Adhesion to the yeast cell surface as a mechanism for trapping pathogenic bacteria by Saccharomyces probiotics

Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
Journal of Medical Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.25). 05/2012; 61(Pt 9):1194-207. DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.042283-0
Source: PubMed


Recently, much attention has been given to the use of probiotics as an adjuvant for the prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal pathology. The great advantage of therapy with probiotics is that they have few side effects such as selection of resistant bacteria or disturbance of the intestinal microbiota, which occur when antibiotics are used. Adhesion of pathogenic bacteria onto the surface of probiotics instead of onto intestinal receptors could explain part of the probiotic effect. Thus, this study evaluated the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria onto the cell wall of Saccharomyces boulardii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains UFMG 905, W303 and BY4741. To understand the mechanism of adhesion of pathogens to yeast, cell-wall mutants of the parental strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 were used because of the difficulty of mutating polyploid yeast, as is the case for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces boulardii. The tests of adhesion showed that, among 11 enteropathogenic bacteria tested, only Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Typhi adhered to the surface of Saccharomyces boulardii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFMG 905 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741. The presence of mannose, and to some extent bile salts, inhibited this adhesion, which was not dependent on yeast viability. Among 44 cell-wall mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741, five lost the ability to fix the bacteria. Electron microscopy showed that the phenomenon of yeast-bacteria adhesion occurred both in vitro and in vivo (in the digestive tract of dixenic mice). In conclusion, some pathogenic bacteria were captured on the surface of Saccharomyces boulardii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFMG 905 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741, thus preventing their adhesion to specific receptors on the intestinal epithelium and their subsequent invasion of the host.

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    • "Previously published results have proven that the S. cerevisiae strain UFMG A-905 can be isolated during the production of " cachaça " , which is a popular Brazilian beverage. This strain has probiotic properties comparable to commercially available S. boulardii (Generoso et al., 2010; Martins et al., 2005, 2007, 2011; Tiago et al., 2012). Se has been reported to damage yeast in different ways when added at relatively high concentrations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Organic forms of selenium (Se) are drawing more attention in the field of functional food. Se-enriched yeast is one of the best known approaches to supply these compounds in the form of selenomethionine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFMG A-905 is of particular interest as a nutritional supplement and pharmaceutical since it can both fix Se and has been found to have potential for use as a probiotic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium selenite on this strain. A comparative proteomic approach was employed, highlighting the differences in the expression of 13 proteins in a pure YPD medium control and a sample containing 100 mg/L sodium selenite. Both proteomic and phenotypic analyses revealed that oxidative stress was caused. The analyses also revealed the ability of S. cerevisiae to set up strategies to counteract this phenomenon. In addition, the up-regulation of a cystathionine gamma-lyase confirms the ability of the strain to produce organic forms of Se that are usually more bioavailable for humans.
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    • "Treated mice also had a lower mortality rate than naïve controls challenged with S. Typhimurium (Martins et al. 2005; Martins et al. 2011). S. cerevisiae UFMG A-905 have shown adhesion to some enteropathogenic bacteria, such as E. coli, S. Typhi, and S. Typhimurium (Tiago et al. 2012), neutralizing the translocation of the latter from the GIT to the liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (Martins et al. 2007). This probiotic yeast increased the production of IL-10 and sIgA in healthy mice (Martins et al. 2007; Generoso et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var boulardii is widely used as a low cost and efficient adjuvant against gastrointestinal tract disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and treatment of several types of diarrhea, both in humans and animals. S. boulardii exerts its protective mechanisms by binding and neutralizing enteric pathogens or their toxins, by reducing inflammation and by inducing the secretion of sIgA. Although several S. cerevisiae strains have proven probiotic potential in both humans and animals, only S. boulardii is currently licensed for use in humans. Recently, some researchers started using S. boulardii as heterologous protein expression systems. Combined with their probiotic activity, the use of these strains as prophylactic and therapeutic proteins carriers might result in a positive combined effort to fight specific diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the current use of S. cerevisiae strains as probiotics and their mechanisms of action. We also discuss their potential to produce molecules with biotherapeutic application and the advantages and hurdles of this approach. Finally, we suggest future directions and alternatives for which the combined effort of specific immunomodulatory effects of probiotic S. cerevisiae strains and ability to express desired foreign genes would find a practical application.
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