No Association Between Conventional Brain MR Imaging and Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis

ArticleinAmerican Journal of Neuroradiology 33(10) · May 2012with4 Reads
DOI: 10.3174/ajnr.A3112 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Background and purpose: CCSVI has been reported to occur at high frequency in MS. Its significance in relation to MR imaging parameters also needs to be determined, both in patients with MS and HCs. Therefore, this study determined the associations of CCSVI and conventional MR imaging outcomes in patients with MS and in HCs. Materials and methods: T2, T1, and gadolinium lesion number, LV, and brain atrophy were assessed on 3T MR imaging in 301 subjects, of whom 162 had RRMS, 66 had secondary-progressive MS subtype, and 73 were HCs. CCSVI was assessed using extracranial and transcranial Doppler evaluation. The MR imaging measure differences were explored with 27 borderline cases for CCSVI, added to both the negative and positive CCSVI groups to assess sensitivity of the results of these cases. Results: No significant differences between subjects with and without CCSVI were found in any of the individual diagnostic subgroups or MS disease subtypes for lesion burden and atrophy measures, independently of the CCSVI classification criteria used, except for a trend for higher T2 lesion number (irrespective of how borderline cases were classified) and lower brain volume (when borderline cases were included in the positive group) in patients with RRMS with CCSVI. No CCSVI or MR imaging differences were found between 26 HCs with, or 47 without, a familial relationship. Conclusions: CCSVI is not associated with more severe lesion burden or brain atrophy in patients with MS or in HCs.
    • "years) who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan with cine phase contrast (PC) imaging and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) were included. The individuals needed to qualify on a health screening questionnaire containing information about medical history (illnesses, surgeries, medications, etc.) and meet the health screen requirements for MRI on physical examination, as previously described [27][28][29]. Exclusion criteria were: pre-existing medical conditions known to be associated with brain pathology (e.g. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Constricted cerebral venous outflow has been linked with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy individuals. This study investigates the relationship between CSF pulsatility and internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional area (CSA) in these two groups, something previously unknown. Methods 65 relapsing-remitting MS patients (50.8% female; mean age = 43.8 years) and 74 healthy controls (HCs) (54.1% female; mean age = 43.9 years) were investigated. CSF flow quantification was performed on cine phase-contrast MRI, while IJV-CSA was calculated using magnetic resonance venography. Statistical analysis involved correlation, and partial least squares correlation analysis (PLSCA). Results PLSCA revealed a significant difference (p<0.001; effect size = 1.072) between MS patients and HCs in the positive relationship between CSF pulsatility and IJV-CSA at C5-T1, something not detected at C2-C4. Controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, statistical trends were identified in HCs between: increased net positive CSF flow (NPF) and increased IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (left: r = 0.374, p = 0.016; right: r = 0.364, p = 0.019) and C4 (left: r = 0.361, p = 0.020); and increased net negative CSF flow and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = -0.348, p = 0.026) and C4 (r = -0.324, p = 0.039), whereas in MS patients a trend was only identified between increased NPF and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = 0.351, p = 0.021). Overall, correlations were weaker in MS patients (p = 0.015). Conclusions In healthy adults, increased CSF pulsatility is associated with increased IJV-CSA in the lower cervix (independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors), suggesting a biomechanical link between the two. This relationship is altered in MS patients.
    Full-text · Article · May 2016
    • "Benedict et al. examined 109 MS patients and found no evidence of an association between the presence and severity of CCSVI with cognitive impairment and depression in patients with MS [17], while Leone et al. evaluated 61 MS patients and found no association between CCSVI and cognitive impairment, fatigue, depression , bladder/sexual symptoms and self-reported quality of life [18]. These findings are corroborating numerous other recent clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies that showed no evidence of a clinical association between CCSVI and MS [19,20]. The limited understanding of the pathophysiology of the extracranial venous system may consequently underestimate the impact of cerebral venous drainage abnormalities in a variety of CNS disorders [5]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extracranial venous system is complex and variable between individuals. Until recently, these variations were acknowledged as developmental variants and were not considered pathological findings. However, in the last decade, the presence and severity of uni- or bi-lateral jugular venous reflux (JVR) was linked to several central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as transient global amnesia, transient monocular blindness, cough headache, primary exertional headache and, most recently, to Alzheimer's disease. The most recent introduction of a composite criteria-based vascular condition named chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), which was originally linked to multiple sclerosis, increased the interest in better understanding the role of the extracranial venous system in the pathophysiology of CNS disorders. The ultimate cause-consequence relationship between these conditions and CNS disorders has not been firmly established and further research is needed. The purpose of this article collection in BMC Medicine and BMC Neurology is to synthesize current concepts and most recent findings concerning the evaluation, etiology, pathophysiology and clinical relevance of the potential involvement of the extracranial venous system in the pathology of multiple CNS disorders and in aging. Please see related debate: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/260.
    Article · Dec 2013
    • "No association between cognitive impairment and the presence and severity of CCSVI was found. This is consistent with our previous findings of a lack of association between the presence of CCSVI and severity of lesion burden and brain atrophy outcomes in MS patients [27]. There are a number of potential limitations in this study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS) yet its significance in relation to cognitive function is undetermined.This study measured the association between the presence and severity of CCSVI and cognitive impairment in patients with MS. CCSVI was assessed using extra-cranial and trans-cranial Doppler sonography in 109 MS patients (79 with relapsing-remitting, 23 with secondary-progressive and 7 with primary-progressive disease subtype). A subject was considered CCSVI-positive if >=2 venous hemodynamic criteria were fulfilled. The Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS) battery was administered assessing the full spectrum of cognitive domains known to be affected by MS. Depression was quantified using the Beck Depression Inventory Fast Screen (BDIFS). Partial correlations, analysis of variance (or covariance) and linear regression were used to examine the hypothesis that CCSVI status is related to cognition or depression after controlling for education and gender. There were 64 (58.7%) patients who were considered CCSVI-positive. The regression models predicting venous hemodynamic insufficiency severity score were not statistically significant for any of the MACFIMS predictor variables. The analysis of variance tests showed a significant effect of CCSVI-positive diagnosis on cognitive ability in only one of the 10 MACFIMS outcomes, and that one was in the opposite direction of the tested hypothesis. There was no correspondence between CCSVI diagnosis and depression, as measured by the BDIFS. We find no evidence of an association between the presence and severity of CCSVI with cognitive impairment and depression in patients with MS.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013
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