Delayed Onset Lactogenesis II Predicts the Cessation of Any or Exclusive Breastfeeding

Department of Research, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 05/2012; 161(4):608-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.03.035
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the association between delayed lactogenesis II (>3 days postpartum; delayed onset lactogenesis II [DLII]) and the cessation of any and exclusive breastfeeding at 4-weeks postpartum.
We constructed multivariable logistic regression models using data from 2491 mothers enrolled in the prospective Infant Feeding Practice Study II cohort. Models included DLII, known risk factors for breastfeeding cessation (age, education, race, parity/previous breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding plan), and potential confounders identified in bivariate analyses (P ≤ .1). Backward selection processes (P ≤ .1) determined risk factor retention in the final model.
DLII was associated with cessation of any and exclusive breastfeeding at 4-weeks postpartum (OR 1.62; CI 1.14-2.31; OR 1.62; CI 1.18-2.22, respectively); numerous independent risk factors qualified for inclusion in the multivariable model(s) and were associated with the outcome(s) of interest (eg, supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children enrollment, onset of prenatal care, feeding on-demand, time initiated first breastfeed, hospital rooming-in, obstetric provider preference for exclusive breastfeeding, and maternal tobacco use).
Women experiencing DLII may be less able to sustain any and/or exclusive breastfeeding in the early postpartum period. Routine assessment of DLII in postpartum breastfeeding follow-up is warranted. Women with DLII may benefit from additional early postpartum interventions to support favorable breastfeeding outcomes.

Download full-text


Available from: Elizabeth Ann Brownell
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The timely onset of stage II lactogenesis (OL) is important for successful breastfeeding and newborn health. Several risk factors for delayed OL are common in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which may affect their chances for successful breastfeeding outcomes. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with delayed OL in a racially and ethnically diverse cohort of postpartum women with recent GDM. We analyzed data collected in the Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes After GDM Pregnancy (SWIFT), which is a prospective cohort of women diagnosed with GDM who delivered at Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals from 2008 to 2011. At 6-9 wk postpartum, delayed OL was assessed by maternal report of breast fullness and defined as occurring after 72 h postpartum. We obtained data on prenatal course and postdelivery infant feeding practices from electronic medical records and in-person surveys. We used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate associations of delayed OL with prenatal, delivery, and postnatal characteristics. The analysis included 883 SWIFT participants who initiated breastfeeding and did not have diabetes at 6-9 wk postpartum. Delayed OL was reported by 33% of women and was associated with prepregnancy obesity (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.29), older maternal age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.08), insulin GDM treatment (OR: 3.11; 95% CI: 1.37, 7.05), and suboptimal in-hospital breastfeeding (OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.26). A higher gestational age was associated with decreased odds of delayed OL but only in multiparous mothers (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.94). One-third of women with recent GDM experienced delayed OL. Maternal obesity, insulin treatment, and suboptimal in-hospital breastfeeding were key risk factors for delayed OL. Early breastfeeding support for GDM women with these risk factors may be needed to ensure successful lactation. This trial was registered at as NCT01967030.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background:Despite estimates that 83% of mothers in the United States receive labor pain medications, little research has been done on how use of these medications affect onset of lactation.Objective:To investigate whether use of labor pain medications is associated with delayed onset of lactation (DOL).Methods:We analyzed data from the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a longitudinal study of women from late pregnancy through the entire first year after birth (n = 2366). In multivariable logistic regression analyses, we assessed the relationship between mothers' use of labor pain medication/method and DOL (milk coming in > 3 days after delivery).Results:Overall, 23.4% of women in our sample experienced DOL. Compared with women who delivered vaginally and received no labor pain medication, women who received labor pain medications had a higher odds of experiencing DOL: vaginal with spinal/epidural only (aOR 2.05; 95% CI, 1.43-2.95), vaginal with spinal/epidural plus another medication (aOR 1.79; 95% CI, 1.16-2.76), vaginal with other labor pain medications only ([not spinal/epidural]; aOR 1.84; 95% CI, 1.14-2.98), planned cesarean section with spinal/epidural only (aOR 2.13; 95% CI, 1.39-3.27), planned cesarean with spinal/epidural plus another medication (aOR 2.67; 95% CI, 1.35-5.29), emergency cesarean with spinal/epidural only (aOR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.34-3.51), and emergency cesarean with spinal/epidural plus another medication (aOR 3.03; 95% CI, 1.77-5.18).Conclusion:Mothers who received labor pain medications were more likely to report DOL, regardless of delivery method. This information could help inform clinical decisions regarding labor/delivery.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Human Lactation
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate existing evidence on factors potentially contributing to infant overfeeding among Hispanic mothers that may explain the high infant overweight rates often seen among this ethnic group. Electronic databases including CINHAL and MEDLINE were searched for relevant studies published from 1998 to January 2012. Related article searches and reference list searches were completed on all included studies. Thirty-five studies (nine qualitative, 15 cross-sectional, nine cohort, and two longitudinal) were identified that met the following inclusion criteria: (a) studies of Hispanic-only or multiethnic mothers, (b) studies of healthy full-term infants or toddlers, (c) studies in which a majority of the sample included children within the target age group (0-24 months of age), and (d) studies conducted in the United States. The methodological quality of the studies ranged from fair to excellent. Data extraction included content related to Hispanic infant feeding and weight gain. Reviewed research fell into three main foci of inquiry: breastfeeding and formula-feeding beliefs, attitudes, and practices; family and cultural influences of maternal feeding beliefs and practices; and maternal perceptions of infant feeding satiety and weight gain. The Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed for data extraction and reporting the results of this integrative review. Three major feeding practices and beliefs among Hispanic mothers potentially contribute to infant overfeeding. Hispanic mothers are more likely to practice nonexclusive breastfeeding, initiate early introduction of solid foods including ethnic foods, and perceive chubbier infants as healthy infants. Cultural norms driving family influences and socioeconomic factors play a role in the feeding tendencies of Hispanics. Empirical research is needed to further define the primary factors that influence Hispanic mothers feeding decisions and practices that contribute to excessive weight gain in their infants.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing
Show more