ArticleLiterature Review

Dealing With Feeling: A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Strategies Derived From the Process Model of Emotion Regulation

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Abstract

The present meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation in modifying emotional outcomes as indexed by experiential, behavioral, and physiological measures. A systematic search of the literature identified 306 experimental comparisons of different emotion regulation (ER) strategies. ER instructions were coded according to a new taxonomy, and meta-analysis was used to evaluate the effectiveness of each strategy across studies. The findings revealed differences in effectiveness between ER processes: Attentional deployment had no effect on emotional outcomes (d(+) = 0.00), response modulation had a small effect (d(+) = 0.16), and cognitive change had a small-to-medium effect (d(+) = 0.36). There were also important within-process differences. We identified 7 types of attentional deployment, 4 types of cognitive change, and 4 types of response modulation, and these distinctions had a substantial influence on effectiveness. Whereas distraction was an effective way to regulate emotions (d(+) = 0.27), concentration was not (d(+) = -0.26). Similarly, suppressing the expression of emotion proved effective (d(+) = 0.32), but suppressing the experience of emotion or suppressing thoughts of the emotion-eliciting event did not (d(+) = -0.04 and -0.12, respectively). Finally, reappraising the emotional response proved less effective (d(+) = 0.23) than reappraising the emotional stimulus (d(+) = 0.36) or using perspective taking (d(+) = 0.45). The review also identified several moderators of strategy effectiveness including factors related to the (a) to-be-regulated emotion, (b) frequency of use and intended purpose of the ER strategy, (c) study design, and (d) study characteristics.

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... For instance, one might avoid expressing anger toward a friend or ignore feelings of anxiety. Thus, an individual might resort to distraction as a strategy to shift attention from negative feelings and thoughts to non-negative ones (Webb et al., 2012;Gross, 2013). For example, one might exercise or think about a forthcoming trip as a response to such negative feelings or thoughts. ...
... Generally, cognitive reappraisal and distraction are known to be more effective at alleviating negative emotions and promoting mental health than expressive suppression (Aldao et al., 2010;Webb et al., 2012). It may particularly, have potential applications due to its positive effects on mental health. ...
... It may particularly, have potential applications due to its positive effects on mental health. Principally, cognitive reappraisal and distraction are known to be more effective in alleviating negative emotions and promoting mental health than expressive suppression (Aldao et al., 2010;Webb et al., 2012). On the other hand, previous studies have found no significant differences in the effects of emotion regulation strategies (Zhu et al., 2019). ...
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Research conducted in the recent past have proposed total conviction as a factor associated with cognitive reappraisal that may produce changes in emotion and behavior. However, the factors that influence total conviction are not yet clearly identified. In this study, we focused on daily emotion regulation strategies and examined the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and total conviction. A total of 42 undergraduate and graduate students participated in this study. They measured their tendency toward daily emotion regulation strategies and then engaged in the cold pressor task (CPT) which is a distress tolerance task. Participants were then presented with information that encouraged them to engage in the task while enduring distress, creating a context for cognitive reappraisal of the task. Thereafter, they engaged in a second CPT. Finally, the degree of total conviction to the information that prompted reappraisal was measured. The results showed that total conviction in the experimental situation predicted behavior change. We found that the tendency to use routine cognitive reappraisal was not associated with total conviction, while the tendency to use expressive suppression would have a negative effect on total conviction. Furthermore, the expressive suppression tendency was found to moderate the relationship between total conviction and behavior change. These results indicate that the occurrence of total conviction in cognitive reappraisal leads to behavior change, though the tendency toward daily cognitive reappraisal is not related to the occurrence of total conviction in the experimental setting. The results also suggest that daily expressive suppression inhibits total conviction, particularly in situations where cognitive reappraisal is required.
... Suppression is a form of response modulation involving the inhibition of ongoing emotion expression (43). Both are viewed as conscious, goal-oriented strategies, although they target different aspects of the emotional experience: Reappraisal is focused on emotion-related knowledge, whereas suppression targets bodily responses (44). On the trait level, habitual reappraisal is considered a healthy emotion regulation strategy and is associated with reduced negative and enhanced positive affect, and better general wellbeing. ...
... [e.g., (44,47)]. The effects of suppression are more complex. ...
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It is postulated that negative ruminations perpetuate insomnia symptoms by increasing arousal. Less is known about the role of positive rumination. In this study, we set out to test the association between positive and negative ruminations and insomnia symptoms in a non-clinical sample, asking whether reappraisal and suppression moderate the relationship between rumination types and symptoms of insomnia. Methods A convenience sample of 354 participants (59% women), ages 18–50, responded to online questionnaires regarding symptoms of insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), Emotion Regulation Questionnaire that provides separate scales for Reappraisal and Suppression, Negative Rumination (Ruminative Response Scale), Positive Rumination and Dampening (Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire), and general health and demographics. Results About 30% of respondents had moderate to severe symptoms of insomnia according to the ISI. The primary hypothesis was tested using three moderation models, where rumination type, emotion regulation styles, and interaction terms were predictors, and ISI scores were the outcome variable. Negative rumination positively predicted ISI (β = 0.56, p < 0.001), while the interaction terms with Reappraisal (β = 0.02, p = 0.575) and Suppression (β = 0.07, p = 0.092) were not significant. Dampening also positively predicted ISI (β = 0.56, p < 0.001), with the interaction term with Reappraisal nearly significant (β = −0.09, p = 0.060), but not with Suppression (β = 0.08, p =0.098). Positive rumination negatively predicted ISI (β = −0.12, p = 0.021), this relationship was reversed with emotion regulation factors in the model (β = 0.11, p = 0.094), where the interaction with Reappraisal (β = 0.13, p = 0.020) and Suppression (β = −0.13, p = 0.024) were both significant. Discussion Positive Rumination weakly and negatively correlated with ISI, but the combination with Reappraisal was associated with more insomnia symptoms. By contrast, Dampening was associated with more insomnia symptoms, with minimal to no moderating effects. These observations are interpreted in the context of the role of emotion regulation strategies and sleep, and their potential clinical implications.
... Consequently, studying the dynamic interdependence between learners' emotions and ER strategies is deemed essential. A scrutiny of the ER literature shows that despite the surge of interest in ER studies across various disciplines such as health (e.g., Webb et al., 2012) and education (e.g., Burić et al., 2016;Seibert et al., 2017), research on L2 learners' ER strategies is underdeveloped, as also argued Achievement emotions influence students' motivation, cognitive resources, self-regulation, use of learning strategies, and academic achievement (Pekrun et al., 2007). However, these individual factors are influenced distinctively by the four aforementioned subcategories of AEs. ...
... This finding suggests that ER strategies can intervene in each phase of emotion-generative processes (i.e., situation, attention, appraisal, and response). In addition, the direct instruction of ER strategies has been reported to be effective in creating students' emotional balance, enhancing their achievement, and promoting their well-belling (e.g., Oxford, 2017;Seibert et al., 2017;Webb et al., 2012). ...
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Developing L2 learners' emotional balance through adaptive regulation is a significant determinant of successful learning. Despite the recent surge of interest in emotion regulation (ER) programs, research on L2 learners' ER strategies is surprisingly underdeveloped. To address this gap, the current qualitative study explored ten L2 learners' understanding of achievement emotions and ER strategies throughout a longitudinal ER-oriented training course. Data were collected from four rounds of semi-structured interviews and diaries at different junctures of time. Data analysis revealed that the most frequent ER strategies in the pre-training phase were distraction and suppression, which showed a gradual decrease in the post-training phases. However, the use of self-regulated learning strategies and reassurance had the lowest frequency, showing a great improvement during the post-training phases. Additionally, the students grew in regulating their emotions across four major areas: (a) sufficient perceived control over negative emotions in high-stakes situations, (b) use of explicit ER strategies, (c) efficient use of competency-oriented strategies, and (d) decreased distraction as a function of negative simulators. The study provides implications for employing ER-based training to transform students' negative emotional experiences into positive emotions.
... Although retrieving AMs may trigger intense emotional reactions, we are able to control our emotional responses and regulate them to alter their intensity and valence (Gross, 1998a(Gross, , 2014. One way of changing the emotional impact of AMs is by shifting visual perspective during retrieval, which is also considered as one of the most effective cognitive reappraisal strategies in emotional regulation research (McRae et al., 2012;Webb et al., 2012;Wallace-Hadrill and Kamboj, 2016). That is, visual perspective involves a cognitive change that alters how people experience emotions (Gross, 1998b;Ochsner and Gross, 2008). ...
... In conclusion, the flexible nature of memory enables people to adopt multiple visual perspectives during retrieval. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that updating the original visual perspective of AMs contributes to the reconstructive nature of retrieval and reshapes the subjective and objective measures of emotionality (St Jacques, 2019, 2022), thereby serving as an effective emotion regulation tactic (Webb et al., 2012;Wallace-Hadrill and Kamboj, 2016;Powers and LaBar, 2019). Here we also propose that own eyes and an observer-like perspectives are two distinct retrieval orientations that bias the way memories are retrieved. ...
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Visual perspective during autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval influences how people remember the emotional aspects of memories. Prior research in emotion regulation has also shown that shifting from an own eyes to an observer-like perspective is an efficient way of regulating the affect elicited by emotional AMs. However, the impact of shifting visual perspective is also dependent on the nature of the emotion associated with the event. The current review synthesizes behavioral and functional neuroimaging findings from the event memory and emotion regulation literature that examine how adopting particular visual perspectives and actively shifting across them during retrieval alters emotional experience, by primarily focusing on emotional intensity. We review current theories explaining why shifts in perspectives may or may not change the emotional characteristics of memories, then propose a new theory, suggesting that the own eyes and observer-like perspectives are two different retrieval orientations supported by differential neural activations that lead episodic details to be reconstructed in specific ways.
... The ability of regulating emotions is based on recognition of inner sensations, feelings, and behavior, relating these to their causes [34]. Initiating, maintaining, inhibiting, or moderating emotional reactions may lead to 'emotion regulation' in association with processes that influence experience and the expression of emotions [35][36][37]. 'Emotion regulation' refers to the downregulation of negative affects or the upregulation of positive affects [37]. For children with ASD, it is often hard to recognize their own emotions. ...
... Initiating, maintaining, inhibiting, or moderating emotional reactions may lead to 'emotion regulation' in association with processes that influence experience and the expression of emotions [35][36][37]. 'Emotion regulation' refers to the downregulation of negative affects or the upregulation of positive affects [37]. For children with ASD, it is often hard to recognize their own emotions. ...
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(1) Background: ‘Images of Self’ (IOS) is a recently developed and evaluated art therapy program of 15 sessions to reduce difficulties in ‘sense of self’, ‘emotion regulation’, ‘flexibility’, and ‘social behavior’ of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). In this paper, it is explored whether change in the child’s behaviors corresponds to the therapist’s actions during IOS and 15 weeks later. (2) Method: In a repeated case study design, twelve children and seven therapists participated. Art therapists monitored their own and the children’s behavior by applying two observation instruments: the OAT (Observation of a child with autism in Art Therapy) and EAT (Evaluation of Art Therapist’s behavior when working with a child with autism). Child behaviors during art making were—individually and as a group—compared with therapist’s actions at three moments during the program. (3) Results: Ten of twelve children showed a substantial or moderate positive behavior change considering all OAT subscales at the end of the program and 15 weeks after treatment. Improvement of ‘social behavior’ stood out. Halfway treatment art therapists most prominently showed support of ‘emotion regulation’, ‘flexibility’, and ‘social behavior’. Clear one-on-one relationships between changes in children’s behavior and actions of therapists could not be identified. (4) Conclusion: The study provides new insights in the AT treatment process by monitoring children’s and therapists’ behavior. The art making itself and the art therapy triangle (child, art making, therapist) offer opportunities to improve verbal and nonverbal communication skills of the child.
... Accepting responsibility (which involves acknowledging the role one has played in the situation and trying to make things right) and positive reappraisal (which involves choosing to create a positive meaning from the situation, rather than a negative meaning) are more effective techniques. Recent evidence indicates that suppressing thoughts about • the stressful event and the experience of the event have no positive impact on coping with feelings (142). Conversely, reappraising the emotional stimulus and using cognitive techniques like perspective taking are the most effective (142). ...
... Recent evidence indicates that suppressing thoughts about • the stressful event and the experience of the event have no positive impact on coping with feelings (142). Conversely, reappraising the emotional stimulus and using cognitive techniques like perspective taking are the most effective (142). ...
Chapter
Chapter 13 of ACSM's Resources for the Exercise Physiologist. Health Stress Management.
... Cognitive ERs (CERs) are highly oriented by cognitive skills in controlling emotions (Ochsner and Gross 2008). In cognitive science, CERs are Rumination (RU), which is defined by repetitive and long-term depressive thoughts (Gross 2002), and Cognitive Distraction (CD), which is characterized by pleasant thoughts in order to distract the negative matter (Phan 2005;Webb 2012). Behavioral ERs have been categorized into Expressive Suppression (ES), which can be defined as attempting to hide, inhibit, or reduce ongoing emotion-expressive behavior, and Cognitive Reappraisal (CR), which can be characterized by an effort to reframe the momentary emotional substance in order to change its emotional value (Gross and Jazaieri 2014). ...
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In the present study, new findings reveal the close association between graph theoretic global brain connectivity measures and cognitive abilities the ability to manage and regulate negative emotions in healthy adults. Functional brain connectivity measures have been estimated from both eyes-opened and eyes-closed resting-state EEG recordings in four groups including individuals who use opposite Emotion Regulation Strategies (ERS) as follow: While 20 individuals who frequently use two opposing strategies, such as rumination and cognitive distraction, are included in 1st group, 20 individuals who don’t use these cognitive strategies are included in 2nd group. In 3rd and 4th groups, there are matched individuals who use both Expressive Suppression and Cognitive Reappraisal strategies together frequently and never use them, respectively. EEG measurements and psychometric scores of individuals were both downloaded from a public dataset LEMON. Since it is not sensitive to volume conduction, Directed Transfer Function has been applied to 62-channel recordings to obtain cortical connectivity estimations across the whole cortex. Regarding well defined threshold, connectivity estimations have been transformed into binary numbers for implementation of Brain Connectivity Toolbox. The groups are compared to each other through both statistical logistic regression models and deep learning models driven by frequency band specific network measures referring segregation, integration and modularity of the brain. Overall results show that high classification accuracies of 96.05% (1st vs 2nd) and 89.66% (3rd vs 4th) are obtained in analyzing full-band (0.5-45Hz\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$0.5-45~Hz$$\end{document}) EEG. In conclusion, negative strategies may upset the balance between segregation and integration. In particular, graphical results show that frequent use of rumination induces the decrease in assortativity referring network resilience. The psychometric scores are found to be highly correlated with brain network measures of global efficiency, local efficiency, clustering coefficient, transitivity and assortativity in even resting-state.
... [32] Webb et al. even categorize mindfulness as a reappraisal strategy suggesting that mindfulness involves a reappraisal of an emotional response. [33] Some studies report that people with low heart rate variability show greater orientation toward negative emotion and slower attentional disengagement from negative stimuli. It suggests that the worse regulation of cardiac vagal tone negatively interacts with the bottom-up and top-down processing of emotions. ...
... Emotional regulation involves a wide variety of processes that are ultimately reflected in the expression, monitoring, and modification of both positive and negative emotions (Gross and Thompson, 2007). Much of the earlier research into emotional regulation focused on strategies that allow negative emotions like anger, sadness, and fear to be managed through cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression (Aldao et al., 2010;Webb et al., 2012). However, later studies have pointed to the role that positive emotions like joy, love, and amusement may exert on cognitive performance, buffering the impact of negative experiences, and promoting wellbeing and optimal functioning (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005;Fredrickson, 2009;Guerra et al., 2012;Buonomo et al., 2019;Alexander et al., 2021;Catalino and Tov, 2022). ...
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Two studies were carried out on a Spanish population to explore the extent to which different self-efficacy beliefs in managing positive emotions are associated with common indicators of wellbeing, such as positive and negative affect or life satisfaction. The first study was conducted on 483 participants and attested to the factorial structure of three different self-efficacy beliefs: (a) perceived self-efficacy in expressing positive emotions; (b) perceived self-efficacy in retrieving memories of positive emotional experiences; and (c) perceived self-efficacy in using humor. The second study was carried out on 1,087 individuals between 19 and 80 years of age, and it provided evidence of the factorial invariance of the scales across age and gender. Furthermore, this latter study showed the association of self-efficacy in managing positive affect (SEMPA) with high chronic positive and low negative affect, and with high life satisfaction, controlling for gender and age. In younger participants, stronger associations were found between perceived self-efficacy in using humor and life satisfaction compared to older subjects. These findings may guide the design of interventions aimed at enhancing the potential benefits that could be drawn from the proper management of positive emotions.
... Distancing has been shown to be among the most effective strategies to downregulate emotions without negative long-term consequences (dþ = .43, see Webb et al., 2012, for a meta-analysis) and will therefore be investigated in the present study. In detail, the distance can take several forms such as spatial distance, temporal distance, hypothetical distance, or objectivity (Powers & LaBar, 2019). ...
Article
Evidence suggests that cognitive control and emotional control share partly the same cognitive processes. For example, downregulation of negative emotions requires inhibiting or limiting the expression of a prepotent appraisal of a situation in favor of selecting an alternative appraisal. Although inhibitory control seems to be a particularly relevant process in emotion regulation (ER), previous studies reported inconsistent findings on their relationship, likely because of the application of single task measures in relatively small samples. Therefore, this study implemented a battery of six commonly used inhibitory control tasks in a large sample of young healthy adults (N = 190) and investigated whether inhibitory control is associated with the downregulation of negative emotion. ER was measured via self-reported reappraisal and suppression use and via a laboratory ER task where participants had to distance themselves from emotions in response to negative and neutral pictures. The ER task was accompanied by concurrent physiological measurements of corrugator electromyography (EMG), skin conductance response (SCR), and heart period (HP). Frequentist and Bayesian analyses indicated that inhibitory control was neither associated with self-reported reappraisal and suppression use, nor with successful downregulation of negative emotion via distancing. Compared with HP and SCR, corrugator EMG was the only peripheral physiological measure that was indicative of regulatory success. The findings question the view that inhibitory control represents an underlying process in emotion regulation via distancing, at least at the behavioral level. Further studies should investigate the generalizability of these findings to other ER strategies, tactics, paradigms, and participant groups. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Individuals may also ponder over their emotions in an effort to understand it (i.e., rumination) or try to inhibit emotional responses (i.e., suppression; Gross, 1998;Moberly & Watkins, 2008). In the research of adult emotion regulation, reappraisal and distraction are typically seen as adaptive strategies, as they effectively reduce both subjective and expressed negative emotions in experimental studies (Efinger et al., 2019;Webb, Miles, & Sheeran, 2012). In contrast, rumination and suppression are often seen as maladaptive because, although suppression may inhibit expression, both strategies are ineffective in reducing (and may actually exacerbate) subjective negative emotions and heightened physiological arousal (Gross, 1998;Moberly & Watkins, 2008;Ray, Wilhelm, & Gross, 2008). ...
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Research has recognized that parental emotion regulation influences whether parents respond sensitively to their children in challenging parenting situations. However, parental emotion regulation is usually assessed using questionnaires that are not about parenting, rather than through examining parents' reaction to specific parenting situations that might evoke negative emotions. This study investigates individual differences in mothers' emotion regulation during parenting, specifically examining the relation between their subjective negative emotions and observed parenting behaviors and whether this relation is moderated by cognitive (strategies to manage negative emotions) and physiological (resting baseline and reactivity of respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) processes. Data of 157 mothers' self-reported negative emotions and strategy-use, their RSA, observed maternal responsiveness, and their preschool-age children's (30-60 months, 49.7% female) challenging behaviors were collected during a Wait Task, in which mothers told children to wait before opening an appealing gift. Regression analysis indicated that, after controlling for how challenging children were, mothers' level of negative emotion was not associated with observed level of maternal responsiveness. In line with hypotheses, the association was moderated by mothers' resting RSA and the extent to which they suppressed negative emotions. However, contrary to hypotheses, the association was not moderated by use of reappraisal, distraction, or rumination, or RSA reactivity. The significant findings suggest that, although mothers' subjective experiences of negative emotions are not necessarily related to less responsive parenting behaviors, the link between maternal emotions and parenting behavior may indicate differences in how mothers engage cognitive strategies as well as their physiological regulation capacity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... If you have ever tried to change your behaviourwhether you were trying to jumpstart your new fitness routine, be more productive at school or work, or saving to buy your first houseyou know there is no shortage of advice on how to succeed. And indeed, there has been a surge of research in the last two decades describing a range of practical tools that people can use to resist temptation and better achieve their long-term goals (Katzir et al., 2021;Knittle et al., 2020;Webb et al., 2012). Research so far has primarily focused on comparing these individual toolsor strategiesto determine which ones are most effective (e.g., Duckworth, White, et al., 2016;Lopez et al., 2021;Williamson & Wilkowski, 2019). ...
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Research on self-control typically emphasizes the benefits of using a singular adaptive strategy to overcome temptation in the pursuit of longer-term goals. However, we propose that self-control is better conceived as a “toolbox” of strategies that people can then strategically use in everyday life. In eight samples across important life domains, participants (N total = 2,347) reported their use of seven strategies that determined their strategy repertoire – or strategy “toolbox” – for each goal. Results suggest that having a more well-equipped strategy repertoire was associated with greater subjective goal progress (r = 0.32-0.39). Similar results were found for some domain-specific behaviours (healthy food intake, adaptive financial behaviours; r = 0.20-0.41), but not others (snack intake, credit score; r = -0.03-0.04). Together, these findings highlight the importance of having access to a range of strategies, which has further implications for downstream regulatory processes in everyday life (e.g., regulatory flexibility).
... We also found that participants in the control group viewed the future more positively than those in the second control group, which is consistent with several previous studies. A meta-analysis by Webb et al. (2012) highlighted that attentional distraction is an effective emotion regulation strategy that can help individuals shift away from emotional stimuli (Min et al., 2015). ...
Article
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has triggered a strong sense of uncertainty worldwide, which may lead to short-sighted behaviors. This study aimed to examine the impact of uncertainty induced by COVID-19 on intertemporal choice, as well as its underlying mechanisms, by conducting four experiments. Study 1a verified the causal relationship between uncertainty and intertemporal choice by showing that participants who feel more uncertain are more likely to choose smaller and sooner gains. Study 1b further confirmed this finding by conducting field experiments, which improved the ecological validity of the results. Study 2 not only replicated the results of Study 1 but also investigated the mediating role of future orientation between uncertainty and intertemporal choice. In Study 3, all participants experienced high uncertainty by recalling their own experiences related to COVID-19. The results showed that increasing future orientation reduced their preferences for smaller and sooner gains, further confirming the mediating role of future orientation. Overall, these findings indicate that uncertainty may lead to a present orientation, which in turn fosters preferences for immediate gains.
... We hypothesized that depressed individuals would be more likely than healthy controls to choose distraction over rumination in response to pleasant stimuli, but will choose rumination over distraction in response to unpleasant stimuli. Different emotion regulation strategies lead to different emotional outcomes (e.g., Webb et al., 2012). Choices between strategies, therefore, may be driven by how motivated people are to attain those outcomes (e.g., Millgram et al., 2019b). ...
Preprint
Individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) often use emotion regulation strategies that decrease hedonic balance. If chosen, such strategies may reflect reduced pro-hedonic motivation. However, whether such strategies are actively chosen, even when alternatives are available, remains unclear. In Study 1, using a behavioral task we demonstrate that individuals with MDD (N=41) were more likely than healthy controls (N=39) to actively choose distraction over rumination in response to pleasant stimuli. When pro-hedonic goals were activated, however, depressed individuals did not differ from controls, and were less likely to distract from pleasant stimuli. In Study 2, using ecological momentary assessments (EMAs), we found that individuals with MDD (N=61) were more likely than healthy controls (N=62) to distract from pleasant emotions in daily life. This pattern of strategy use was mediated by group differences in pro-hedonic motivation. Findings suggest that people with MDD may choose emotion regulation strategies that decrease hedonic balance.
... Our finding is consistent with a meta-analysis showing that strategies using acceptance are on average effective (d = 0.30) on emotional outcomes in an experimental setting (Webb et al., 2012). For individuals presenting with mild emotional symptoms, psychoeducation about the highly acceptance-focused therapy program ACT has been found effective for reducing symptoms (Cartwright & Hooper, 2017) -which corroborates our findings. ...
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PurposeAdolescence is a sensitive period for developing mental health problems. Interventions targeting emotion regulation have shown promising transdiagnostic effects for this group, but optimization efforts are called for. In the current study, we used an element-based approach to identify potentially active ingredients in interventions measuring emotion regulation, to guide further optimization.Methods We coded practice elements in 30 studies based on a systematic review of mental health interventions measuring emotion regulation in adolescents (N = 2,389 participants, mean age 13–17 years). Using a three-level modeling approach, we then investigated the difference in effect on emotion regulation between studies of interventions with and without these practice elements.ResultsWe identified 75 practice elements and 15 element categories used in the included interventions. Results showed significantly stronger effects on emotion regulation when interventions included the practice elements Setting goals for treatment (difference in d = 0.40, 95% CI [0.09, 0.70], p = .012) and Psychoeducation about acceptance (difference in d = 0.58, 95% CI [0.09, 1.07], p = .021). Furthermore, a total of 11 elements and four overall categories were identified as potentially active ingredients, based on an effect size difference of > 0.20 between interventions with and without the elements.Conclusion The results can direct experimental research into the selection of practices that are most likely key to mechanisms of change in interventions addressing emotion regulation for adolescents. The challenge of measuring emotion regulation is discussed.
... By contrast, other widely used taxonomies, such as employed in the ERQ (see introduction), conceptualize PCR considerably more broadly as consisting of any cognitive change that improves situation appraisal. Within this umbrella category, they differentiate between reappraisal sub-types (as a function of the object of reappraisal ;Webb et al., 2012) or tactics (as a function of semantic categories employed; McRae, Ciesielski, et al., 2012). These taxonomies explicitly include acceptance, but also putting into perspective or distancing in the cognitive reappraisal strategy family (see also Kalisch et al., 2005;Ochsner et al., 2004). ...
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Stress-related psychopathology is on the rise, and there is a pressing need for improved prevention strategies. Positive appraisal style, the tendency to appraise potentially threatening situations in a positive way, has been proposed to act as a key resilience mechanism and therefore offers a potential target for preventive approaches. In this article, we review n = 99 studies investigating associations of positive cognitive reappraisal, an important sub-facet of positive appraisal style, with outcome-based resilience and relevant other outcomes, which are considered resilience-related. According to the studies reviewed, positive cognitive reappraisal moderates the relation between stressors and negative outcomes and is positively related to several resilience-related outcomes. It also mediates between other resilience factors and resilience, suggesting it is a proximal resilience factor.
... Emotion regulation refers to the processes by which individuals influence the experience and expression of their emotions (Gross, 1998). Although emotion regulation research has historically focused on processes that occur within an individual, people often turn to others for regulating emotions, such that communication and social interaction can their effectiveness in modifying emotions (Gross & John, 2003;Webb et al., 2012;Sheppes & Gross, 2012) and based on their associations with psychopathology (Aldao et al., 2010;Hu et al., 2014). Among more widely investigated strategies, efforts to positively reappraise the event (Weber et al., 2014;Messina et al., 2015) and non-judgemental acceptance of emotional reactions (Kohl et al., 2012;Messina et al., 2016, Messina et al., 2021bc Faustino et al., 2020) are often considered adaptive strategies, whereas repetitive ruminative thoughts about negative situations (Watkins, 2008) and suppression of emotional reactions (Wenzlaff & Wegner, 2000) are considered maladaptive. ...
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The goal of this research was to validate an Italian adaptation of the questionnaire Difficulties in Interpersonal Regulation of Emotions (DIRE) and to investigate its associations with psychopathology. An Italian sample (N = 630) completed the DIRE and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). We tested the factorial structure of the DIRE using explorative and confirmatory factorial analyses; we analysed the convergent validity in terms of zero-order correlations with SCL-90 dimensions; and, we conducted multiple regressions to test the predictivity of DIRE factors on specific SCL-90 dimensions. The Italian DIRE replicated the four-factor structure of the original measure, with two interpersonal (Vent and Reassurance-seek) and two intrapersonal (Accept and Avoid) factors. Interpersonal factors resulted correlated with SCL-90 global indexes of psychopathology. Moreover, specific association between DIRE factors and SCL-90 dimensions were found. The Italian DIRE is a reliable and valid measure to evaluate clinically-relevant forms of emotion dysregulation.
... Finally, we identified a small emotion regulation subcluster within the red cluster. Feldman (2004), Feldman et al. (2007), Chambers et al. (2009), andWebb et al. (2012) investigated how mindfulness and ER are connected. In general, ER is referred to as the adaptation of one or more elements of emotional experience or response (Chambers et al., 2009). ...
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This paper provides an overview of the mindfulness literature up until the end of 2020 by (a) uncovering its underlying intellectual structure, (b) identifying the most influential and popular themes, and (c) presenting new directions for future research on mindfulness. To this end, a systematic quantitative review based on bibliometric methods was conducted, which is perhaps less prone to researcher bias and can complement existing meta-analyses and qualitative (narrative) structured reviews as an objective approach. Three bibliometric techniques—document co-citation analysis, co-word (co-occurrence and content) analysis, and bibliographic coupling—were applied to explore the past, present, and future of mindfulness research. The co-citation analysis showed that measurement, mechanisms, mindfulness-based interventions, and examinations of the efficacy of mindfulness interventions are among the key theoretical knowledge bases from which the field of mindfulness is derived. The content analysis demonstrated the beneficial effects of mindfulness meditation for physical and mental health conditions. The bibliographic coupling revealed novel directions in cognitive behavioral therapy, emotion regulation, the application of mindfulness practice to children and adolescents, mindfulness at work, and the role of mindfulness in positive psychology. The large sample of articles that was analyzed allowed us to provide a broader and more objective overview than possible with other forms of literature reviews. The combination of the three bibliometric techniques granted deeper insights into the complex multidisciplinary field of mindfulness, along with specific suggestions for future research.
... Emotion regulation refers to the processes by which individuals influence the experience and expression of their emotions (Gross, 1998). Although emotion regulation research has historically focused on processes that occur within an individual, people often turn to others for regulating emotions, such that communication and social interaction can their effectiveness in modifying emotions (Gross & John, 2003;Webb et al., 2012;Sheppes & Gross, 2012) and based on their associations with psychopathology (Aldao et al., 2010;Hu et al., 2014). Among more widely investigated strategies, efforts to positively reappraise the event (Weber et al., 2014;Messina et al., 2015) and non-judgemental acceptance of emotional reactions (Kohl et al., 2012;Messina et al., 2016, Messina et al., 2021bc Faustino et al., 2020) are often considered adaptive strategies, whereas repetitive ruminative thoughts about negative situations (Watkins, 2008) and suppression of emotional reactions (Wenzlaff & Wegner, 2000) are considered maladaptive. ...
Article
The emerging field of interpersonal emotion regulation (IER) is drawing attention to forms of emotion regulation which involve communication and social interaction as part of the regulation process. The availability of instruments to measure IER in different languages represents significant promise for future work in this field. The goal of the present study was to validate an Italian adaptation of a self-report instrument for the assessment of IER, the Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (IERQ; Hofmann et al., 2016). In an Italian sample (N=448), exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the original structure comprising four factors (Enhancing Positive Affect, Perspective Taking, Soothing and Social Modelling). Correlations with other measures of emotion regulation showed good convergent validity of the questionnaire.
... For example, two widely deployed emotion regulation strategies, distraction and reappraisal, respectively target attentional deployment versus cognitive appraisal components of the process model in order to regulate the prepotent (and potentially dysfunctional) trajectory of emotional response. Extant empirical studies of emotion regulation in healthy subjects describe the comparative efficacy of these strategies [10], individual differences in strategy efficacy [11], as well as their attendant functional neurocircuitry [12][13][14]. It is the process model that provides an overarching framework by which to organize these studies and to extrapolate their findings to inform observed patterns of emotion dysregulation associated with psychopathology [15][16][17][18][19]. ...
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In this study, we merged methods from engineering control theory, machine learning, and human neuroimaging to critically test the putative role of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in goal-directed performance monitoring during an emotion regulation task. Healthy adult participants (n = 94) underwent cued-recall and re-experiencing of their responses to affective image stimuli with concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging and psychophysiological response recording. During cued-recall/re-experiencing trials, participants engaged in explicit self-regulation of their momentary affective state to match a pre-defined affective goal state. Within these trials, neural decoding methods measured affect processing from fMRI BOLD signals across the orthogonal affective dimensions of valence and arousal. Participants’ affective brain states were independently validated via facial electromyography (valence) and electrodermal activity (arousal) responses. The decoded affective states were then used to contrast four computational models of performance monitoring (i.e., error, predicted response outcome, action-value, and conflict) by their relative abilities to explain emotion regulation task-related dACC activation. We found that the dACC most plausibly encodes action-value for both valence and arousal processing. We also confirmed that dACC activation directly encodes affective arousal and also likely encodes recruitment of attention and regulation resources. Beyond its contribution to improving our understanding of the roles that the dACC plays in emotion regulation, this study introduced a novel analytical framework through which affect processing and regulation may be functionally dissociated, thereby permitting mechanistic analysis of real-world emotion regulation strategies, e.g., distraction and reappraisal, which are widely employed in cognitive behavioral therapy to address clinical deficits in emotion regulation.
... Emotion regulation pertains to individuals attempting to adjust their inner experience, psychological state, and behavior performance by changing their emotional response's intensity, direction, and duration to achieve the expected goal [14,15]. Expression suppression and cognitive reappraisal are two well-recognized, effective, and widely used emotion regulation strategies [16][17][18]. The former occurs after the emotional reaction tendency appears. ...
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Previous studies have shown that some negative emotions hinder estimation strategy execution. However, these studies rarely investigate the influence of negative emotions on the estimation strategy execution in individuals with trait anxiety. The present study examines the relationship between negative emotions and trait anxiety in individuals’ estimation strategy execution. Moreover, it looks into the influence of different emotion regulation strategies on their estimation strategy execution. In October 2010, 803 college students were evaluated using the Trait Anxiety Scale. From these participants, individuals with high and low trait anxiety were selected to complete the double-digit multiplication estimation task. The results showed that the estimation strategy’s execution speed in individuals with high trait anxiety was slower than those with low trait anxiety under negative emotions (t (113) = 􀀀2.269, p = 0.025, d = 0.427). Both expression inhibition and cognitive reappraisal could significantly improve the execution speed of the estimation strategy in low trait anxiety (p < 0.001). For individuals with high trait anxiety, cognitive reappraisal regulating negative emotions can promote the estimation strategy’s execution speed (p = 0.031). However, the use of expression inhibition has no significant effect on estimation strategy execution (p = 0.101). In summary, the present study revealed that different emotion regulation strategies moderated the arithmetic strategy execution of individuals with trait anxiety, and cognitive reappraisal had a better effect in individuals with high trait anxiety.
... and social outcomes assumed a medium effect size (Collado-Hidalgo et al., 2006). Also, additional work related to emotion regulation more broadly and LD specifically has found medium to low effect sizes. For example, Webb and colleagues' emotion regulation meta-analysis found that cognitive change had a small-to-medium effect size (Cohen's d = .36;Webb et al., 2012), and Nook and colleagues' original work on LD found a modest but significant correlation of .28 (Nook et al., 2017). Thus, a medium effect size is meaningful in the context of our research question. A minimum sample size of 134 yields 95% power of detecting a correlation of .30 (medium effect size; Cohen, 1992). Thus, more than 134 part ...
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Objective: The loss of a spouse is considered one of the most significant life change-related stressors. Bereaved spouses have significantly increased risk of chronic inflammation, and ultimately greater morbidity and mortality. High levels of proinflammatory cytokines are related to negative health outcomes. In bereavement, the ability to successfully regulate emotion is a vital skill for healthy coping and may represent a key psychological mechanism accounting for varying degrees of resilience. Psychological distancing is a frequently adaptive emotion regulation strategy in which an individual appraises a negative situation by taking a step back and distancing oneself, and coolly evaluates what is happening. The objective of the present work was to investigate whether psychological distancing, implemented implicitly via natural language use (i.e., linguistic distancing [LD]), is related to inflammation and bereavement-related health indicators. Method: Participants (N = 144) underwent a blood draw for the inflammation assay, completed questionnaire measures evaluating grief symptoms and health, and completed an oral task describing their relationship with their deceased spouse, which was used for the lexical analyses. Results: We found that LD was significantly associated with a panel of a priori proinflammatory stimulated cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-2), bereavement-related health indices, and the relationship between grief symptoms and inflammation varied depending on the participants' implementation of LD. Conclusions: LD may have a buffering effect for this vulnerable population. This work elucidates novel dependencies among language, emotion, and health. This work identifies resilience factors and probes the translational value of LD. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... This knowledge appears to have guided participants to be cognizant about the students' reactions as well as their own triggers in challenging situations as written in the selfreflections. These results are in line with the literature documenting the effectiveness of using cognitive change as an emotion regulation strategy (Webb et al., 2012). Cognitive change and emotion regulation strategies are antecedent-focused approaches aimed at shifting a person's appraisal of a situation in order to change the salience of the emotional experience (Gross & Thompson, 2007). ...
Article
Background: Implementing trauma-informed care (TIC) practices in educational settings requires preparing school staff to understand adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and their impact to provide a restorative rather than a punitive response. Objectives: To assess learning outcomes of a TIC training delivered to kindergarten to 12-grade (K-12) staff. Participants and setting: A TIC training informed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (SAMHSA) Framework was delivered August to December 2017 to twenty-seven K-12 staff in Southeastern U.S. Majority were women (93 %) aged 25 to 58 years; 52 % were White and 48 % were Black/African American (48 %). Methods: Curricular content included an overview of ACEs; stress physiology; recognition of symptoms in self and others; strategies for response; and self-care. A post-training questionnaire with 11 learning statements was administered to assess participants' level of agreement with learning each concept using a 5-point Likert scale. Self-reflective narratives of challenging situations with students were also submitted and qualitatively analyzed for applications of TIC. Results: Between 62.9 % to 96 % of participants agreed/strongly agreed with learning new concepts related to ACEs and their symptoms. Qualitative data indicated that participants were able to recognize stress symptoms in students and in themselves and integrate strategies learned such as breathing and creating safe space to allow students to have voice and choice. Conclusions: TIC training curriculum that includes ACEs and toxic stress science is a critical component that promotes recognition of trauma symptoms in themselves and others. Self-reflective practice using narratives is an essential training tool for implementing TIC.
... The finding that temporarily concentrating on either a positive or an emotionally unrelated distractor (i.e., breathing or a mental image) could soothe negative emotions adds a new piece of evidence showing that the distraction strategies are generally adaptive for emotion regulation (e.g., Morrow & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1990;Wong & Moulds, 2009; for a review, see Webb et al., 2012). One might argue that the negative emotions may naturally decrease with time. ...
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Focused-distraction strategies are commonly used for thought control, but their effectiveness in handling personal worries with different types of distractors has rarely been examined. To examine this issue, 101 undergraduate and graduate students whose depression levels fell below mild depression were recruited (64.4% female, Mage = 20.27) and were randomly assigned to one of the three strategy conditions: 34 participants for the focused-breathing strategy (FBS), 34 for the focused-positive-distractor strategy (FPS), and 33 for the focused-neutral-distractor strategy (FNS). After a short introduction and practice, they applied the assigned strategy during a 5-min worry control session to prevent thoughts regarding a recent worrying event. The number of worry intrusions was measured using an online self-caught method. Participants rated their emotional states before and after the worry control session. Their working memory capacities (WMCs) and depressive tendency were comparable across conditions. The results showed the FBS and FPS groups exhibited fewer worry intrusions than did the FNS group. Furthermore, worry intrusions were negatively related to WMC for the FNS group but independent of WMC for the other two. The above findings together indicate that the FBS and FPS are relatively effective and effortless methods for reducing worry intrusions. Negative emotions decreased after the worry control session for all groups. However, decoupling of negative emotions from worry intrusions was only observed for the FBS and FNS groups. Overall, FBS outperforms FPS and FNS in managing worries from the above aspects. Several theoretical and practical implications of the study were discussed.
... The choice of emotion regulation strategy has been shown to depend, among other things, on affective arousal and motivational factors (Dixon-Gordon et al., 2015;Sheppes et al., 2011). Additionally, while the recurrent use of specific emotion regulation strategies appears to be more or less maladaptive, there is evidence to suggest that the effectiveness of strategies is also related to contextual demands (Aldao et al., 2010;Webb et al., 2012). ...
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In the current study, we provided participants with written information about emotional dimensions of a sound presented as a task-irrelevant sound in the context of a serial recall task. We were interested in whether this manipulation would influence sound perception and spontaneous use of emotion regulation strategies. Participants were informed that they would hear either an aversive and annoying sound, or a pleasant and calming sound. They subsequently performed three blocks of a serial recall task with the sound presented in the background and rated the sound after each block. Results showed that participants in the negative information group rated the sound as more negative, with effects diminishing over repeated trials. While not impacting emotion regulation strategy directly, the manipulation indirectly influenced the degree to which participants used mental suppression as a regulatory strategy via changing affective responses. In the negative information condition specifically, participants who experienced the sound as more negative were more inclined to use mental suppression to deal with the sound, whereas no such relationship was observed in the positive information condition. The study adds to our understanding of how sounds come to acquire emotional meaning and how individuals spontaneously cope with emotional, task-irrelevant sounds.
... Importantly, these regions are modulated by stress and sex hormones and are therefore also sensitive to the influences of HCs (Arnsten, 2009;Montoya and Bos, 2017;van Wingen et al., 2011). Cognitive reappraisal and distraction are two of the most frequently studied cognitive emotion regulation strategies and considered as being most effective for the downregulation of negative emotions (Webb et al., 2012). While distraction involves directing attention away from the emotional stimulus toward non-emotional aspects of the situation, cognitive reappraisal aims at reinterpreting the emotional situation in order to change its emotional impact (Gross, 2015). ...
Article
Men and women partially differ in how they respond to stress and how stress in return affects their cognition and emotion. The influence of hormonal contraceptives (HCs) on this interaction has received little attention, which is surprising given the prevalence of HC usage. This selective review illustrates how HC usage modulates the effects of stress hormones on cognition and emotion. As three examples, we discuss stress hormone effects on episodic memory, fear conditioning and cognitive emotion regulation. The identified studies revealed that stress effects on cognitive-emotional processes in women using HCs were at times reduced or even absent when compared to men or naturally cycling women. Especially striking were the few examples of reversed effects in HC women. As underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms, we discuss influences of HCs on the neuroendocrine stress response and effects of HCs on central glucocorticoid sensitivity. The summarized findings emphasize the need for additional translational research.
... Further, providing training to students and teachers to handle negative emotional experiences adaptively might be helpful to sustain their positive emotional experiences. Here, meta-analytic findings show that emotion interventions targeting cognitive change through appraisals (in light of this study's results, conveying value) can alleviate negative emotions (Webb et al., 2012), and prior studies offer a variety of techniques to regulate students' emotions effectively (Harley et al., 2019). ...
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Proofs as epistemic tools are central to mathematical practice, as they establish and provide explanations for the validity of mathematical statements. Considering the challenge that proof construction poses to learners of all ages, prior research has investigated its cognitive determinants, but the impact of affective-motivational experiences on proof construction has been insufficiently investigated. Emotions related to knowledge acquisition (i.e., epistemic emotions) are assumed to play a key role in epistemic processes. In this study we investigated how the performance of 80 mathematics undergraduate students in a geometric proof construction task relates to the epistemic emotions experienced during proof construction. Controlling for geometry knowledge, we included control and value appraisals as antecedents in our investigation of epistemic emotions, and attention and motivation as mediators of their effects on proof construction performance. The results indicate that positive as well as negative emotions are influenced by students’ appraisals, also indicating an interaction of both appraisal dimensions. Primarily enjoyment and curiosity mediate the effects of these appraisals on attention and motivation. These two markers of the proof construction process, in turn, mediate the effects of enjoyment and boredom on proof construction performance. In this study we investigated systematically the role of epistemic emotions in geometric proof construction and we offer insights that complement the existing research on the cognitive determinants of proof performance. Moreover, this study extended research on epistemic emotions into the area of proof construction, an epistemic process central to mathematics.
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Most studies of talented learners focus on the nature of their accelerated cognitive abilities, and on structuring curricula to support them in achieving academically. Few studies of talented learners explore their emotional regulatory and coping strategies, as part of how they learn. Yet emotional regulation and coping strategies are an essential component of self-efficacy and self-regulation. Many talented learners are now also second-language learners. Programmers are among the most talented of 21st century learners. Programming requires linguistic proficiency, advanced quantitative reasoning, and multiple, complex forms of procedural reasoning. Mixed methods were used to explore how 34 talented programmers responded to a stressful second-language task. Data was analysed using one deductive and one emergent content coding frame, Appraisal analysis, and transitivity analysis. Results show that talented programmers handle stress by identifying and solving contextual problems. They realise positive subjective attitudes as evaluations of context, but frame negative emotions as interior experiences. As actors, they represent themselves as closely aligned with their team.
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This article considers multiple theoretical perspectives on anger and hostility, which is an attitude that is closely related to anger. The primary focus of this article is to present representative classic and recent research on anger and anger regulation. Common methods for inducing and assessing anger and hostility in experimental contexts are reviewed. A discussion of anger management in clinical contexts is provided. The influence of social and cultural variables on anger experience and regulation are also discussed as are the social and health costs associated with anger.
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Stressor events can be highly emotional and disruptive to our functioning, yet they also present opportunities for learning and growth via self‐reflections. Self‐distanced reflections in which one reasons about target events in ways that maximise their removal of the current self from the experiential reality are said to facilitate this reflective process. We tested the expectation that self‐distanced reflections offer an advantage over self‐immersed vistas via a pre‐registered systematic review of seven electronic databases (Scopus, Medline, Web of Science, PsycInfo, CINAHL Plus, Embase, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global) to identify experimental tests with adults aged 18–65 years where the focus of the reflection was a stressor or adverse event that participants had already experienced. A three‐level, random effects meta‐analysis of 25 experiments (N = 2,397, 68 effects) revealed a small‐to‐moderate advantage of self‐distanced reflections (g = 0.19, SE = 0.07, 95% CI [0.05, 0.33]) and were most effective when they targeted a stressor experience that emphasised one's emotional state or lifetime. Nevertheless, our assessment of the overall quality of evidence including risk of bias suggested uncertainty regarding the benefit of this pragmatic self‐regulatory tactic and therefore the need for future high‐powered, high‐quality experiments.
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Mindfulness is the status of being alert to the present and functioning with complete focus on immediate sensations and situations that is happening both within and in the immediate environment of a person. Emotional distress and emotionally aroused state is primarily associated with the past events the person has experienced in his life or anticipation related the future. The aim of the study was to investigate The Relationship between Mindfulness (5 factors of Mindfulness) and Emotional regulation among young adults. The research design was correlational. Data was collected using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire a sample size of 129 participants between the age of 17-23 years in a paper pen test format. The data collected was analysed using a statistical package for social science (SPSS) to find the relationship between the 2 variables. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between Mindfulness 4 factors observing, describe, acting and awareness and nonreactive was found to have significant relationship and Emotional Regulation, while it was found that the 5th factor non-judging did not have a significant relationship with mindfulness
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Importance: Occupational and physical therapists’ use of intrapersonal and interpersonal emotion regulation strategies may play an important role in building therapeutic relationships, but little is known about how they use these strategies during patient interactions. Objective: To understand how therapists use intrapersonal and interpersonal emotion regulation strategies during their patient interactions. Design: This qualitative study consisted of two stages of data collection. In Stage 1, therapists were interviewed regarding how they use emotion regulation strategies in their therapeutic relationships. In Stage 2, patient–therapist dyads were observed during treatment sessions and then interviewed at the end of the therapeutic relationship. Setting: Inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation hospitals and clinics in the United Kingdom. Participants: In Stage 1, 13 occupational therapists and 9 physical therapists participated; in Stage 2, 14 patient–therapist dyads participated. Outcome and Measures: A semistructured interview guide was used to ask therapists how they use emotion regulation strategies during patient interactions. Results: Therapists used a wide range of interpersonal and intrapersonal emotion regulation strategies that can be categorized in prominent emotion regulation strategy taxonomies. They used these strategies both proactively, in anticipation of emotional events, and reactively, in response to emotional events. Their use helped them to build and maintain the therapeutic relationship and to protect themselves, feel better, and get their jobs done. Conclusions and Relevance: The ability to regulate one’s own and others’ emotions is an essential part of therapists’ work. In this study, therapists used a wide range of emotion regulation strategies to benefit themselves and their patients. What This Article Adds: This is the first study to identify the specific intrapersonal and interpersonal emotion regulation strategies used by occupational and physical therapists during patient–therapist interactions. This study makes an important contribution to understanding therapists’ use of proactive and reactive emotion regulation strategies to build and maintain therapeutic relationships.
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The role of autobiographical memory in emotion regulation is deemed as limited to the selective retrieval of positive memories intended as a distraction from unpleasant stimuli. The present experimental study is the first to examine whether negative autobiographical memories serve as a way to boost one’s mood by employing the mechanism of retrospective downward autobiographical comparison between now and then. We hypothesised that this mechanism may operate in response to negative memories, leading to positive mood induction. Ninety-nine students participated in four memory tasks: autobiographical positive, autobiographical negative, vicarious positive, and vicarious negative. Emotional states at pre- and post-tests were assessed using the implicit test differentiating positive (PA) and negative (NA) components of mood. The results replicated previous studies on the mood-repair effect of deliberate positive recall. The most striking finding is that negative autobiographical recall consistently boosted PA and inhibited NA. This result supported the idea of retrospective downward autobiographical comparison as a plausible mechanism behind the efficacy of negative memories in emotion regulation.
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel werden Interventionen zur Förderung von Selbstwirksamkeit, Selbstregulation und Emotionsregulation im Arbeitskontext im Überblick dargestellt. Dafür werden zunächst die theoretischen Grundlagen als Basis für die Interventionsgestaltung vorgestellt, wie der sequenzielle Prozess der Selbstregulation und das Prozessmodel der Emotionsregulation. Anschließend werden der aktuelle Forschungsstand und exemplarische Interventionsstudien. Kapitel schließt mit Implikationen für zukünftige Forschung und Empfehlungen zur Umsetzung von Interventionen zur Förderung von Selbstwirksamkeit, Emotions- und Selbstregulation.
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Tremendous interest exists in the use of brief digital “micro-interventions” for online and mobile intervention. Most digital micro-interventions, however, lack a strong theoretical or empirical basis and have not demonstrated efficacy and acceptability. We developed a suite of brief digital stress management micro-interventions based on theory and empirical evidence and tested the efficacy and acceptability of these micro-interventions in managing stress, mood, and perseverative cognition. Participants were 1,050 US adults (ages 35-65) in good health who received digital micro-intervention content (or comparison content) and then completed post-intervention measures and acceptability ratings. We created 16 brief (<2 min) micro-interventions across four therapeutic domains (relaxation, response modulation, positive experiences, and resource buffers) and a brief active comparison activity. We also created one multi-component micro-intervention (∼20 min) that contained elements of all four domains, and a time-matched active comparison activity. A subset (n=850) of participants received one of the 16 brief micro-interventions or a brief comparator; the remainder (n=200) received either the longer multi-component micro-intervention or the time-matched active comparator task. All micro-intervention stress management content reduced acute stress, negative mood, and perseverative cognitions. For all outcomes, the multi-component intervention showed the strongest effects. Active comparator tasks were more weakly associated with outcomes (except that brief distraction was highly effective at reducing perseverative cognitions). Micro-intervention acceptability was generally high across multiple dimensions. These data demonstrate that a diverse set of 16 brief digital micro-interventions comparison activity were efficacious, and an integrative multi-component micro-intervention was more efficacious. Such micro-interventions hold great potential for scalable digital implementation, including “just-in-time” intervention in response to acute risk states.
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In two studies, we examined the utility of intrinsic (i.e., self) versus extrinsic (i.e., other) reappraisal training for distress reduction during two consecutive COVID-19 lockdowns in Israel. In both Study 1 (n = 104) and Study 2 (n = 181), participants practiced the use of reappraisal for eight sessions across three weeks. Participants were trained to reappraise either a personal event (self-reappraisal group) or an incident presumably written by another participant (other-reappraisal group). Study 2 also included an untrained control group. Outcome measures were daily negative mood and psychological distress immediately at post-training and at a two-month follow-up. The results demonstrate a benefit for training compared to no training in lowering immediate post-training distress and daily negative emotions. However, this advantage disappeared at the two-month follow-up. In both studies, intrinsic reappraisal was associated with lower post-training distress than extrinsic reappraisal. Findings suggest reappraising negative experiences may lower distress at times of major contextual stress. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-03642-6.
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Objective: The present study examines sociopolitical stress, coping, and well-being among college students. Participants: Young adult college students (N = 588; ages 18–29; 72% cisgender women) from 10 universities in the USA participated in this study. Methods: Participants completed a 45-minute online survey with closed-ended and open-ended questions, administered via Qualtrics. Results: Election-related sociopolitical stress was high with notable differences across students’ demographic backgrounds (e.g., Hispanic/Latinx students, women, and sexual minority students reported high sociopolitical stress). Among those who reported being stressed by the election (N = 448), closed-ended and open-ended data reveal coping strategies including self-care, drugs and alcohol, and further civic action/political participation. Higher sociopolitical stress predicted more depression and many coping strategies were related with flourishing. Conclusions: Young adult college students are experiencing election-related sociopolitical stress and are coping in different ways. More work is needed to understand what coping strategies support well-being. Implications for colleges are discussed.
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Remote working caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has eroded boundaries between work and home, necessitating the need to evaluate the long-term impacts of these changes and mitigate any negative effects on workers’ work-life experiences. To do so, we reviewed and examined work-life research published since the start of the pandemic. The review yielded a sample of 303 work-life scholarly articles, with three common themes: (1) work-life boundaries have become more permeable, with behavior-based and time-based work-life conflict emerging as the more salient forms of work-life conflict; (2) technical work demands have increased, as employees grapple with techno-invasion, techno-overload, and techno-complexity; and (3) psychological and emotional work demands have intensified. Based on these key findings, we call for multi-level and multi-agency responses to deal with the complex, diverse nature of work-life demands. Specifically, we offer recommendations at the individual-, team/organizational-, and societal/governmental-levels to enhance employees’ work and non-work lives after the pandemic.
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A converging body of behavioural findings supports the hypothesis that the dispositional use of Emotion Regulation (ER) strategies depends on trait Emotional Intelligence (trait EI) levels. Unfortunately, neuroscientific investigations of such relationship are missing. To fill this gap, we analysed trait measures and resting state data from 79 healthy participants to investigate whether trait EI and ER processes are associated to similar neural circuits. An unsupervised machine learning approach (Independent Component Analysis) was used to decompose resting-sate functional networks and to assess whether they predict trait EI and specific ER strategies. Individual differences results showed that high trait EI significantly predicts and negatively correlates with the frequency of use of typical dysfunctional ER strategies. Crucially, we observed that an increased BOLD temporal variability within sensorimotor and salience networks was associated with both high trait EI and the frequency of use of cognitive reappraisal. By contrast, a decreased variability in salience network was associated with the use of suppression. These findings support the tight connection between trait EI and individual tendency to use functional ER strategies, and provide the first evidence that modulations of BOLD temporal variability in specific brain networks may be pivotal in explaining this relationship.
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Recent studies have found the connections between cognitive reappraisals’ creativity and their regulatory efficacy. The present study proposed and tested a novel hypothesis on the function of cognitive reappraisals, especially creative ones. That is, whether they could positively alter negative emotional arousal toward unpleasant stimuli. To this end, two questions were investigated: (a) whether the creative reappraisals were more capable than ordinary ones of transforming the negative stimuli (pictures) to be perceived as positive, and (b) whether these two kinds of reappraisals made the “negative‐to‐positive transformation” through different mechanisms. To answer the first question, we examined the power of the creative and ordinary reappraisals in making the “negative‐to‐positive transformation” using an indirect and delayed “positive‐or‐negative” picture‐sorting task (Exp. 1, n = 41 with a statistical power of 0.877), or using a direct and immediate subjective rating (Exp. 2, n = 31 with a statistical power of 0.768). To answer the second question, we checked how the factor of creativeness (creative vs. ordinary reappraisal) interacted with the factor of “timing” (simultaneous vs. delayed reappraisal delivery, Exp. 1), or with that of “dose” (one vs. three reappraisal applications; Exp. 2), in making the “negative‐to‐positive transformation,” respectively, and examined if the variation of “timing” or “dose” factors would exert different effects on the creative and ordinary reappraisals’ regulatory function. Our results generally proved that creative reappraisal was more capable of making the “negative‐to‐positive transformation” than the ordinary reappraisal, regardless of the direct and indirect emotion evaluation ratings as well as the variations in the timing and dose of reappraisal delivery. Moreover, we found that these two kinds of reappraisals could show dissociable dose‐dependent effects (but not timing‐dependent ones), thus partially implying that creative and ordinary reappraisal might make the “negative‐to‐positive transformation” through fundamentally different processes or mechanisms.
Article
Objectives Top-down stress regulation, important for military operational performance and mental health, involves emotional working memory and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Multisession transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the DLPFC during working memory training has been shown to improve working memory performance. This study tested the hypothesis that combined tDCS with working memory training also improves top-down stress regulation. However, tDCS response differs between individuals. Resting-state electrophysiological brain activity was post hoc explored as a possible predictor of tDCS response. The predictive value of the ratio between slow-wave theta oscillations and fast-wave beta oscillations (theta/beta ratio) was examined, together with the previously identified tDCS response predictors age, education, and baseline working memory performance. Materials and Methods Healthy military service members (n = 79) underwent three sessions of real or sham tDCS over the right DLPFC (anode: F4, cathode: behind C2) at 2 mA for 20 minutes during emotional working memory training (N-back task). At baseline and within a week after the tDCS training sessions, stress regulation was assessed by fear-potentiated startle responses and subjective fear in a threat-of-shock paradigm with instructed emotional downregulation. Results were analyzed in generalized linear mixed-effects models. Results Threat-of-shock responses and emotional working memory performance showed no significant group-level effects of the real vs sham tDCS training intervention (p > 0.07). In contrast, when considering baseline theta/beta ratios or the other tDCS response predictors, exploratory results showed a trait-dependent beneficial effect of tDCS on emotional working memory training performance during the first session (p < 0.01). Conclusions No evidence was found for effectivity of the tDCS training intervention to improve stress regulation in healthy military personnel. The emotional working memory training results emphasize the importance of studying the effects of tDCS in relation to individual differences. Clinical Trial Registration This study was preregistered on September 16, 2019, at the Netherlands Trial Register (www.trialregister.nl) with ID: NL8028.
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An increasing amount of reports sound the alarm about our youngsters mental health state. Research on transdiagnostic mechanisms is needed. Recently, attention has been drawn to the role of cognitive flexibility (CF; the ability to adapt thoughts and behavior to contextual changes), as a possible risk factor for psychopathological development, yet research among children and adolescents is scarce. We hypothesize both direct and indirect links whereby (mal)adaptive emotion regulation strategies might mediate this relationship. Results of this study with 192 clinically-referred children and adolescents (65% female; mean age = 12.65; SD = 2.99) indicated that CF was related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. However, this relationship was not mediated by adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. Implications for theory, clinical practice and future research are discussed.
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This article reviews the current research literature concerning Black people in Western societies to better understand how they regulate their emotions when coping with racism, which coping strategies they use, and which strategies are functional for well-being. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, and 26 studies were identified on the basis of a comprehensive search of multiple databases and reference sections of relevant articles. Studies were quantitative and qualitative, and all articles located were from the United States or Canada. Findings demonstrate that Black people tend to cope with racism through social support (friends, family, support groups), religion (prayer, church, spirituality), avoidance (attempting to avoid stressors), and problem-focused coping (confronting the situation directly). Findings suggest gender differences in coping strategies. We also explore the relationship between coping with physical versus emotional pain and contrast functional versus dysfunctional coping approaches, underscoring the importance of encouraging personal empowerment to promote psychological well-being. Findings may help inform mental-health interventions. Limitations include the high number of American-based samples and exclusion of other Black ethnic and national groups, which is an important area for further exploration.
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Although reappraisal has been shown to be a highly successfully emotion regulation strategy, it requires several sequential steps, and it is still unclear when in the reappraisal process emotion changes. We experimentally dissociated the generation of reappraisals from their implementation and hypothesized that the biggest emotional effects would occur during implementation. In Study 1, participants (N = 106) saw a negative image and generated either just positive reappraisals (GEN ++) or positive and negative reappraisals (GEN +-). They then saw the image again and implemented either their positive reappraisals (for the GEN ++ and half of the GEN +- trials) or negative reappraisals (for the other half of GEN +- trials). Although there were small and significant changes in emotion when generating reappraisals, the robust changes in emotion that are typically observed during reappraisal occurred during implementation. In Study 2 (N = 130), we directly replicated the findings from Study 1 and demonstrated that this small emotional effect from just generating reappraisals was not due to discounting the forthcoming implementation goal. In summary, for the first time, we successfully dissociated reappraisal generation from implementation and show that the biggest emotional effects occur during implementation. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding emotion regulation, the neural underpinnings of reappraisal, and the conditions for reappraisal success in clinical contexts.
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Two experiments explored the effects of observation by another on responses to painful stimuli. It was anticipated that the intensity of pain-related nonverbal expressivity decreases under observation, while indices of arousal (skin conductance and self-report) increase. In Exp I, 20 male undergraduates' expressive responses to shock were attenuated when Ss were observed as compared to when they were alone, but the anticipated augmentation of arousal did not occur. Rather, the attenuation of expressive behavior was accompanied by a general decrease in subjective and autonomic responses to the painful stimuli. Exp II (40 Ss) replicated the results of Exp I and, in addition, found no evidence for a differential impact of sex of observer on the 3 measures of arousal. An interpretation is discussed for the effect of observation on expressive behavior and for the relationships observed among expressive, autonomic, and subjective indices of pain. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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The cognitive model of social phobia by Clark and Wells (Social phobia: diagnosis, assessment and treatment) (1995) proposes that, while anticipating a social situation, individuals with social phobia engage in several biased cognitive processes which enhance anticipatory anxiety. Prior to giving a speech, high and low socially anxious individuals (N = 40 per group) were instructed to either engage in anticipatory processing ( think about what could go right or wrong in the impending situation, predict how they will appear to others and recall past similar situations) or perform a distraction task. Compared to high socially-anxious individuals whose anticipatory processing was inhibited, high socially-anxious participants engaging in anticipatory processing reported more anxiety feelings and predicted more negative overall appearance. High socially-anxious individuals also recalled more negative and less positive information about their public selves, but only when their anticipatory processing was inhibited rather than facilitated. For the low socially-anxious individuals there was no significant difference between the two anticipation conditions on measures of anxiety, self-perception, and memory for emotional information. The results are discussed in relation to the Clark and Wells model.
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The authors present 2 studies to explain the variability in the duration of emotional experience. Participants were asked to report the duration of their fear, anger, joy, gratitude, and sadness episodes on a daily basis. Information was further collected with regard to potential predictor variables at 3 levels: trait predictors, episode predictors, and moment predictors. Discrete-time survival analyses revealed that, for all 5 emotions under study, the higher the importance of the emotion-eliciting situation and the higher the intensity of the emotion at onset, the longer the emotional experience lasts. Moreover, a reappearance, either physically or merely mentally, of the eliciting stimulus during the emotional episode extended the duration of the emotional experience as well. These findings display interesting links with predictions within N. H. Frijda's theory of emotion, with the phenomenon of reinstatement (as studied within the domain of learning psychology), and with the literature on rumination.
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This article reviews research showing that music can alter peoples' moods and emotions. The so called “musical mood induction procedure” (MMIP) relies on music to produce changes in experienced affective processes. The fact that music can have this effect on subjective experience has been utilized to study the effect of mood on cognitive processes and behavior by a large number of researchers in social, clinical, and personality psychology. This extensive body of literature, while little known among music psychologists, is likely to further help music psychologists understand affective responses to music. With this in mind, the present article aims at providing an extensive review of the methodology behind a number of studies using the MMIP. The effectiveness of music as a mood-inducing stimulus is discussed in terms of self-reports, physiological, and behavioral indices. The discussion focuses on how findings from the MMIP literature may extend into current research and debate on the complex interplay of music and emotional responses.
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Does distraction or rumination work better to diffuse anger? Catharsis theory predicts that rumination works best, but empir- ical evidence is lacking. In this study, angered participants hit a punching bag and thought about the person who had angered them (rumination group) or thought about becoming physically fit (distraction group). After hitting the punching bag, they reported how angry they felt. Next, they were given the chance to administer loud blasts of noise to the person who had angered them. There also was a no punching bag control group. People in the rumination group felt angrier than did people in the distrac- tion or control groups. People in the rumination group were also most aggressive, followed respectively by people in the distraction and control groups. Rumination increased rather than decreased anger and aggression. Doing nothing at all was more effective than venting anger. These results directly contradict catharsis theory.
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Systems theory holds that emotional responses derive from the continuous, mutual interaction between multiple neurobiological and behavioral systems associated with emotion as they are contextually embedded. Developmental systems theory portrays these systems as becoming progressively integrated as they mature. From this perspective, regulatory processes are incorporated into emotion throughout the course of emotional development. This article examines the implications of developmental systems theory in understanding the association between emotion and emotion regulation, enlisting the functionalist orientation of contemporary emotions theory, a broad portrayal of emotion regulatory influences, and attention to the role of context in the management of emotion.
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People frequently regulate the emotions that arise during tense social interactions. Common regulation strategies include cognitive reappraisal, which involves interpreting a situation in positive terms, and expressive suppression, which involves inhibiting overt signs of inner emotional states. According to our analysis, during tense social interactions reappraisal should (i) increase memory for what was said, whereas suppression should (ii) decrease memory for what was said, and (iii) increase memory for emotions. To test these predictions, we experimentally manipulated reappraisal and suppression in dating couples as they discussed a relationship conflict. As predicted, memory for conversation utterances was increased by reappraisal and decreased by suppression, and memory for emotional reactions was increased by suppression. Self-monitoring mediated the effect of suppression on memory for emotional reactions, but not for conversation utterances. These findings suggest that, if it is important to preserve the fidelity of cognitive functioning during emotionally trying social interactions, some forms of emotion regulation may have more to recommend them than others.
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The present article reviews modern research on the psychology of emotion regulation. Emotion regulation determines the offset of emotional responding and is thus distinct from emotional sensitivity, which determines the onset of emotional responding. Among the most viable categories for classifying emotion-regulation strategies are the targets and functions of emotion regulation. The emotion-generating systems that are targeted in emotion regulation include attention, knowledge, and bodily responses. The functions of emotion regulation include satisfying hedonic needs, supporting specific goal pursuits, and facilitating the global personality system. Emotion-regulation strategies are classified in terms of their targets and functions and relevant empirical work is reviewed. Throughout this review, emotion regulation emerges as one of the most far-ranging and influential processes at the interface of cognition and emotion.
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Attention Training (ATT) is an auditory attention-focusing technique that attempts to reduce the perseverative self-focused processing characteristic of anxiety and mood disorders. The present study investigated the effects of one session of ATT in the reduction and reappraisal of intrusive thoughts in a university sample reporting high levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. One-hundred and eight participants identified their most distressing intrusive thought and spent 7 minutes monitoring their stream of consciousness while recording occurrences of the identified thought. They then rated the unpleasantness of the intrusive thought, their attempts to dismiss the thought from consciousness, and their perceived success in reducing the frequency of the thought. Participants were then randomly assigned to receive one session of ATT, thought replacement instructions (TR), distraction instructions (DI), or no intervention (CONT). Participants then repeated the thought monitoring interval and ratings. ATT was expected to be the most effective in decreasing the frequency and unpleasantness of intrusive thoughts. However, contrary to hypotheses, all groups reported similar decreases across intervals. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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Mildly-to-moderately depressed and nondepressed subjects were randomly assigned to spend 8 minutes focusing their attention on their current feeling states and personal characteristics (rumination condition) or on descriptions of geographic locations and objects (distraction condition). Depressed subjects in the rumination condition became significantly more depressed, whereas depressed subjects in the distraction condition became significantly less depressed. Rumination and distraction did not affect the moods of nondepressed subjects. These results support the hypothesis that ruminative responses to depressed mood exacerbate and prolong depressed mood. whereas distracting response shorten depressed mood.
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Individual differences in emotionality and regulation are central to conceptions of temperament and personality. In this article, conceptions of emotionality and regulation and ways in which they predict social functioning are examined. Linear (including additive) and nonlinear effects are reviewed. In addition, data on mediational and moderational relations from a longitudinal study are presented. The effects of attention regulation on social functioning were mediated by resiliency, and this relation was moderated by negative emotionality at the first, but not second, assessment. Negative emotionality moderated the relation of behavior regulation to socially appropriate/prosocial behavior. These results highlight the importance of examining different types of regulation and the ways in which dispositional characteristics interact in predicting social outcomes.
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A theory of ironic processes of mental control is proposed to account for the intentional and counterintentional effects that result from efforts at self-control of mental states. The theory holds that an attempt to control the mind introduces 2 processes: (a) an operating process that promotes the intended change by searching for mental contents consistent with the intended state and (b) a monitoring process that tests whether the operating process is needed by searching for mental contents inconsistent with the intended state. The operating process requires greater cognitive capacity and normally has more pronounced cognitive effects than the monitoring process, and the 2 working together thus promote whatever degree of mental control is enjoyed. Under conditions that reduce capacity, however, the monitoring process may supersede the operating process and thus enhance the person's sensitivity to mental contents that are the ironic opposite of those that are intended.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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The volitional suppression of thoughts andrelated increases in intrusions has been posited as amodel for clinical disorders, includingobsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Personallyrelevant, negative intrusive thoughts were elicited fromparticipants with OCD and nonclinical (NC) subjects. Thenegative thoughts reported by OCD patients were highlyrelated to core clinical obsessions. Participants with OCD reported more intrusive thoughts than didNC subjects regardless of whether they attempted tosuppress obsessional intrusions. Group- orexperimental-condition related thought enhancement orrebound was not found, but a greater percentage of theOCD suppression group experienced thought rebound thandid the NC suppression group. Volitional thoughtsuppression maybe but one of many response strategies employed by individuals with OCD when negativeintrusive thoughts occur.
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Despite strong popular conceptions of gender differences in emotionality and striking gender differences in the prevalence of disorders thought to involve emotion dysregulation, the literature on the neural bases of emotion regulation is nearly silent regarding gender differences (Gross, 2007; Ochsner & Gross, in press). The purpose of the present study was to address this gap in the literature. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we asked male and female participants to use a cognitive emotion regulation strategy (reappraisal) to down-regulate their emotional responses to negatively valenced pictures. Behaviorally, men and women evidenced comparable decreases in negative emotion experience. Neurally, however, gender differences emerged. Compared with women, men showed (a) lesser increases in prefrontal regions that are associated with reappraisal, (b) greater decreases in the amygdala, which is associated with emotional responding, and (c) lesser engagement of ventral striatal regions, which are associated with reward processing. We consider two non-competing explanations for these differences. First, men may expend less effort when using cognitive regulation, perhaps due to greater use of automatic emotion regulation. Second, women may use positive emotions in the service of reappraising negative emotions to a greater degree. We then consider the implications of gender differences in emotion regulation for understanding gender differences in emotional processing in general, and gender differences in affective disorders.
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It is typically assumed that people always want to feel good. Recent evidence, however, demonstrates that people want to feel unpleasant emotions, such as anger or fear, when these emotions promote the attainment of their long-term goals. If emotions are regulated for instrumental reasons, people should want to feel pleasant emotions when immediate benefits outweigh future benefits, but when future benefits outweigh immediate benefits, people may prefer to feel useful emotions, even if they are unpleasant. In this article, I describe an instrumental account of emotion regulation, review empirical evidence relevant to it, and discuss its implications for promoting adaptive emotional experiences.
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When emotions arise, we are not powerless to overcome them: Adults actively regulate the extent to which their emotions are experienced and expressed in everyday life. Often, these efforts are aimed at looking and feeling better. However, theories of self-regulation and emotion suggest that some forms of emotion regulation may have unintended consequences for cognitive functioning. This article reviews studies that link expressive suppression, which involves concealing outward signs of emotion, with degraded memory, communication, and problem solving. Explanations for these consequences are considered, along with the possibility that not all forms of emotion regulation are cognitively costly. Recent research suggests that reappraisal, which entails changing how we think about an event to neutralize its emotional impact, leaves cognitive functioning intact. Thus, the cognitive consequences of keeping one's cool may vary according to how this is done.
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In this chapter, the authors note that in the 1980s psychologists were comfortable with conscious-process accounts of behavior but not with less-conscious process accounts. However, thanks to several decades of intensive research, models of non-conscious processes are now viewed as much more theoretically and empirically tractable than was true earlier. The authors detail the evidence for four different non-conscious behavioral guidance systems: perceptual, evaluative, motivational and emotional. In each case evidence is first presented regarding basic priming or activation effects, followed by evidence that these effects actually have behavioral consequences. Consequently, the four systems provide partial accounts for phenomena discussed in Chapters 10 (affordances), 9 (attitudes), 8 (implementation intentions) and 7 (emotions). The emphasis here is on automatic processes that serve to diminish the "role for intentional conscious causation and guidance."
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Response styles theory (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1987)provided the impetus for recent research effortsinvestigating the effects of rumination and distractionon depressed mood. This study elaborates on previous research by examining the sequential effects ofengaging in ruminating and distracting tasks. Resultsfrom two studies indicated that initially engaging in aruminating task maintained postinduction levels of dysphoric mood, whereas initially engagingin a distracting task reduced levels of dysphoric mood.More important, however, were the effects of task orderon mood. When participants engaged in a distracting taskfollowing aruminating task, dysphoric mood, which had been maintainedwith a ruminating task, was reduced to premoodinductionlevels. Of equal importance, individuals who ruminatedafter distracting maintained their current mood and did not report an increase in depressedmood. In the second study, engaging in sequentialrumination tasks further prolonged depressed mood,whereas engaging in sequential distraction tasks reduceddepressed mood. The results suggest that, althoughengaging in a rumination task maintains depressed moodand engaging in a distraction task reduces it, the orderin which these tasks are performed is also important. The implications of these results for responsestyles theory are discussed.
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The role of anxiety in thought control wasinvestigated following exposure to distressing orneutral stimuli. High- and low-anxious participants (N=96) were administered suppression or nonsuppressioninstructions following the viewing of either a neutral ordistressing film. Performance on a secondary word taskindexed demands on attentional capacity made by thoughtsuppression and anxiety. There was a delayed enhancement of film-related thoughts which was mediated byanxiety. Findings are discussed in terms of ironiccontrol theory and the implications for clinicalphenomena.
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A total of 64 children, aged 7 and 10, watched a clown performing three sketches rated as very funny by the children. Two experimental conditions were created by asking half of the participants to suppress their laughter. Facial expressions were videotaped and analysed with FACS. For both ages, the results show a significant shorter duration (but not a lower frequency) of episodes of laughter and Duchenne smiles, and greater frequency of facial control movements in the suppression compared to the free expression group. The detailed results on individual facial action units used to control amusement expressions suggest hypotheses on the nature of the underlying processes. The participants' explicit knowledge of their control strategies was assessed through standardised interviews. Although behavioural control strategies were reported equally frequently by the two age groups, 10-year-olds verbalised more mental control strategies than 7-year-olds. This theoretically expected difference was not related to the actual ability to control facial expression. This result challenges the commonly held assumption that explicit knowledge of control strategies results in a greater ability to execute such control in ongoing social interactions.
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Although writing about traumatic events has been shown to produce a variety of health benefits, little is known about how writing produces benefits. The degree to which individuals form narrative structure when writing may predict health improvements. This study manipulated narrative formation during writing to test if narrative structure is necessary for writing to be beneficial. A total of 116 healthy students were randomly assigned to write about control topics or about their thoughts and feelings regarding the most traumatic event of their life in one of two ways: list in an fragmented format or construct a narrative. Individuals asked to form a narrative reported less restriction of activity because of illness and showed higher avoidant thinking than the other groups. The fragmented writing group did not differ from controls on any measure. These data (a) demonstrate that instructions to form a narrative produce a different response to writing than instructions to form fragmented and control writing and (b) suggest narrative formation may be required to achieve health benefits.
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This paper explores the effects of emotional suppression toward astereotyped target as a function of the perceivers' prejudice. Heterosexual male participants watched a video of a gay couple with emotional suppression instructions or no instructions. Similar to the emotional regulation literature, low prejudice participants reported less positive emotion under emotional suppression compared to the control group. However, high prejudice participants reported more positive emotion under emotional suppression compared to the control group. These results suggest that high prejudice people were overcompensating in their emotional regulation attempts because of lesser regulation experience. Emotional suppression was also found to increase the desire for intergroup contact for those who were high in prejudice; positive emotion mediated this relationship. Possible benefits versus costs of emotional suppression toward stereotyped targets are discussed.
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Emotions seem to come and go as they please. However, we actually hold considerable sway over our emotions: We influence which emotions we have and how we experience and express these emotions. The process model of emotion regulation described here suggests that how we regulate our emotions matters. Regulatory strategies that act early in the emotion-generative process should have quite different outcomes than strategies that act later. This review focuses on two widely used strategies for down-regulating emotion. The first, reappraisal, comes early in the emotion-generative process. It consists of changing how we think about a situation in order to decrease its emotional impact. The second, suppression, comes later in the emotion-generative process. It involves inhibiting the outward signs of emotion. Theory and research suggest that reappraisal is more effective than suppression. Reappraisal decreases the experience and behavioral expression of emotion, and has no impact on memory. By contrast, suppression decreases behavioral expression, but fails to decrease the experience of emotion, and actually impairs memory. Suppression also increases physiological responding in both the suppressors and their social partners.
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This study examined the effects of task novelty and attributional focus on effort cue utilization. It was predicted that attainment value would serve as an effort cue when tasks were novel to the achiever and when perceivers made attributions about their own performances. Outcome information was more likely to be used on familiar tasks and by observers. A second purpose of this study was to examine actor/observer differences in achievement attributions. Self-perceivers, yoked with observers, worked on either familiar or unfamiliar tasks. As expected, self-perceivers were more likely to use attainment value as an effort cue than other-perceivers. Other-perceivers were more likely than self-perceivers to use outcome information but only on familiar tasks. The data also indicated support for actor/observer differences in achievement attributions.
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We examined the effects of suppressing negative self-referent thoughts on thought frequency, mood, and self-esteem over an 11-day period. Participants were randomly assigned to a suppression or control group and completed a nightly Web survey. Compared with controls, participants who suppressed a specific thought experienced it more frequently and had more anxious and depressed mood. Self-reported shamefulness of the thought moderated the effect of suppression on self-esteem. Suppression participants who rated their thoughts as shame-producing had lower self-esteem than did all other participants. These findings generally replicate results from a previous laboratory study (Borton, Markowitz, & Dieterich, 20056. Borton , J. L. S. , Markowitz , L. J. and Dieterich , J. 2005. Effects of suppressing negative self-referent thoughts on mood and self-esteem. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24: 172–190. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references) and demonstrate that the deleterious effects of suppression are not confined to short-term laboratory experiments.
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To examine the effectiveness of various affect regulation strategies and categories of affect regulation strategies, a meta-analysis was conducted. Results generally indicate that reappraisal (d=0.65) and distraction (d=0.46 for all studies; d=0.95 for studies with a negative or no affect induction) are the most effective regulation/repair strategies, producing the largest hedonic shift in affect. The effectiveness of different categories of regulation/repair strategies depended on the valence of the preceding affect induction. Results also indicate that stronger affect inductions and the use of bivariate affect measures will provide a richer understanding of affect regulation. Additionally, not all specific strategies or categories of strategies have been researched and the impact of individual differences on affect regulation has received relatively little attention. Finally, results indicate that control conditions in affect regulation research may not provide a valid point for comparison, as they facilitate effective affect repair.
Article
Suppressed thoughts tend to return to mind with renewed vigor. Two studies investigated the correlates and consequences of suppressing negative intrusive thoughts about one's own personal characteristics. In Study 1, 91 college students reported on the techniques they use to cope with negative self-referent intrusive thoughts. Suppression of negative self-referent thoughts was associated with low self-esteem in women, but not in men. In Study 2, 104 college students were randomly assigned to use one of four coping techniques (suppression, focusing, replacement, control) while speaking into a tape recorder about their lives. Use of suppression resulted in somewhat less positive mood and lower self-evaluations for men, but not for women. Explanations for these conflicting findings focus on differences in long- vs . short-term use of suppression.
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Reviews the book, Consistency in Social Behavior: The Ontario Symposium (Vol. 2), edited by Mark P. Zanna, E. Tory Higgins, and C. Peter Herman (1982). The volume has two major foci: the consistency of the individual's behaviour in different situations, and the consistency between people's attitudes and their behaviour. These issues have been classic concerns, respectively, of personality and social psychologists. Once upon a time, we as psychologists naively assumed the existence of both forms of consistency. But in the last two decades our faith has been shaken. For the most part, the participants in the Second Ontario Symposium help to restore our faith. But, in doing so, they provide a more sophisticated, qualified view of consistency. In conclusion, this set of papers is a record of, and a testimonial to, the success of the Second Ontario Symposium on Personality and Social Psychology. It is the present reviewer's hope that this biannual event will be continued in the years ahead. Clearly, the Second Symposium was worth the effort involved! (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)