Effect of acupuncture on serum malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in chronic fatigue syndrome rats
To study the effect of acupuncture on blood oxygen free radical metabolism in rats with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
Thirty male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (n = 10), model group (n = 10) and acupuncture group (n = 10). CFS model was established by repeated suspension (1.0-2.5 h) and forced cold water swimming (7 min), once daily continuously for 12 days. For rats in the acupuncture group, bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) were stimulated by manipulating the acupuncture needles intermittently for 20 min, once daily, and with 7 days being a treatment course. The treatment was conducted for three courses with an interval of 3 days between two courses. Serum malonaldehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity were detected by thiobarbituric acid chromatometry (TBA), xanthine oxidase (XOD) and dithio-bis-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), respectively.
In comparison with the control group, serum MDA content was up-regulated significantly, while serum SOD activity and GSH-PX activity were decreased considerably in the model group (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, serum MDA level was down-regulated apparently, and serum SOD activity and GSH-PX activity were up-regulated remarkably in the acupuncture group (P < 0.01).
Acupuncture can adjust metabolism of serum oxygen free radicals in CFS rats, which probably contributes to its effect in relieving CFS in clinic.
Available from: George Anderson
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ABSTRACT: Glutathione (GSH) has a crucial role in cellular signaling and antioxidant defenses either by reacting directly with reactive oxygen or nitrogen species or by acting as an essential cofactor for GSH S-transferases and glutathione peroxidases. GSH acting in concert with its dependent enzymes, known as the glutathione system, is responsible for the detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and electrophiles produced by xenobiotics. Adequate levels of GSH are essential for the optimal functioning of the immune system in general and T cell activation and differentiation in particular. GSH is a ubiquitous regulator of the cell cycle per se. GSH also has crucial functions in the brain as an antioxidant, neuromodulator, neurotransmitter, and enabler of neuron survival. Depletion of GSH leads to exacerbation of damage by oxidative and nitrosative stress; hypernitrosylation; increased levels of proinflammatory mediators and inflammatory potential; dysfunctions of intracellular signaling networks, e.g., p53, nuclear factor-κB, and Janus kinases; decreased cell proliferation and DNA synthesis; inactivation of complex I of the electron transport chain; activation of cytochrome c and the apoptotic machinery; blockade of the methionine cycle; and compromised epigenetic regulation of gene expression. As such, GSH depletion has marked consequences for the homeostatic control of the immune system, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways, regulation of energy production, and mitochondrial survival as well. GSH depletion and concomitant increase in O&NS and mitochondrial dysfunctions play a role in the pathophysiology of diverse neuroimmune disorders, including depression, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and Parkinson's disease, suggesting that depleted GSH is an integral part of these diseases. Therapeutical interventions that aim to increase GSH concentrations in vivo include N-acetyl cysteine; Nrf-2 activation via hyperbaric oxygen therapy; dimethyl fumarate; phytochemicals, including curcumin, resveratrol, and cinnamon; and folate supplementation.
Available from: Shuangyan Chen
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ABSTRACT: Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis) is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is adaptable to various environmental conditions, but little is known about its molecular mechanism responding to grazing and BSA deposition. Because it has a large genome, RNA sequencing is expensive and impractical except for the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology.
In this study, NGS technology was employed to characterize de novo the transcriptome of sheepgrass after defoliation and grazing treatments and to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) responding to grazing and BSA deposition. We assembled more than 47 M high-quality reads into 120,426 contigs from seven sequenced libraries. Based on the assembled transcriptome, we detected 2,002 DEGs responding to BSA deposition during grazing. Enrichment analysis of Gene ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways revealed that the effects of grazing and BSA deposition involved more apoptosis and cell oxidative changes compared to defoliation. Analysis of DNA fragments, cell oxidative factors and the lengths of leaf scars after grazing provided physiological and morphological evidence that BSA deposition during grazing alters the oxidative and apoptotic status of cells.
This research greatly enriches sheepgrass transcriptome resources and grazing-stress-related genes, helping us to better understand the molecular mechanism of grazing in sheepgrass. The grazing-stress-related genes and pathways will be a valuable resource for further gene-phenotype studies.
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ABSTRACT: The quality and dose of acupuncture used in a clinical trial affects the outcome, as with the quality and dose of any intervention. The dose of acupuncture treatment may be characterized by the frequency of treatment, needle type and depth, length of needle retention, point selection, and combination. The dose in trials of acupuncture has at times been described as low or inappropriate but is seldom assessed in systematic reviews of acupuncture trials. This article examines the research evaluating acupuncture for cancer-related fatigue to determine what characteristics of treatment may contribute to a quality acupuncture intervention.
English and Chinese language databases were searched from inception to December 2013 for randomized controlled trials of acupuncture for the treatment of cancer-related fatigue. Assessment of the quality of the acupuncture intervention was undertaken using the domains and items from the NICMAN framework.
Seven studies with a total of 690 patients were included. Four of the studies were designed as feasibility or pilot studies, and the other 3 studies were described as "effectiveness" trials. The treatment paradigm for the active intervention was based on traditional Chinese medicine in all studies, yet few of the studies were explicit as to how the active intervention was justified within a traditional Chinese medicine paradigm. Acupuncture point prescriptions were developed by a small consensus panel or based on typical points and/or "clinical experience." No discussion of traditional Chinese medicine theory or literature review was reported in any studies. Acupuncture point location was adequately described in 4 of the 7 studies. Frequency of treatment was twice per week in 2 studies; all others were once per week. Two studies did not apply needle manipulation or stimulation, and no justification was given.
The 7 trials reviewed meet some criteria for a quality acupuncture intervention. However, frequently elements of the intervention were not addressed, and it is possible that the dosage trialed was suboptimal. Systematic reviews of acupuncture are likely to continue to be inconclusive while comparisons are conducted of heterogeneous interventions without providing.
© The Author(s) 2015.
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