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Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction
M S Sridhar
Head, Library & Documentation
ISRO Satellite Centre
Bangalore 560017
E-mail: sridhar@isac.gov.in & mirlesridhar@gmail.com
A lecture delivered in the UGC Refresher Course on “Library and
Information Science” at Academic Staff College of Bangalore
University on March 22, 2001
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 2
Introduction
Cost is long forgotten but quality is remembered for
ever
Market is ready to pay a premium for quality. Value is
still sought after; performance + price add upto value
Multiplying effects of happy / unhappy customer; a
satisfied customer is best advertisement
Quality is about passion, pride, care, people,
consistency, eyeball contact, reaction
Living the message of the possibility of
perfection & infinite improvements
Not a technique, no matter how good
Quality assessment and quality audit are routine
managerial concerns
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 3
Quality in Goods
1. QC and SQC are for management, profit, goods and production
oriented enterprises
2. Q circle and TQM are personnel management oriented concepts
of Japanese origin; QM / TQM is requirement of all people and all
processes in the organisation; Involves (i) customer focus (ii)
employees involvement and (iii) continuous improvement
3. QC department with distinct function & responsibility uses SQC
to analyse deviations, reduce variations through elaborate
inspection & try to conform to predetermined standards
4. QMS is ISO requirement & is part of organisation’s management
system; ISO is based on 8 quality management principles: (i)
Customer focus (ii) leadership (iii) involvement of people (iv)
process approach (v) systems approach to management (vi)
continual improvement (vii) factual approach to decision making
(viii) mutually beneficial supplier relationships
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 4
Service Management : The Essence or Core Concern of
Librarianship
1. Nature of the product
2. 'Front Office'
3. The moment of truth in
service transaction
4. Personality intensive
5. High customisation
6. No inventories
7. Different distribution
channels and Service
counters
8. Demand fluctuation and
capacity planning
9. Client management, client
participation and client as
coproducer
10 Importance of time factor
11 Problems of quality control
12 Dimensions of service economy /
management
(I) Service loading : No price carriers
like goods(journals
subscription)
(ii) Relationing : Longer customer
relationship; solid and
profitable customer
contact
(iii) Broadening : Training involving
more functions or aspects of what
the customers do (water and
electricity bills)
(iv) Un-building and rebuilding :
Offerings are customised or
standadised & bundled -
package deals
(v) Enabling and relieving (self-
service) : Reshuffling of tasks
between produres & customer;
knowledge transfer : do it yourself
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 5
Service & NFP Organisations
Not-for-profit organisations
¾ A residual concept
¾ Non-profit / non-loss
¾ Found in social economy
¾ Not having smart premises
¾ Not being too commercial
¾ Not paying high salaries
¾ Concerned with human
needs
¾ Deal with inanimate matters
¾ Evoke strong emotional
responses
¾ Prime goal is not to create
profits
¾ Assessment in not by
economic measures
¾ May pursue profit making
activities in support of
prime goal
¾ Unmeasurable outputs
¾ Ambiguous goals - Conflicts due to
differences among employees,
governing body & voluntary workers
¾ Lack of agreement of means - ends
relationships
¾ Environmental turbulence - Changes in
legislation, technology & the structure
of society
¾ The effects of management
intervention are unknown
Public Goods (welfare economics)
1. Pure & impure 2. Durable & nondurable
3. Global & local (the internet, knowledge
)
(I) Non-excludability (large
external benefits)
(ii) Non-rival in consumption
(iii) Non-rejectability (eg: pollution as ‘bad
goods’)
(iv) Decreasing average costs
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 6
Service & NFP Organisations contd.
Difficulty in
Measuring performance
Inspecting quality
Determining & implementing
specs
Sampling & trying in
advance
Costing (blurred relation
between costs and benefits)
1. Intangibility (impalpability)
2. Inseparability (customer
participation)
3. Heterogeneity (variability)
4. Perishability
(noninventoriability)
5. Other characteristics
Output is mix of physical
facilities and mental or
physical labour
No ownership or title
transfer
Personality intensive
(dominated by professionals
& customers)
small & operate on single
location
Less significant role played
by market forces
Excellence is rare &
mediocrity is common
Dissatisfaction is rarely
conveyed by customer
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 7
Quality in Service
Distinctive characteristics of service are :
1. Intangibility 2. Inseparability 3. Heterogeneity 4. Perishablity
Quality in services is intangible, relativistic, indivisible & has a
tendency to deteriorate
Definition: Meeting customers’ expectations. Customers judge
quality by comparing their expectations with their perceptions of
what they receive (service experience), i.e., it is a customer-
oriented phenomenon; it is defined, judged & deduced by
customer based on his experience, expertise, service process,
environment, etc.
User evaluation is affected by service process, physical evidence &
quality of service personnel
Conformance to customer specifications & expectations (expectation
profiles) is important & the technical sense is of little value
Service quality is ultimately defined by the customer irrespective of
organizations internal quality specifications. But the problems are:
Different levels of expectations
Incorrect interpretations of expectations
Delivery of inappropriate service
Failing to match expectations with service
contd.
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 8
Quality in Service contd.
1. More difficult to achieve (than in goods)/ Elusive concept as
product itself is intangible/ fluid & it is difficult to determine and
enforce standards (no SQC & standard)
2. Often, service manager is kept in dark due to : (i) failure to
recognising quality problem, (ii) Lack of solid measures & (iii)
No complaint from dissatisfied customers (96%)
3. Quality of employee is inseparable from the quality of service
provided; Personnel (employee) behaviour is integral part of
service, I.e., willingness & ability (skill) to serve, language, dress,
communication, etc. matter
4. Service process cannot be evaluated, only outcome can be
evaluated by us
5. Price is viewed as a surrogate for service quality (strong
association of quality with price)
contd.
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 9
Quality in Service contd.
6. Service quality is more a function of attitude than technology,
i.e., people make quality and not technology or machine, &
hence there is a need to overcome the myth that technology
equals benefits
7. A shoddy service quality does not necessarily cost less than
the superior service quality
8. Service quality = Technical quality (what is received) +
Functional quality (how service is received)
9. Quality is greatest lever for marketing (It has to be marketed
both internally & externally) & is central to the success of
service marketing
10. Difficult to define and measure (like happiness)
Quality of information is the extent to which it meets the needs
of users. Quality assessment of information/ information
service is complex as the users’ perception of accuracy
affects
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 10
Customer
Customer Focus
Mission or Goal of Libraries ?
Customer Satisfaction
Expectations - Perceptions
Quality of Services
Five Principles of Gandhi about
Customer
1. Customer is the most
important person
2. He is not dependent on us,
rather we depend on him
3. He is never an interruption to
work, rather he is the purpose
4. In serving him the library does
no favour to him, rather he
obliges us by providing an
opportunity to serve him
5. He is not someone to argue
with because no one can win
an argument with him
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 11
Customer Satisfaction
Priority no. 1
Measuring satisfaction is nifty; Occurs in ‘mental space’
Definition: What a customer expects and how he perceives that service
received lived up to those expectations.
Service satisfaction = (customer) expectations – perceptions (of customer)
Objective satisfaction is reduction of the discrepancy between the current
situation and the desired situation
Depend more on customer & his style than technology or system
Overall post purchase evaluation lead to satisfaction/ dissatisfaction
A state of experience: intellectual & emotional patron-centered ‘Personal
reaction / response’ depend on (i) Perception (ii) viewpoint (iii) experience
& (iv) expertise
Satisfying a person differs from satisfying a need ; Long term total
customer satisfaction is the aim
Expectations play crucial role & are derived from personal experience
prior personal knowledge has a strong relation to satisfaction i.e., similar
experience & comparison process become important.
I.o.w. recent performance, cumulative experience, expectations and
disconfirmation best predict satisfaction
Often, wrongly equated with performance (a model) contd.
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 12
Customer Satisfaction contd.
1. Customers’ expectations tell what to sell and serve (user requirement
studies)
2. Customers’ perceptions of service tell how to sell, serve and satisfy (user
behavior, attitude, preferences, etc., studies). As thy Vary over time & from
person to person it has to be on continuous basis
Perception is a conscious thought process. It consists of (1) sensory
perception (2) association (3) evaluation & (4) decision
Individual perception is all-encompassing (hopes, fear, upper limits,) and
all-powerful.
User perception goes deep and when it comes to perception ‘feelings are
facts’
People like to hold on to old ideas and beliefs as though they were valued
personal possessions. It requires original thinking which ‘hurts’ because of
considerable effort, self-analysis and risk to adopt new idea.
People who do not rethink their past have habitual behaviour. The only
people who can change their mind are those who use it
Satisfaction has a linear relation to loyalty & repeat purchase (see table for
variables (factors) affecting satisfaction)
Measuring ‘satisfaction’ is part of research method. Psychometric factors,
practical considerations, choice of scales, administration of questionnaire,
etc. are used
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 13
Customer Satisfaction in Libraries
1.Expectations
Image of library helps to determine expectations
Advertisement & casual conversations affect image
Image is redefined based on immediate impact when service is
approached dynamic nature
Previous experience has powerful influence
Regular users have more realistic expectations Gauge through (i)
Suggestions(ii) Benchmarking (iii) Focus groups or user panels (iv)
Special studies like depth interviews
2.Perception (Both 1 & 2 are linked)
Impressions & not scientific evaluations
Formed during delivery process
Single unfortunate incident can cause changes in other interactions
To improve : (i) involve customers genuinely (ii) strive for a service wide
image of consistency and efficiency
3.Demand
--- Satisfaction and demand are closely linked
Good service generate greater use from limitless pool of latent demand
Satisfaction is adaptive:-good service over stretched cause drop in
satisfaction; poor service retain some customers who are (i) persistent
(ii) rarely satisfied and (iii) having low expectations
The rating further go down as service improves because of (i) attracting
more customers (ii) who are more critical (iii) want even higher level of
service & (iv) more knowledgeable contd..
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 14
User Information Satisfaction (UIS)
IS function Vs single IS application
Attribute defined Vs user-defined (idiosyncratic)
System features Vs system effects
History based Vs state-based (time frame)
IS state-based Vs IS schema-based
UIS is inherently subjective measure
System quality is considered more objective measure
UIS & IS use are reciprocally related
Perceived usefulness mainly measures system’s impact
System’s impact on job satisfaction is a complimentary measure
(not much research done on both)
UIS as a measure of information system quality has six
interdependent categories of measures
1. System quality 2. Information quality
3. User satisfaction 4. Use
5. Individual impact 6. Organizational impact
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 15
Gaps between Aspiration and Performance in
Service Delivery Process
The 5 gaps between aspiration & performance in service delivery
process
Gap 1. Not knowing what customers expect
Gap 2. Between management’s perception of customer’s
expectations & service quality specifications
Gap 3. The service performance gap
Gap 4. When promises do not match delivery
Gap 5. Between customer’s expectations and perceived service
Service satisfaction = Expectations – Perceptions
Disconfirmation (model) - are expectations (pretrial, post-trial and
direct) confirmed by reality (focal / predictive/ normative / average /
normal/ ideal / best brand)
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 16
The Five Gaps Between Good & Great Service
Customer
Gap 5
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Provider Gap 4
Gap 3
Gap 1
Gap2
Word –of-mouth
Communications
Personal needs
Past experience
Expected service
Perceived service
Service delivery
Service quality
specifications
Management perceptions
of customer expectations
External
Communication
to customer
Model of Service Quality
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 17
Informal
communication
Past experiences
Generic
needs
Formal
communications
Client
expectations
Technical
components
Service
provided
Non-technical
components
Comparison
with
expectations
Perceived
outcome
(quality)
Quality Evaluation Process
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 18
Factors/ Variables Affecting Customer Satisfaction
A. Important
I. Provider
1. Communication
process(+ve)
2. Warmth (-ve for female)
3. Interaction type (+ve/-ve)
4. Client perception of
provider’s interpersonal
competence (+ve)
II. Client
1. Involvement(+ve)
2. Amount of effort expended
(+ve)
3. Amount/ level of economic
reasoning used (+ve)
III. Situation/ Service
1. Long duration of patient-
doctor relationship (+ve)
2. Perception by the patient
that the doctor cares/has
patient’s best interests at
heart (+ve)
3. Perceived equity or positive
non-equity (+ve)
4. Has an intermediary vs an
end-user search (+ve)
5. Client being present for an
online search(-ve)
6. Greater or more specific
product information available
(+ve)
7. Speed of reply to a non-
monetary complaint
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 19
Factors/ Variables Affecting Customer Satisfaction
contd.
B. Unimportant
I. Provider
1. Counselor formality or experience
II. Client (demographic factor & personality characteristics)
1. Gender, age, race, education, income, sociodemographic
variables
2. Attitude toward technology
3. Knowledge of databases & topic
III. Situation
1. Format of information provided
2. Number of choices offered
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 20
Satisfaction Levels
Kano map approach
1. Basic quality- taken for granted: not formally stated; can
produce dissatisfaction only; unless basic is achieved higher
level is difficult
2. Performance quality - negotiated between customer and
supplier; can produce either satisfaction or dissatisfaction
3. Surprise (delight) quality- over and above normally and
realistically expected; cannot cause dissatisfaction
Shiv Khera
1. Miserable- irritate customer and give unforgettable experience
2. Careless and unconcerned - no care; indifferent to customer
needs
3. Anticipated - no more, no less
4. Competent - ability (skill) + desire (positive attitude) to serve
5. Exceptional -competence+ courtesy; lead to delightful experience
and loyalty
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 21
Types of Customers & Reasons for Dissatisfaction
(A Canadian survey of 17 professional services)
Major Reasons for Customer Dissatisfaction
19.2% service provided in a careless & unprofessional manner
12.3% treated like an object rather than individual
8.8% service not performed correctly for the first time
8.2% service performed incompletely with harmful resulsts
6.8% things were worse after service than before
5.9% treated with extreme rudeness
Consumer behaviour in response to unsatisfactory service experience
25.9% Decided to quit
25.9% warned family and friends
8.9% contacted the company to
complain
Types of customers
36% Happy-go-lucky
23% Know-it-all
18% Proud and in a hurry
9% Worrying and fussy
8% Angry and anxious
6% Shy and nervous
Why customers quit?
1% die
3% move away
5% form other friendship
9% competitive reasons
14%product service dissatisfaction
68%indifferent attitude of service
personnel / employee
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 22
Learn from Dissatisfied customers
Dissatisfied customers are our
best teachers
Normally & approximately
1/3 are very satisfied
1/3 are reasonably satisfied
1/3 are not fully satisfied
(10% of this may be fully
dissatisfied)
probe & locate them, 1/3
of problem is solved
Do not worry, you can never
please 100% of customers,
100% of times & 100% of the
days
Types of dissatisfied customers
Mr. Shy : The passive responder
Mr. Now : The problem solver
Mr. Revenge : The aggressive
responder
Implications of Consumers’
Evaluation of Services
1. Emphasise word-of-mouth
communication
2. Match physical facilities to the
desired impression of quality image
3. Alert on consumers’ expectations
and demands (as consumers play the
role of competitor)
4. Provide incentives for innovation
diffusion
5. Reduce perceived risk
6. Develop strong brand loyalty
Types of Employees in a Service Set-
up
Willing employees
Neutral employees
Impossible employees
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 23
Handling Difficult & Complaining Customers
Handling Difficult Customers
96 percent dissatisfied
customers don't complain
Expectations of customers
are reasonable
Handle difficult customers
with tact
What do complaining customers
want?
1. To be taken seriously and to
be treated with respect
2. Immediate action feeling or
words from your heart
3. Compensation apology
4. Someone to be reprimanded
or punished
5. Clear up the problem
6. To be listened to
Expectations of your customers
(96%) are reasonable
Listen to them
You will "fight" for them
You will "feel" for them
Customer Service
customer service - Your best
sales tool
Customers must be given the
best possible service
Customer satisfaction requires
a professional work culture
Satisfying a customer is
everybody's business
Advertising makes promises,
but only people can keep
them
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 24
1. Can timing of demand be influenced?
2. Does the customer have spare time while he is waiting?
3. Do customers and contact personnel meet unnecessarily face to
face?
4. Are such contacts used to the maximum effect?
5. Are contact personnel doing respective work which the customer
could do himself (e.g. customer-operated machines)
6. Do the customers sometime try to 'get past' the contact
personnel and do things themselves? could that interest and
knowledge be better utilised?
7. Do the customers show interest in a knowledge about the tasks
of the contact personnel?
8. Is there minority of customers which disturbs the service delivery
system and its effectiveness?
9. Do the customers ask for information which is available
elsewhere?
10. Can the customers do more work for each other, or use the
resources of `third parties'?
11. Can part of the service delivery process be relocated to decrease
cost? (e.g. cost of premises)
12. Can the customer be given an opportunity to choose between
service levels?
Customer Management
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 25
How to Make Customer Happy?
(How to sell, serve & satisfy customers)
Selling
1. Have empathy
2. Customer is boss
3. Customer is profit not
overhead
4. Give importance to people
Service employees
Customers
5. Create customers
6. Communicate
continuously
Serving
7. Focus on & serve first 100
customers
8. Be customer -oriented
9. Develop customer-
oriented policies
10. Give best possible service
11. Customers want answers &
solutions to their
problems
12. Fight for your customer
Satisfying
13. Listen
14. Visit customer
15. Check employees attitude
towards customers
16. Solve small problems
17. Learn from dissatisfied
customers
18. Practice the art of when to
say “No”
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 26
Effectiveness of Library & Information Services
effect a library has on its users
efficiency of process in itself is irrelevant
Orr:
How good is this library (quality)
How much good does this library do ? (value)
Good implies meeting customer requirements. A library which
is ‘good’ also ‘does good’, if it does not do good, it is
meaningless to call good)
Use ratio analysis as performance indicator / comparing with
standard Input as a proxy measure of output
Process improvement
Professional review
Historical data
Systems approach
Organic approach: survival as primary objective (growth, good
health & well-being)
. Note that UK government (HMSO), IFLA & ISO have measures
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 27
ISO Measures of performance
1. Compliance - adherence of the measurement to predetermined
requirements
2. Effectiveness - having a definite or desired effect or result
(doing the right job)
= actual outcome
X 100
desired outcome
3. Efficiency – the ratio of the actual resource used to the total
resource consumed for performing a work (doing the job right)
= Actual utilization of input or activity
X 100
Total resource used
4. Excellence - Superior quality of performance and output over and
above expected
- is characterised by (i) obsession for proactive and reflective
actions (ii) passion for customer care (iii) encouragement for
innovative and creative ideas (iv) respect and value for people as
human beings (v) leadership by example (vi) concentration on core
competencies (vii) reduced bureaucracy (viii) visionary and strategic
approach to planning (ix) ability to treat problems as opportunities
(x) control on all forms of waste (xi) supplier relationship (xii)
anticipatory problem solving (xiii) value for knowledge and skill
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 28
Dimensions or Attributes of Service Quality in LIS
Dimensions or Attributes of Service Quality
1. Performance 5. Durability (obsolescence / update ness)
2. Features 6. Serviceability (time & cost)
3. Reliability 7. Aesthetics
4. Conformance 8. Perceived quality
Service quality in LIS is judged on
1. Friendliness
2. Courtesy
3. Lack of quality
4. Reputation
Tips
Small incremental changes for continuous improvements
Pay obsessive attention to details
Have statistical measures
Adopt standards & agreed guidelines
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 29
Tips for Better Service Quality
A. Service quality is ultimately defined & decided by customers
B. When come to perception ‘feelings are facts’
Service personnel’s willingness and ability to serve (skills),
language, dress, etc matter of customer’s experience
Communication gaps & over promises
Service proliferation and complexity; too much newness
Viewing customer as statistics (i.e., dehumanizing ) & service
insensitivity.
C. Customer evaluation of service is affected by
service delivery process
physical evidence
quality of service personnel
D. In appraising a service, customers give importance to :
Reliability - dependency, accuracy & consistency
Responsiveness - response to demand & prompt delivery
Assurance - Courteous, knowledgeable and assuring service from
employee
Empathy - Individualised & peronalised attention
contd.
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 30
Tips for Better Service Quality contd.
Tangibility - physical evidence associated with the service facilities
should be clean and employees should be well groomed
Competence - of service personnel
Courtesy - overall courtesy of employees i.e., politeness, respect,
friendliness, security, ease of contact, communication and an
honest effort to understand customers
E. Service quality
Technique quality (what is received-hard part)
Functional quality (how it is received - soft part)
F. Shoddy service quality does not necessarily cost less than the
superior service quality
G. Price is a surrogate (carrier) for service quality
H. Sell ‘Quality’ to internal audience: the quality of the employee
who provide service is inseparable from the quality of service
provided. Sell the idea first to these internal audience (service
personnel):- willingness & ability (skill) to serve, language, dress,
etc., matter
I. Create ‘Customer focus & care’ culture
J. Tangibelise the service & improve physical evidence contd.
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 31
Tips for Better Service Quality contd.
K. Encourage’word of mouth’ communication about quality among
staff & customers
L. Promise what can bee delivered
M. Invite complaints
Nutshell
1. Identify quality determinants
2. Manage customer expectations
3. Manage evidence
4. Educate customers
5. Develop quality culture
6. Automating quality
7. Follow up the service
Note: Service quality is the conformance of services to customer
specifications and expectations.
Ist step: determine the target group’s expectations i.e, the benefits
that the customer expect from the service
next: Develop appropriate service products to match the customers
‘expectation profiles’
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 32
Steps to Improve Service quality
1. Recognise ‘quality’ problem
2. Determine the target group’s expectations
3. Develop appropriate service products
4. First sell the idea of ‘quality’ to the internal audience (staff)
5. Create a ‘customer focus & care’ culture
6. Look for customer-oriented measures to improve ‘quality’
7. Tangibilise the service offered
8. Improve physical evidence
9. Make the service easily understood
10. Encourage ‘word of mouth’ about quality with staff & users
11. Promise what can be delivered
12. Invite complaints from dissatisfied customers
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 33
Conclusion
Remember in appraising/ evaluating service customers give
importance to:
Reliability (dependency, accuracy & consistency)
Responsiveness (quick & prompt delivery)
Assurance (courteous, knowledgeable & assuring employee)
Empathy (individualised & personalised attention)
Tangibility (clean physical evidence & well groomed employee)
Competency (of service employee)
Courtesy (of service personnel)
1. Performance of a library system or service cannot be used as a
proxy for customer satisfaction
2. Patron judgements differ from those of experts
3. Satisfaction is heavily influenced by expectations.
4. ‘Correcting’ the ‘incorrect’ expectations is necessary
5. Emotional satisfaction is different from (and not entirely caused
by) the satisfaction of a discrete information request.
6. ‘Quality service’ can be achieved through broader conception of
the ‘satisfaction process’
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 34
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information management, 38 (2) June 2001, 99-112.
References contd.
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 36
References contd.
Sridhar, M S. "Book procurement delay : a de-motivator to user participation in
collection development". In : Building Library Collections and National Policy
for Library and Information Services : Seminar Papers presented in XXX All
India Library Conference, Rajasthan University, Jaipur, 28-31 January 1985.
ed. by P.B.Mangala. Delhi: ILA, 1985. 329-334.
Sridhar, M S. "Library-use index and library-interaction index as measures of
effectiveness of a special library : a case study." In : Proceedings of XXXIV All
India Library Conference on Library and Information Services : Assessment and
Effectiveness. Calcutta : ILA, 1988 : 449-465.
Sridhar, M S. "Customer-characteristics as criteria for market-segmentation in
libraries". In: Marketing of library and information services in India : Papers
presented at the 13th National Seminar of IASLIC, Calcutta, December 20 - 23 ,
1988, ed. by S.K.Kapoor and Amitabha Chatterjee. IASLIC Special Publication No.
28. Calcutta : IASLIC, 1988, p43-52.
Sridhar, M S. "Library use and user research: with twenty case studies". New
Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, 2002.
Sridhar,M.S. "User-research : A Review of Information-behaviour Studies in Science
and Technology". Bangalore: BIBLIO INFON Service,1990.
Sridhar, M. S. "Managerial quality and leadership". In: Management of library and
information centres. New Delhi: Indira Gandhi National Open University, 1995,
MLIS-05, Unit 3, p 43-68.
Wills, Mark R. Dealing with difficult people in the library. Chicago: ALA, 1999.
Service Quality & Customer Satisfaction M S Sridhar, ISRO 37
About the Author
Dr. M. S. Sridhar is a post graduate in Mathematics and Business
Management and a Doctorate in Library and Information Science.
He is in the profession for last 36 years. Since 1978, he is heading the
Library and Documentation Division of ISRO Satellite Centre,
Bangalore. Earlier he has worked in the libraries of National
Aeronautical Laboratory (Bangalore), Indian Institute of Management
(Bangalore) and University of Mysore. Dr. Sridhar has published 4 books,
88 research articles, 22 conferences papers, written 19 course materials for
BLIS and MLIS, made over 25 seminar presentations and contributed 5
chapters to books.
E-mail:
sridharmirle@yahoo.com
, mirlesridhar@gmail.com,
sridhar@isac.gov.in ; Phone: 91-80-25084451; Fax: 91-80-25084476.
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ABOUT THE BOOK : A handbook for researchers, practitioners, managers, teachers and students of library and information science as well as those in the area of science, scientific communication, sociology of science, scientometrics; covers user, use information behaviour, communication behaviour, information transfer, scientific communication, knowledge dissemination and utilisation, information requirement, need and related studies; Brings together and presents in juxtaposition the widely dispersed works and their findings; Compares and consolidates work done in the area. Indicates gaps that exist and evaluates the results. "It has been an excellent information analysis and consolidation of research work of three decades of information users and their characteristics. Experience of a specialist librarian is visible in presentation of text. It also presents an inkling into research problems to be pursued for precision in prediction and analysis" says Dr. M.A.Gopinath. ABOUT THE AUTHOR : Dr. M.S. Sridhar is a post graduate in mathematics and business management and a doctorate in library and information science. He is in the profession for last 18 years and worked in the libraries of the University of Mysore, National Aeroneutical Laboratory and Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore. For last 11 years he has been hading the Library and Documentation Division of ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore. Dr. Sridhar has published over 35 research papers in national and international journals on library and information science as well as on management subjects.
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Chapter
In 1978 I asserted that a “rational approach to the rationalization” of services requires first of all a classification system that sets one service activity system apart from another (Chase 1978). The classification I developed came about from an effort to derive a business classification scheme and was predicated on the extent of customer contact with the service system and its personnel during the service delivery process. Based upon open systems theory, I proposed that the less direct contact the customer has with the service system, the greater the potential of the system to operate at peak efficiency. And, conversely, where the direct customer contact is high, the less potential exists to achieve high levels of efficiency. In this chapter I will review the contact approach as it was discussed in the article and offer some suggestions for its future development.
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