Regulation of alternative macrophage activation in the liver following acetaminophen intoxication by stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.71). 05/2012; 262(2):139-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2012.04.027
Stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase (STK) is a transmembrane receptor reported to play a role in macrophage switching from a classically activated/proinflammatory phenotype to an alternatively activated/wound repair phenotype. In the present studies, STK⁻/⁻ mice were used to assess the role of STK in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity as evidence suggests that the pathogenic process involves both of these macrophage subpopulations. In wild type mice, centrilobular hepatic necrosis and increases in serum transaminase levels were observed within 6h of acetaminophen administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Loss of STK resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity of mice to the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen and increased mortality, effects independent of its metabolism. This was associated with reduced levels of hepatic glutathione, rapid upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and prolonged induction of heme oxygenase-1, suggesting excessive oxidative stress in STK⁻/⁻ mice. F4/80, a marker of mature macrophages, was highly expressed on subpopulations of Kupffer cells in livers of wild type, but not STK⁻/⁻ mice. Whereas F4/80⁺ macrophages rapidly declined in the livers of wild type mice following acetaminophen intoxication, they increased in STK⁻/⁻ mice. In wild type mice hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12, products of classically activated macrophages, increased after acetaminophen administration. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor, CCR2, as well as IL-10, mediators involved in recruiting and activating anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages, also increased in wild type mice after acetaminophen. Loss of STK blunted the effects of acetaminophen on expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, MCP-1 and CCR2, while expression of IL-10 increased. Hepatic expression of CX3CL1, and its receptor, CX3CR1 also increased in STK⁻/⁻ mice treated with acetaminophen. These data demonstrate that STK plays a role in regulating macrophage recruitment and activation in the liver following acetaminophen administration, and in hepatotoxicity.
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ABSTRACT: The ability of rat hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC) to become activated in response to diverse inflammatory stimuli was analyzed. Whereas the classical macrophage activators, IFNγ and/or LPS upregulated expression of iNOS in HSEC, the alternative macrophage activators, IL-10 or IL-4+IL-13 upregulated arginase-1 and mannose receptor. Similar upregulation of iNOS and arginase-1 was observed in classically and alternatively activated Kupffer cells, respectively. Removal of inducing stimuli from the cells had no effect on expression of these markers, demonstrating that activation is persistent. Washing and incubation of IFNγ treated cells with IL-4+IL-13 resulted in decreased iNOS and increased arginase-1 expression, while washing and incubation of IL-4+IL-13 treated cells with IFNγ resulted in decreased arginase-1 and increased iNOS, indicating that classical and alternative activation of the cells is reversible. HSEC were more sensitive to phenotypic switching than Kupffer cells, suggesting greater functional plasticity. Hepatocyte viability and expression of PCNA, β-catenin and MMP-9 increased in the presence of alternatively activated HSEC. In contrast, the viability of hepatocytes pretreated for 2h with 5mM acetaminophen decreased in the presence of classically activated HSEC. These data demonstrate that activated HSEC can modulate hepatocyte responses following injury. The ability of hepatocytes to activate HSEC was also investigated. Co-culture of HSEC with acetaminophen-injured hepatocytes, but not control hepatocytes, increased the sensitivity of HSEC to classical and alternative activating stimuli. The capacity of HSEC to respond to phenotypic activators may represent an important mechanism by which they participate in inflammatory responses associated with hepatotoxicity.
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ABSTRACT: Inflammatory macrophages have been implicated in hepatotoxicity induced by the analgesic acetaminophen (APAP). In these studies, we characterized the phenotype of macrophages accumulating in the liver following APAP intoxication and evaluated the role of galectin-3 (Gal-3) in macrophage activation. Administration of APAP (300 mg/kg, i.p.) to wild-type mice resulted in the appearance of two distinct subpopulations of CD11b(+) cells in the liver, which expressed high or low levels of the monocyte/macrophage activation marker Ly6C. Whereas CD11b(+)/Ly6C(hi) macrophages exhibited a classically activated proinflammatory phenotype characterized by increased expression of TNF-α, inducible NO synthase, and CCR2, CD11b(+)/Ly6C(lo) macrophages were alternatively activated, expressing high levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. APAP intoxication was also associated with an accumulation of Gal-3(+) macrophages in the liver; the majority of these cells were Ly6C(hi). APAP-induced increases in CD11b(+)/Ly6C(hi) macrophages were significantly reduced in Gal-3(-/-) mice. This reduction was evident 72 h post APAP and was correlated with decreased expression of the classical macrophage activation markers, inducible NO synthase, IL-12, and TNF-α, as well as the proinflammatory chemokines CCL2 and CCL3, and chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR2. Conversely, numbers of CD11b(+)/Ly6C(lo) macrophages increased in livers of APAP-treated Gal-3(-/-) mice; this was associated with increased expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers Ym1 and Fizz1, increased liver repair, and reduced hepatotoxicity. These data demonstrate that both classically and alternatively activated macrophages accumulate in the liver following APAP intoxication; moreover, Gal-3 plays a role in promoting a persistent proinflammatory macrophage phenotype.
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ABSTRACT: High doses of acetaminophen (APAP; N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) cause severe hepatotoxicity after metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 2E1. This study was undertaken to examine the preventive effects of thiacremonone, a compound extracted from garlic, on APAP-induced acute hepatic failure in male C57BL/6J. Mice received with 500 mg/kg APAP after a 7-day pretreatment with thiacremonone (10-50 mg/kg). Thiacremonone inhibited the APAP-induced serum ALT and AST levels in a dose-dependent manner, and markedly reduced the restricted area of necrosis and inflammation by administration of APAP. Thiacremonone also inhibited the APAP-induced depletion of intracellular GSH, induction of nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation as well as expression of P450 2E1. After APAP injection, the numbers of Kupffer cells, natural killer cells, and cytotoxic T cells were elevated, but the elevated cell numbers in the liver were reduced in thiacremonone pretreated mice. The expression levels of I-309, M-CSF, MIG, MIP-1 α , MIP-1 β , IL-7, and IL-17 were increased by APAP treatment, which were inhibited in thiacremonone pretreated mice. These data indicate that thiacremonone could be a useful agent for the treatment of drug-induced hepatic failure and that the reduction of cytotoxic immune cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine production may be critical for the prevention of APAP-induced acute liver toxicity.
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