fertile phase) show more preference for male faces with a relatively high attractiveness, holding that females in ovulatory period exhibit more stronger attention bias to attractive male faces (Cobey, Little, & Roberts, 2015;Duncan et al., 2007;Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantú, & Li, 2012;Gangestad & Thornhill, 1998;Hooff et al., 2011;Jones et al., 2005;Little, Jones, Burt, & Perrett, 2007;Maner, Gailliot, & Dewall, 2007;Pawlowski & Jasienska, 2005). According to good gene hypothesis (Thornhill, Gangestad, & Moller, 1999), attractive (masculinized and symmetric) male faces are related to mate quality. ...
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Facial attractiveness plays important roles in social interaction. Electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies found several brain areas to be differentially responsive to attractive relative to unattractive faces. However, little is known about the time course of the information processing, especially under the unattended condition. Based on a "cross-modal delayed response" paradigm, the present study aimed to explore the automatic mechanism of facial attractiveness processing of females with different physiological cycles and males, respectively, through recording the event-related potentials in response to (un)attractive opposite-sex faces by two experiments. The attractiveness-related visual mismatch negativity (attractiveness vMMN) in posterior scalp distribution was recorded in both the experiments, which indicated that attractive faces could be processed automatically. And high-attractive opposite-sex faces can elicit larger vMMN in males than females in menstrual period in Study 1, but similar as females in ovulatory period in Study 2. Furthermore, by comparison, the latency of attractiveness vMMN in females with the ovulatory period was the longest. These results indicated as follows: (1) Males were more sensitive to attractive female faces, (2) females in ovulatory period were also attracted by the attractive male faces, (3) the long vMMN latency in females during ovulatory period suggested a special reproductive motivation to avoid being tainted by genes, which takes priority over the breeding motivation.
... Another explanation is that the longterm ratings were driven by a motivated bias that unconstrained ancestral females from parental investment pressures and enabled them to engage in short-term sexual relationships with genetically advantageous males. Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, and Li (2012), for example, demonstrate that ovulating women over-estimate the fatherly quality of physically attractive and dominant men (i.e., men who ostensibly signal "good-genes," but are less apt to maintain long-term relationships). Although our data are consistent with the conversion strategy, additional research is necessary to further clarify the cuckold and conversion strategies. ...
Article
Research typically reveals that outgroups are regarded with disinterest at best and hatred and enmity at worst. Working from an evolutionary framework, we identify a unique pattern of outgroup attraction. The small-group lifestyle of pre-human ancestors plausibly limited access to genetically diverse mates. Ancestral females may have solved the inbreeding dilemma while balancing parental investment pressures by mating with outgroup males either via converting to an outgroup or cuckolding the ingroup. A vestige of those mating strategies might manifest in human women as a cyclic pattern of attraction across the menstrual cycle, such that attraction to outgroup men increases as fertility increases across the cycle. Two studies, one using a longitudinal method and the other an experimental method, evidenced the hypothesized linear relationship between attraction to outgroup men and fertility in naturally cycling women.
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Wood, Kressel, Joshi, and Louie (2014) report that published, but not unpublished, studies of masculinity, dominance, symmetry, and health preferences show significant overall effects of cycle phase. They interpret this as evidence that reports of cyclic shifts in mate preferences are artifacts of publication bias. I will first discuss why these conclusions do not necessarily follow straightforwardly from their results. I will then discuss their findings for health preferences specifically, concluding that their dismissal of a significant overall effect of cycle phase is unreasonable.
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Evolutionary theories of mating suggest that shifting fertility levels during a woman's menstrual cycle play an important role in the formation and maintenance of romantic relationships. In this article, we review a burgeoning literature that has applied this framework to the investigation of male adaptations to female fertility. The studies reviewed here illuminate the ways in which men evolved to overcome the challenge of finding and attracting mates with peak levels of fertility. In particular, we review research that highlights the types of cues men may use to detect heightened fertility as well as the types of mating processes men display when encountering those cues. We discuss important avenues for future research on this topic as well as implications for psychological theories of romantic attraction.
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After half a century of debate and few empirical tests, there remains no consensus concerning why ovulation in human females is considered concealed. The predominant male investment hypothesis states that females were better able to obtain material investment from male partners across those females’ ovulatory cycles by concealing ovulation. We build on recent work on female competition to propose and investigate an alternative—the female rivalry hypothesis—that concealed ovulation benefited females by allowing them to avoid aggression from other females. Using an agent-based model of mating behaviour and paternal investment in a human ancestral environment, we did not find strong support for the male investment hypothesis, but found support for the female rivalry hypothesis. Our results suggest that concealed ovulation may have benefitted females in navigating their intrasexual social relationships. More generally, this work implies that explicitly considering female–female interactions may inspire additional insights into female behaviour and physiology.
Conference Paper
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Abstract This review investigates whether sexual desire and arousal decline in response to partner familiarity, increase in response to partner novelty, and show differential responding in men and women. These questions were considered through the perspective of two leading evolutionary theories regarding human mating strategies: Sexual Strategies Theory and Attachment Fertility Theory. The hypotheses emerging from these theories were evaluated through a critical analysis of several areas of research including: habituation of arousal to erotic stimuli, preferences regarding number of sexual partners, the impact of long-term monogamous relationships on sexual arousal and desire, and prevalence and risk factors associated with extra-dyadic behavior. The current literature best supports the predictions made by Sexual Strategies Theory, in that sexual functioning has evolved to promote short-term mating. Sexual arousal and desire appear to decrease in response to partner familiarity and increase in response to partner novelty in both men and women. Evidence to date suggests this effect may be greater in men.
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Each month, millions of women experience an ovulatory cycle that regulates fertility. Previous consumer research has found that this cycle influences women's clothing and food preferences. The authors propose that the ovulatory cycle actually has a much broader effect on women's economic behavior. Drawing on theory in evolutionary psychology, the authors hypothesize that the week-long period near ovulation should boost women's desire for relative status, which should alter their economic decisions. Findings from three studies show that women near ovulation seek positional goods to improve their social standing. Additional findings reveal that ovulation leads women to pursue positional goods when doing so improves relative standing compared with other women but not compared with men. When playing the dictator game, for example, ovulating women gave smaller offers to a female partner but not to a male partner. Overall, women's monthly hormonal fluctuations seem to have a substantial effect on consumer behavior by systematically altering their positional concerns, a finding that has important implications for marketers, consumers, and researchers.
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Human facial structures communicate personality from which one can infer another’s behavioral intentions, forming a basis for mate selection. One particularly detectable trait through facial structures is extraversion. Extraversion is a trait associated with heightened interest in promiscuous mating strategies and preferred among individuals similarly interested in short-term mating, implicating extraverted mates as ideal trait for short-term mating. Nonetheless, behavioral repertoires associated with extraversion may also pose risks, particularly in long-term mating, as their increased promiscuity may undermine their fidelity to a specific partner, thereby potentially reducing biparental investment in any offspring produced. Thus, a preference for introversion (i.e., low extraversion) may be desirable in long-term mating. This dissertation sought to determine the extent to which differential mating contexts, as elicited through activating context-specific motives, influence preferences for facially communicated extraversion versus introversion. Men and women were experimentally primed with mating motives, either long- or short-term, or a control state before indicating the extent to which various mating-related motivational states were activated (i.e., arousal, intrasexual competition, infidelity concerns, sociosexually unrestricted attitudes). Finally, I tasked them with indicating their preferences among male and female face pairs manipulated to communicate high and low levels of extraversion. Consistent with previous research, participants reported a preference for extraverted female faces and aversion to extraverted male faces. However, and contrary to hypotheses, differential mating contexts influenced neither men’s nor women’s preferences for extraversion. Furthermore, no motivational states provided the predicted mediation pathways. I frame these results based on various methodological limitations that could inform future research and posit future directions.
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We applaud Wood, Kressel, Joshi, and Louie's (2014) careful, nuanced meta-analysis. The evolutionary hypotheses designed to explain menstrual cycle fluctuations in mate preferences are convoluted and, based on this new meta-analysis, unnecessary because the existence of the fluctuations is not supported by the data. Evolutionary explanations are still possible if they predict women's mate preferences rather than cyclic fluctuations in those preferences. The biosocial model provides a plausible alternative account. We emphasize the importance of improved methods in future research, focusing especially on ascertainment of cycle phase.
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From an evolutionary psychology perspective, it is likely our species comes equipped with specialized psychological adaptations that influence the differing ways men and women pursue mating strategies. When short-term mating, men seem to preferentially desire easy sexual access and relax their mate preference desires so as to obtain large numbers of sexual partners. When women pursue short-term mates, they appear to increase their selectivity in mate choice and desire men who possess cues to “good genes.” In long-term mating, men preferentially emphasize fertility-related cues such as youth and physical attractiveness, whereas women desire a long-term mate who is able and willing to devote resources to her and their offspring. Overall, the empirical validity of most mate preference adaptations postulated by Sexual Strategies Theory (Psychological Review 100:204–232, 1993) is strong to moderate in evidentiary depth and breadth.
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This paper aims to revisit three adaptations of Red Riding Hood fairy tales and explore some of the wolf’s reincarnations in order to see how realities change in time. It has generally been observed in the literature that in pop culture Red has undergone quite dramatic changes from the little ingénue to the mature seductress. But what has happened to the bad wolf? How is he imagined by the 21st century pop culture? How do his agency and power change? What (new) message does he convey? To answer these questions, I shall look at three fairly recent advertisements that adapt the classic Little Red story for the screen: “Red Bull” energizer (February 2010), “Chanel no. 5” (featuring actress Estella Warren, late 1990s, 2007) and “B.U. Heartbeat” (featuring Tyson Kuteyi, 2008) perfumes. I will explore not only how such commercials reframe the dominant Western cultural pattern, but if they also undo the lessons both men and women have so far been forced to learn.
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An evolutionary theoretical approach considers the adaptive function of behavior. Here we discuss what it means to use an evolutionary approach to generate predictions about consumer behavior and the value of applying an evolutionary lens to the study of consumer psychology. We begin with a discussion of the core insights of evolutionary theory and the common misperceptions associated with an evolutionary approach to the study of behavior. We then detail how specific evolutionarily informed theories can be applied to four core areas of consumer research: risk preference, competition and luxury consumption, self-control and temporal preferences, and the consumer behavior of women and families. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of an evolutionarily informed research program.
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Chapter
In this chapter, evidence is reviewed regarding the reproductive strategies—and specialized mating psychologies—fundamental to humans. Cross-species comparisons and ethnological patterns observed across foraging cultures help to clarify our most basic human mating adaptations. Overall, extant evidence suggests there is no single mating strategy in humans. Humans evolved a pluralistic mating repertoire that is facultatively responsive to sex, temporal contexts, personal characteristics such as mate value and ovulatory status, and evocative features of culture and local ecology.
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An evolutionary theoretical approach considers the adaptive function of behavior. This article discusses what it means to use an evolutionary approach to generate predictions, and discusses two specific evolutionarily informed theories that have uncovered novel insights into consumer behavior. First, the fundamental motives framework highlights the social challenges faced by our ancestors (e.g., finding mates, avoiding disease) that continue to influence modern consumers in specific and often contradictory ways. Second, the ovulatory shift hypothesis highlights that women experience an increase in mating motivation near ovulation (e.g., increased desire to attract men and outcompete rival women) that has important implications for consumers. An evolution-informed approach can generate new insights about consumer behavior.
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Restricted sociosexuality has been linked to sexual disgust, suggesting that decreasing sexual behavior may be a pathogen avoidance technique. Using the behavioral immune system framework, which posits that humans experience disgust after exposure to pathogen cues, we replicate and expand on previous studies by analyzing the influence of three domains of disgust (sexual, moral, pathogen) on psychological (desire and attitude) and behavioral domains of sociosexuality (SOI) in four diverse samples: American university students (n = 155), Salvadoran community members (n = 98), a global online sample (n = 359), and a four-country online sample (US, India, Italy, and Brazil; n = 822) collected during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In contrast with previous studies, we account for shared variance in sexual, pathogen, and moral disgust by entering all three in a multiple regression to predict composite SOI. In both large samples, sexual disgust and pathogen disgust had opposing effects on composite SOI; that is, higher sexual disgust and lower pathogen disgust were associated with more restricted composite SOI. Additionally, we constructed a multi-group structural equation model (SEM) to determine the impact of each domain of disgust on each domain of SOI across all our samples simultaneously, while controlling for age and sex. Within this model we also assessed how the psychological domains of SOI – attitude and desire – mediate the relationship between disgust and sociosexual behavior. Pathogen disgust positively predicted SOI attitude and desire, but not behavior, consistently across all groups. SOI behavior was only predicted by pathogen disgust when mediated by SOI attitude, again across all groups, suggesting that behavior seems to be driven largely by the psychological facets of SOI. We discuss these findings in light of the behavioral immune system and the bet-hedging hypothesis, which make opposing predictions on the relationship between infection risk and sexual behavior.
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Recent research shows that women experience nonconscious shifts across different phases of the monthly ovulatory cycle. For example, women at peak fertility (near ovulation) are attracted to different kinds of men and show increased desire to attend social gatherings. Building on the evolutionary logic behind such effects, we examined how, why, and when hormonal fluctuations associated with ovulation influenced women's product choices. In three experiments, we show that at peak fertility women nonconsciously choose products that enhance appearance (e.g., choosing sexy rather than more conservative clothing). This hormonally regulated effect appears to be driven by a desire to outdo attractive rival women. Consequently, minimizing the salience of attractive women who are potential rivals suppresses the ovulatory effect on product choice. This research provides some of the first evidence of how, why, and when consumer behavior is influenced by hormonal factors.
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During human evolutionary history, there were “trade-offs” between expending time and energy on child-rearing and mating, so both men and women evolved conditional mating strategies guided by cues signaling the circumstances. Many short-term matings might be successful for some men; others might try to find and keep a single mate, investing their effort in rearing her offspring. Recent evidence suggests that men with features signaling genetic benefits to offspring should be preferred by women as short-term mates, but there are trade-offs between a mate's genetic fitness and his willingness to help in child-rearing. It is these circumstances and the cues that signal them that underlie the variation in short- and long-term mating strategies between and within the sexes.
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Fundamental frequency (F 0) is the vocal acoustic parameter closest to what we perceive as pitch. Men speak at a lower F 0 than do women, even controlling for body size. Although the developmental and anatomical reasons for this sex difference are known, the evolutionary reasons are not. By examining fertility-related variation in women's preferences for men's voices, the present study tests the hypothesis that female choice for good genes influenced the evolution of male voice pitch (VP). Unlike previous correlational studies that did not consider the effects of menstrual phase and mating context on women's preferences for male VP, the present study includes these variables and utilizes experimental pitch (P) manipulations. Results indicate that low VP is preferred mainly in short-term mating contexts rather than in long-term, committed ones, and this mating context effect is greatest when women are in the fertile phase of their ovulatory cycles. Moreover, lower male F 0 correlated with higher self-reported mating success. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that an association between low male VP and heritable fitness led to the evolution of the observed patterns in women's P preferences and men's mating success and that these patterns influenced the evolution of low VP in men. However, alternative explanations are considered.
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Over the last decade, a growing literature has shown that women in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle demonstrate stronger preferences for men with masculine traits than they do when in the non-fertile phases of the cycle (see Gangestad and Thornhill, 2008 and Jones et al., 2008 for recent reviews). In a recent article, Harris (in press; Sex Roles) failed to replicate this increase in women's preferences for masculine faces when women are near ovulation. Harris represented her study as one of only three studies on the topic, and as the largest of the existing studies. There are, however, many more studies on menstrual cycle shifts in preferences for facial masculinity in the published literature, including one that is 2.5 times larger in size than the Harris study. In this article, we review the evidence for cyclic shifts in mate preferences and related behaviors and discuss weaknesses of Harris's methods. Considered as a whole, the evidence for menstrual cycle shifts in women's preferences and behaviors is compelling, despite the failure of replication reported by Harris.
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Because ancestral women faced trade-offs in choosing mates, they may have evolved to pursue a dual-mating strategy in which they secured investment through one partner and obtained good genes through others. The dual-mating theory predicts that women will display greater interest in extra-pair sex near ovulation, especially if they are mated to a primary male partner who is low in sexual attractiveness. Forty-three normally ovulating women rated their partner's sexual attractiveness and separately reported their own desires and their partner's mate retention behaviors at high and low fertility (confirmed using luteinizing hormone tests). In the high-fertility session relative to the low, women who assessed their partners as being lower in sexual attractiveness reported greater extra-pair desires and more expressed love and attention from their male partners. Women's desire for their own partners did not differ significantly between high and low-fertility sessions.
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Women demonstrate stronger preferences for femininity when assessing men's attrac-tiveness for long-term rather than short-term relationships. One explanation of this effect is that the pro-social traits associated with femininity are particularly important for long-term relation-ships. This explanation has recently been challenged, however, following null findings for effects of pro-social attributions on women's preferences for feminine long-term partners. A limitation of these latter analyses is that they did not consider hormonal contraceptive use, which is a factor that previous studies suggest affects mate preferences. In our study, we found that women not using hormonal contraceptives demonstrated stronger preferences for femininity in men's faces when assessing men as long-term partners than when assessing men as short-term partners. More-over, this effect was most pronounced among women who perceived feminine men as particularly trustworthy. No equivalent effects were observed among women using hormonal contraceptives. These findings support the proposal that the effect of relationship context on women's face pref-erences occurs, at least in part, because women value pro-social traits more in long-term than short-term partners. Additionally, our findings suggest that both hormonal contraceptive use and individual differences in perceptions of pro-social traits modulate the effect of relationship con-text on women's face preferences.
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This survey (N = 224) found that characteristics collectively known as the Dark Triad (i.e. narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism) were correlated with various dimensions of short-term mating but not long-term mating. The link between the Dark Triad and short-term mating was stronger for men than for women. The Dark Triad partially mediated the sex difference in short-term mating behaviour. Findings are consistent with a view that the Dark Triad facilitates an exploitative, short-term mating strategy in men. Possible implications, including that Dark Triad traits represent a bundle of individual differences that promote a reproductively adaptive strategy are discussed. Findings are discussed in the broad context of how an evolutionary approach to personality psychology can enhance our understanding of individual differences. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Empirical tests described in this article support hypotheses derived from evolutionary theory on the perceptions of literary characters. The proper and dark heroes in British Romantic literature of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries respectively represent long-term and short-term mating strategies. Recent studies indicate that for long-term relationships, women seek partners with the ability and willingness to sustain paternal investment in extended relationships. For short-term relationships, women choose partners whose features indicate high genetic quality. In hypothetical scenarios, females preferred proper heroes for long-term relationships. The shorter the relationship under consideration, the more likely women were to choose dark heroes as partners.
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Of the offensive yet non-pathological personalities in the literature, three are especially prominent: Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy. We evaluated the recent contention that, in normal samples, this ‘Dark Triad’ of constructs are one and the same. In a sample of 245 students, we measured the three constructs with standard measures and examined a variety of laboratory and self-report correlates. The measures were moderately inter-correlated, but certainly were not equivalent. Their only common Big Five correlate was disagreeableness. Subclinical psychopaths were distinguished by low neuroticism; Machiavellians, and psychopaths were low in conscientiousness; narcissism showed small positive associations with cognitive ability. Narcissists and, to a lesser extent, psychopaths exhibited self-enhancement on two objectively scored indexes. We conclude that the Dark Triad of personalities, as currently measured, are overlapping but distinct constructs.
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Recent studies have reported that women exhibit elevated preferences for behavioral dominance in potential mates on higher fertility days of the menstrual cycle. This study was designed to test which hormonal signals may be associated with such cycle phase shifts in dominance preferences. Women indicated their mate preferences for dominant personality traits, and self-reported cycle day was used to estimate each woman’s levels of estrogen, FSH, LH, progesterone, prolactin, and testosterone on her day of testing. Women’s preferences for dominance in long-term mates were elevated on cycle days when estrogen is typically elevated, including during the luteal phase when conception is not possible. Preferences for dominance in short-term mates were highest on cycle days when LH and FSH are typically peaking. These findings support the existence of two types of hormone-regulated psychological mechanisms, each of which is proposed by a distinct functional theory of menstrual phase preference shifts: (1) a between-cycle mechanism that increases preferences for dominance in long-term mates during more fertile cycles characterized by higher estrogen, and (2) a within-cycle mechanism that couples enhanced preferences for dominance in short-term mates to the timing of ovulation.
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Experimenters examining male facial attractiveness have concluded that the attractive male face is (1) an average male face, (2) a masculinized male face, or (3) a feminized male face. Others have proposed that symmetry, hormone markers, and the menstrual phase of the observer are important variables that influence male attractiveness. This study was designed to resolve these issues by examining the facial preferences of 42 female volunteers at two different phases of their menstrual cycle. Preferences were measured using a 40-s QuickTime movie (1200 frames) that was designed to systematically modify a facial image from an extreme male to an extreme female configuration. The results indicate that females exhibit (1) a preference for a male face on the masculine side of average, (2) a shift toward a more masculine male face preference during the high-risk phase of their menstrual cycle, and (3) no shift in other facial preferences. An examination of individual differences revealed that women who scored low on a “masculinity” test (1) showed a larger menstrual shift, (2) had lower self-esteem, and (3) differed in their choice of male faces for dominance and short-term mates. The results are interpreted as support for a hormonal theory of facial attractiveness whereby perceived beauty depends on an interaction between displayed hormone markers and the hormonal state of the viewer.
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Despite the recent flurry of research on the Dark Triad, this work has been atheoretical. In two studies, totaling 358 participants, we attempt to situate the Dark Triad within the larger framework of Life History Theory by correlating them with three measures of self-control. Both psychopathy (Study 1 and Study 2) and Machiavellianism (Study 2 only) were correlated with low self-control, a tendency to discount future consequences, and high rates of attention deficit disorder. Narcissism was not correlated with measures of self-control in either study. Results are consistent with Life History Theory in that these two sets of psychological traits are expected to be part of a fast life strategy.
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Belsky, Steinberg, and Draper (1991) predicted that early childhood stress or conflict in the family environment would be associated with childhood behavioural symptoms, early puberty, and early, less discriminate reproductive behaviour. A cross-sectional self-report survey of childhood family life and adolescent development was carried out with 357 university students aged 18 to 24 from Toronto, Canada. In women, earlier menarche was associated with more parental marital conflict in early childhood (birth to age 7), more parental marital unhappiness throughout childhood (birth to age 11), more independence from mother or father in late childhood (age 8 to 11), less anxiousness or internalising symptoms (anxiousness/depression) in late childhood (age 8 to 11), earlier age at dating men, and more boyfriends. In men, earlier spermarche was associated with father absence (birth to before spermarche), more stress in quality of family life, parental marital unhappiness, and parental marital conflict in early childhood (birth to age 7), more independence from mother or father in late childhood (age 8 to 11), earlier age at dating women, more girlfriends, and earlier age at sexual intercourse. These ndings are generally consistent with the Belsky et al. (1991) view that childhood psychosocial stresses affect puberty and reproductive life history, though they do not preclude alternative accounts.
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If attractiveness is an important cue for mate choice, as proposed by evolutionary psychologists, then attractive individuals should have greater mating success than their peers. We tested this hypothesis in a large sample of adults. Facial attractiveness correlated with the number of short-term, but not long-term, sexual partners, for males, and with the number of long-term, but not short-term, sexual partners and age of first sex, for females. Body attractiveness also correlated significantly with the number of short-term, but not long-term, sexual partners, for males, and attractive males became sexually active earlier than their peers. Body attractiveness did not correlate with any sexual behavior variable for females. To determine which aspects of attractiveness were important, we examined associations between sexual behaviors and three components of attractiveness: sexual dimorphism, averageness, and symmetry. Sexual dimorphism showed the clearest associations with sexual behaviors. Masculine males (bodies, similar trend for faces) had more short-term sexual partners, and feminine females (faces) had more long-term sexual partners than their peers. Feminine females (faces) also became sexually active earlier than their peers. Average males (faces and bodies) had more short-term sexual partners and more extra-pair copulations (EPC) than their peers. Symmetric women (faces) became sexually active earlier than their peers. Given that male reproductive success depends more on short-term mating opportunities than does female reproductive success, these findings suggest that individuals of high phenotypic quality have higher mating success than their lower quality counterparts.
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We investigated aspects of self-reported health history–the number and duration of respiratory and stomach or intestinal infections and the number of uses of antibiotics over the last 3 years–in relation to measured facial masculinity, developmental instability [facial asymmetry and body fluctuating asymmetry (FA)] and facial attractiveness in a sample of 203 men and 203 women. As predicted from the hypothesis that the degree of facial masculinity is an honest signal of individual quality, men's facial masculinity correlated negatively and women's positively with respiratory disease number and duration. Stomach illness, however, was not associated significantly with facial masculinity and antibiotic use correlated significantly (negatively) only with men's facial masculinity. For both facial asymmetry and body FA, significant, positive associations were seen with the number of respiratory infections. In addition, facial asymmetry was associated positively with the number of days infected and marginally, in the same direction, with antibiotic use. Facial attractiveness showed no significant relationships with any of our health-history measures. This study provides some evidence that facial masculinity in both sexes may signal disease resistance and that developmental stability covaries positively with disease resistance. The validity of our health measures is discussed.
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The male sex hormone testosterone is an immunosuppressant. This has led evolutionary theorists to speculate that masculine facial structure in humans is a Zahavian handicap trait: an honest signal of genetic quality, as males with masculine faces are displaying survival ability despite maintaining high testosterone levels. If this theory is correct, females should show preference for masculine facial architecture. Empirical tests of female preference for traits likely to be testosterone-related have, however, failed to show consistent results. In the present research, facial photographs were taken of 45 men, and measurements of jaw size and eyebrow ridge development were taken from these. Sixty women were presented with 10 randomly chosen pairs of male faces and asked to select the more attractive. No overall preference for facial masculinity emerged, but women with high sociosexuality scores, indicating preference for short-term mating, were more likely to prefer faces with masculine features. A theoretical implication of these and previous findings is that the handicap principle alone may not explain male testosterone expression. Instead, the results supported the hypothesis that preference for facial masculinity is condition dependent: Women attempting to secure a mate who will provide long-term parental investment are likely to avoid men with masculine facial structure, while women seeking short-term sexual relationships show a preference for it.
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Explanations offered by social scientists for the effects of father absence on children are reviewed; certain aspects of these interpretations are found wanting. Another explanation using theory from evolutionary biology is suggested: children show evolved, sensitive-period learning in early childhood which is linked to mother's pair-bond status or to mother's attitude toward males. As a result of children's perceptions a developmental track is established, which influences expression of reproductive strategy in adulthood. Male children born into matrifocal households exhibit at adolescence a complex of aggression, competition, low male parental investment, and derogation of females and feminity, while females show early expression of sexual interest and assumption of sexual activity, negative attitudes toward males, and poor ability to establish long-term relation- ships with one male. Male children reared in father9resent or nuclear households show less interest in competitive dominance with other males and more interest in manipulation of nonhuman aspects of the environment, while females show delayed sexual interest and activity and a mating strategy directed at locating a male who will invest in her and her offspring.
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Research over the past decade has documented clear, robust changes in women's sexual preferences and interests across the ovarian cycle. When fertile, women are particularly attracted to a number of masculine male features (e.g., masculine faces, voices, scents and bodies) and other traits, and especially when they evaluate men's “sexiness” rather than their attractiveness as long-term partners. The current research extended this line of research by examining changes in women's self-reported sexual interests across the cycle. We asked 68 normally ovulating women in committed romantic relationships to fill out questionnaires about their sexual preferences and interests (at that time, not in general) twice across their cycles: once when fertile and once during the luteal phase. Relative to during the luteal phase, fertile women expressed (a) greater emphasis on the physical attractiveness of a partner; (b) greater arousal at the sight or thought of attractive male bodily features; (c) greater willingness to engage in and interest in sex with attractive men, even ones who they do not know well (interest in sexual opportunism). These findings importantly extend our understanding of women's fertile-phase sexuality.
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Research has failed to reach consensus on the characteristics of attractive male faces. Different studies have reported preferences for phenotypically average faces, and faces with both exaggerated and reduced sexual dimorphism. Recent studies demonstrate cyclic changes in female sexual behavior and preferences for odors and facial characteristics that may reflect conditional mating strategies. We employed computer graphic techniques to manipulate the “masculinity” or “femininity” of a composite male face by exaggerating or reducing the shape differences between female and male average faces. Five stimuli with varying levels of masculinity and femininity were presented in a national U.K. magazine, with a questionnaire. Female respondents in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (n = 55) were significantly more likely to choose a masculine face than those in menses and luteal phases (n = 84). This study provides further evidence that when conception is most likely, females prefer testosterone-related facial characteristics that may honestly advertise immunocompetence.
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Philosophy and Literature 26.2 (2002) 296-311 AS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT and intriguing poets of the romantic period, Byron has been the subject of much recent critical commentary. However, no matter how excellent some of this scholarship is, the reader who is familiar with evolutionary psychology, the science that has tried to explain the biological underpinnings of human nature, inevitably comes away from it with a feeling of dissatisfaction. In spite of the obvious relevance of biological theories of human behavior to the most basic issues of literary interpretation, only a handful of literary critics, and no Byron critics, have attempted to use these theories to understand the creation and reception of literary texts. All literary criticism relies on assumptions about human nature; because most critics are unfamiliar with evolutionary psychology, these assumptions are almost never clarified and justified. By familiarizing themselves with evolutionary psychology, literary critics can replace their vague, commonsensical, and often empirically unsupported assumptions about human nature with more precise and empirically valid theories. Much recent research on the evolution of sexuality has focused on "cad" and "dad" mating strategies in men. Cads seek to maximize their reproductive success by maximizing the number of their sexual partners and by avoiding parental investment; dads are committed to long-term, monogamous relationships with women and make substantial parental investment in their children. The personality traits of cads—aggressiveness, rebelliousness, criminality, and sexual promiscuity—bear a close resemblance both to Byron's own personality traits and to those of the Byronic hero. Understanding the cad mating strategy enables us to better understand Byron's personality as well as the conflicts between his personality and the culture of his time that shaped his literary production and reception. Evolutionary psychology uses the principles of evolutionary biology as a guide to the study of human cognition and behavior. The types of psychological traits that will succeed evolutionarily are those that maximize an organism's ability to transmit its genes to the next generation, or what evolutionary psychologists call its "fitness," by successfully reproducing and by helping kin who share its genes to reproduce. Our psychological design did not evolve in the environment that we now inhabit but on the African savannah of the Pleistocene era; therefore, evolved human psychology is best understood not in relation to the lifestyle of the citizens of modern nation-states, but to that of hunter-gatherers. Recent research on human sexuality has suggested that humans have evolved to pursue two different types of mating strategies: short-term and long-term. On the one hand, there is a great deal of evidence to suggest that, unlike most mammals, humans are designed for long-term sexual relationships with substantial male parental investment in children. Human infants require a great deal of parental care, and children reared in father-absent households suffer much higher mortality rates than those who are reared in father-present households, especially in preindustrial societies. The sexual psychology of women also indicates that human sexuality has been shaped by long-term sexual relationships. A number of studies both in the United States and across cultures have shown that women regularly report being attracted to men who are socially respected, financially well-off, ambitious, industrious, dependable, emotionally stable, and romantic, all qualities that indicate the ability and willingness to sustain long-term, parentally investing relationships with women. However, there are also aspects of both men's and women's sexuality that show that we did not evolve exclusively to pursue long-term mating. The evidence for the importance of short-term mating in human evolution is most obvious in men, who consistently show a marked desire for sexual variety. For example, in a survey, male college students said that they would, on average, like to have six partners in the coming year, and men fantasize about having sex with multiple partners (Buss, ED, pp. 76-83). The fitness advantage of short-term sexual relationships to men is obvious: men can have more offspring the more females they have sex with. This is the reason why short-term mating without parental investment is the strategy that most male mammals pursue. The disadvantage is...
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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According to cultural stereotypes, men are more eager for sex than are women; women are more likely to set limits on such activity. In this paper, we review the work of theorists who have argued in favor of this proposition and review the interview and correlational data which support this contention. Finally, we report two experimental tests of ihis hypothesis. In these experiments, conducted in 1978 and 1982, male and female confederates of average attractiveness approached potential partners with one of three requests: "Would you go out tonight?" "Will you come over to my apartment?" or "Would you go to bed with me?" The great majority of men were willing to have a sexual liaison with the women who approached them. Women were not. Not one woman agreed to a sexual liaison. Many possible reasons for this marked gender difference were discussed. These studies were run in 1978 and 1982. It has since become important to track how the threat of AIDS is affecting men and women's willingness to date, come to an apartment, or to engage in casual sexual relations.
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Heterosexual men and women were told they were competing with another same-sex individual for a date with an attractive opposite-sex interviewer. After answering 6 questions, participants were asked to tell the competitor why the interviewer should choose them over the competitor. Participants' videotaped behavior was coded for different behavioral tactics. Men who were more symmetrical and who had a more unrestricted sociosexual orientation were more likely to use direct competition tactics than were less symmetrical and restricted men. Restricted men accentuated their positive personal qualities, presenting themselves as "nice guys." Structural equation modeling revealed that fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was directly associated with the use of direct competition tactics. However, the link between FA and presenting oneself as a nice guy was mediated through sociosexuality. No effects were found for women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article argues that satisfaction in marriage is associated with motivated and benevolent biases in perception. Married couples individually completed measures of relationship satisfaction and described themselves and their partners on a series of virtues and faults. They also nominated friends who described each spouse on the identical qualities. The results revealed that intimates in satisfying marriages perceive more virtue in their partners than their friends or their partners themselves perceive. They also possess partners who see them in this benevolently distorted light. In contrast, intimates in less satisfying marriages perceive less virtue in their partners than their friends or their partners themselves perceive. The findings are discussed in terms of the role motivated cognition plays in sustaining satisfying relationships.