Article

A Case of Good Syndrome with Pulmonary Lesions Similar to Diffuse Panbronchiolitis

Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan.
Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 0.9). 01/2012; 51(9):1087-91. DOI: 10.2169/internalmedicine.51.7028
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

We herein present a case of Good syndrome complicated by diffuse pulmonary lesions similar to diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB). A 45-year-old Japanese man was referred to our department due to recurrent lower respiratory tract infections that had started and ameliorated nine months after thymectomy for pure red cell aplasia and myasthenia gravis. Diffuse centrilobular opacities on chest computed tomography and positivity for HLA-B54 were consistent with DPB. Additionally, hypogammaglobulinemia and a marked decrease of B-lymphocytes were observed, and therefore Good syndrome was considered. Combination therapy with azithromycin and clarithromycin alleviated the patient's respiratory symptoms and reduced the exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.

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    ABSTRACT: A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of diplopia, ptosis, and dysphagia that had begun three years previously. He was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis (MG) and invasive thymoma and treated with corticosteroid, thymectomy, and radiation therapy. Ten years after the thymectomy, computed tomography (CT) showed metastasis of the thymoma in the left lower lobe of the lung. Two years after this recurrence, when the patient was 55, respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, persistent cough, and dyspnea appeared. Chronic sinusitis, diffuse centrilobular opacities on CT, and positivity for HLA-B54 led to a diagnosis of diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB). Despite treatment with clarithromycin, the respiratory symptoms worsened. The patient developed alopecia and body hair loss at the age of 56 followed by dysgeusia, cholangitis, and myositis with positivity for anti-Kv1.4 antibodies. Although treatment with an increased dose of corticosteroid improved hair loss, dysgeusia, cholangitis, and myositis, he died of progression of DPB and serious respiratory infection at the age of 58. In this case, various autoimmune disorders occurred together with MG as complications of thymoma. Although alopecia, dysgeusia, and myositis are already known as complications of MG associated with thymoma, cholangitis is not well-recognized since there have been few reports suggesting a causal relationship between cholangitis and thymoma. Furthermore, DPB caused by immunodeficiency and respiratory tract hypersensitivity associated with thymoma and HLA-B54, respectively, is the distinctive feature of our case. Neurologists should be aware that various organs can be damaged directly and indirectly by abnormal T cells from thymoma in patients with MG.
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