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Chemical composition and seasonal variation of essential oil of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst subsp birrea leaves from Benin

  • University of Abomey-Calavi UAC-Benin

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Essential oils from fresh leaves of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. were extracted by steam distillation. The oil yield from plant collected during the hot season (February) was 0.10±0.02 and 0.24±0.01% from plant collected during the cold season (August). GC/FID and GC/MS analysis allowed us to identify a total of 49 compounds, representing 98% of the hydrodistillate. The oils contained about 96% sesquiterpenes among which 38±0.034% of 7-epi-α-selinene during the hot season and 51.7±0.12% of 7-epi-α- selinene during the cold. The main components of the oil from the hot period were 7-epi-α-selinene (38±0.03%), α-muurolene (25±0.03%), valencene (17±0.06%), β-selinene (4.3±0.01), β-caryophyllene (3.2±0.02) allo-aromadendrene-epoxide (1.5±0.03) and 14-hydrox-α-humulene (1.5±0.03). The essential oil from the cold season was characterized by 7-epi-α-selinene (51.7±0.12%), β-selinene (15.1±0.2%), valencene (12.9±0.05%), α-selinene (8.1±0.03) and β-caryophyllene (1.8±0.02%). This is the first report of these components in the essential oil of Sclerocarya birrea.
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(18), pp. 4640-4646, 16 September, 2011
Available online at
ISSN 1996-0875 ©2011 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Chemical composition and seasonal variation of
essential oil of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst
subsp birrea leaves from Benin
Dossou Sika Salomé Kpoviessi1,2,3*, Fernand A. Gbaguidi1,2, Cosme Kossouoh1,
Pierre Agbani4, Eléonore Yayi-Ladekan1, Brice Sinsin4, Mansourou Moudachirou2,
Georges C. Accrombessi1 and Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq3
1Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Physique et de Synthèse (LaCOPS). Faculté des Sciences et Techniques (FAST).
Université d’Abomey-Calavi (UAC), BP: 526 Cotonou, Bénin.
2Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et des Huiles Essentielles (LAPHE). Faculté des Sciences de la Santé (FSS). Faculté
des Sciences et Techniques (FAST) Université d’Abomey-Calavi (UAC), 01BP: 188 Cotonou, Bénin.
3Pharmacognosy Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, B1 7203 Av. E.
Mounier 72, B-1200 Bruxelles, Belgium.
4Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA) de la Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques (FSA), Université d’Abomey-Calav,
03 BP : 1974 Cotonou, Bénin.
Accepted 18 July, 2011
Essential oils from fresh leaves of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. were extracted by steam
distillation. The oil yield from plant collected during the hot season (February) was 0.10±0.02 and
0.24±0.01% from plant collected during the cold season (August). GC/FID and GC/MS analysis allowed
us to identify a total of 49 compounds, representing 98% of the hydrodistillate. The oils contained about
96% sesquiterpenes among which 38±0.034% of 7-epi-α-selinene during the hot season and 51.7±0.12%
of 7-epi-α- selinene during the cold. The main components of the oil from the hot period were 7-epi-α-
selinene (38±0.03%), α-muurolene (25±0.03%), valencene (17±0.06%), β-selinene (4.3±0.01), β-
caryophyllene (3.2±0.02) allo-aromadendrene-epoxide (1.5±0.03) and 14-hydrox-α-humulene (1.5±0.03).
The essential oil from the cold season was characterized by 7-epi-α-selinene (51.7±0.12%), β-selinene
(15.1±0.2%), valencene (12.9±0.05%), α-selinene (8.1±0.03) and β-caryophyllene (1.8±0.02%). This is the
first report of these components in the essential oil of Sclerocarya birrea.
Key words: Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.), essential oils, seasonal variation, 7-epi-α-selinene, α-muurolene,
valencene, β-selinene.
Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. (Anacardiaceae) is
a medium-sized to large deciduous tree with an erect
trunk and rounded crown. It is one of the plants that
played a role in feeding people in ancient times. It is
widespread in Africa from Ethiopia in the north to
KwaZulu-Natal in the south (Van Wyk et al., 1997). It is
more dominant in the Baphalaborwa area in Limpopo in
South Africa and in the woody vegetation of the Park W
in Benin (Gouwakinnou et al., 2009). It occurs naturally in
*Corresponding author. Tel:
(00229) 97883927.
various types of woodland, on sandy soil or occasionally
sandy loam. This tree grows easily from seed sown in
washed river sand in spring. It can also grow from a
truncheon planted in the early spring. It is fast-growing,
with a growth rate of up to 1.5 m per year (Coates, 1983).
In Southern African the plant fruit is edible, eaten either
fresh or made into a delicious jelly. It also makes
alcoholic beer known as Mukumbi by the Vhavenda
people. This liqueur is available commercially (Venter
and Venter, 1996). The white nut is highly nutritious and
is eaten as it is or mixed with vegetables. Fruit-farming
communities prefer planting a couple of these trees to attract
pollinators to their farm in early spring. It is a dioecious fast-
growing tree species in Benin. Flowering takes place in
the dry season when the trees are leafless. The major
pollinators (or flower visitors) of tree are honey bees
(Chirwa and Akinnifesi, 2008). The tree bears plum-sized
stone fruits with a thick yellow peel and translucent white
flesh. They are eaten fresh and can be processed into
things such as beverages, jams and jellies. The juice
contains as much as four times the vitamin C of orange
juice (National Research Council, 2008). In Benin, the
species has a multitude of uses; all organs are used for
more than 20 different purposes.
The kernels are eaten or the oil extracted; the leaves
are browsed by livestock and have medicinal uses, as
does the bark. The wood is carved into spoons, plates
and decorative animal figures (Gouwakinnou, 2008;
Gouwakinnou et al., 2011). The powdered bark is used to
treat pregnant women to determine the gender of an
unborn baby. If a pregnant woman wishes to have a girl,
she will take a preparation from the female plant and for a
boy she will use the male plant. Traditional healers use
the hard nut in their divining dice (Mutshinyalo et al.,
2003). A decoction of the bark treats dysentery, diarrhea
and rheumatism and has a prophylactic effect against
malaria. The bark is an excellent remedy for
hemorrhoids. Roots and bark are also used as laxatives.
A drink made from the plant leaves is used for the
treatment of gonorrhea. Sometimes one finds a tree with
a wound, probably caused by a traditional healer or
someone who collected material for medicinal use
(Gouwakinnou, 2008; Gouwakinnou et al., 2011).
Previously, a quantitative study of the phenolic
constituents of wild and cultivated leaves of Sclerocarya
birrea (Anacardiaceae) was carried out by HPLC-
UV/PDA and LC-MS. Phytochemical analysis of the
methanol extract of wild plants led to the isolation of one
flavonol glycoside, quercetin 3-O-α-L-(5”-galloyl)-
arabinofuranoside, and eight known phenolic
compounds; two epicatechin derivatives were also
isolated from the same extract of the cultivated species.
The antioxidant activity of all isolated compounds was
determined by measuring free radical scavenging effects
using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay
and the coupled oxidation of β-carotene and linoleic acid
(autoxidation assay) (Braca et al., 2003). The partial
nutrient content of the edible part of the plant seed, a
snack food eaten by children in rural Niger was also
reported. The part contained relatively large amounts of
copper (24.8 mg/g dry wt), magnesium (4210 mg/g dry
wt), and zinc (62.4 mg/g dry wt). The protein content of
the pit was high (36.4% of dry wt); however, the protein
fraction contained relatively low proportions of leucine,
phenylalanine, lysine, and threonine. Fatty acids
accounted for 47 mg/g dry weight of the part, two-thirds
of which was due to oleic acid. The essential fatty acid
linoleic acid was present (24.5 mg/g dry wt), but the other
essential fatty acid, α-linolenic acid, was absent (Glew et
al., 2004). The tree inner bark extracts tended to be the
most potent in antimicrobial activities; followed by outer
Kpoviessi et al. 4641
bark and leaf extracts, but the differences were not
statistically significant (Eloff, 2001). Stem bark ethanol
extracts exhibited strong activity against Candida
albicans (Adoum et al., 1997) and Candida krusei
(Hamza et al., 2006; Samie et al., 2010). To our
knowledge there are no literature reports to date
concerning the volatile components of the leaves of S.
birrea essential oils. Our main aim here was thus to study
the chemical composition of essential oils extracted from
fresh leaves of S. birrea of Benin, the variation of this
chemical composition and extraction yields according to
the season when the leaves were harvested.
Plant material
Leaves of S. birrea were collected from the same place, in the
morning, in the Botanical Garden of the Abomey-Calavi University.
The fresh leaves were harvested in February 2009 (sample I), a
period of very hot weather (35°C), and in August 2009 (sample II)
(21°C), a colder period with occasional light rain. A voucher
specimen (AA6384/HNB) of these leaves was conserved at the
University of Abomey-Calavi Herbarium.
Essential oil isolation
Five hundred grams (500 g) of the fresh leaves were steam distilled
for 3 h in an improved Clevenger-type apparatus (Clevenger, 1928;
Bruneton, 1993). The extraction of each leaves (I and II) was
carried out in triplicate. Each essential oil sample was dried over
anhydrous sodium sulphate and preserved in sealed sample tubes
and stored at 0°C until GC/FID and GC/MS analyses. The essential
oil yields were calculated taking into account the fresh vegetable.
Essential oil analysis
The analysis of the essential oils was performed by GC/FID and
GC/MS (AFNOR, 2000). GC/FID: The analysis was carried out on a
FOCUS GC (Thermo Finigan; Milan, Italy) using the following
operating conditions: capillary column, CP W ax 52 CB (15 m × 0.25
mm; film thickness: 0.25 µm) (J and W Scientific Column of Agilent
Technologies, US167072Ã, USA); injection mode, splitless;
injection volume, 1 µL (TBME solution); flow of split, 10 ml/min;
splitless time, 0.80 min; injector temperature, 260°C; oven
temperature programmed, 50 to 250°C at 6°C/min and held at
250°C for 5 min; carrier gas, helium with a constant flow of 1.2
ml/min; FID detector temperature, 260°C. The data were recorded
and treated with the ChromCard software.
The quantification was completed by the calculation of the areas
under curve of the peaks (GC/FID, by the process of normalization)
and the identification of compounds by comparison of the retention
indices with the references. GC/MS: with an aim of confirming the
identifications obtained by the GC/FID method, GC-EIMS analysis
were carried out on a TRACE GC 2000 series (Thermo-Quest,
Rodano, Italy), equipped with an autosampler AS2000 Thermo-
Quest. The GC system was interfaced to a Trace MS mass
spectrometer (ThermoQuest) operating in the electronic impact
mode. The same capillary column (CP W ax 52 CB) was used with
the same conditions of injection, flow of helium and programming of
the temperature of the oven as above. The coupling temperature
4642 J. Med. Plant. Res.
of the GC was 260°C. The energy of the electrons was 70 eV and
the source of the electrons at 260°C. The data were recorded and
analyzed with the Xcalibur 1.1 software (ThermoQuest). The mass
spectra of the peaks were analyzed and compared with references
and NIST/EPA/NIH database (1998, version 1.6).
Identification of oil constituents
Individual components of the volatile oils were identified by
comparison of their relative retention times with those of authentic
standard references, computer matching against commercial library
(Sadler, 1986; Sandra, 1987; NIST, 1998; Adam, 2007) and home-
made library mass spectra made from pure substances and
components of known oils. Mass spectrometry literature data
(Masada, 1976; Heneberg, 1995; Mclafferty, 1991) were also used
for the identification, which was confirmed by comparison of the GC
retention indices (RI) on a polar column (determined from the
retention times of a series of n-alkanes “C8-C24” mixture). The
Kovats indices (KI) calculated were in agreement with those
reported by Adams (2007). A quantitative analysis of each oil
component (expressed as percentages) was carried out by
normalization measurement of peak area obtained by FID.
α-Pinene, β-pinene, camphene, p-cymene, myrcene, α-terpinene, γ-
terpinene,1,8-cineol, terpinolene, borneol, citronellyl acetate,
terpine-4-ol, α-terpineol, geraniol, verbenone, carvacrol, thymol,
bornyl acetate, α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, fenchone, thujone,
trans-pinocarveol, trans-verbenol, lavandulol, myrtenal, trans-
carveol, carvone, aromadendrene, allo-aromadendrene, γ-
gurjunene, cis-ocimene, camphor and n-alkanes “C8-C26” were
obtained from Sigma-Aldrich chemie (Germany), Acros Organics
(New jersey, USA), and Fluka Chemie (Switzerland); α-thujene,
-3-carene, limonene, linalool, α-humulene, cis-pinane,
α-phellandrene, p-cymenene, myrtenyl acetate and valencene were
purchased from Extrasynthese (Genay, France). All compounds
were of analytical standard grade. Ter-Butyl methyl ether was an
analytical grade solvent purchased from Fluka Chemie, and
anhydrous Na2SO4 was of analytical reagent grade from UCB
(Bruxelles, Belgium).
Statistical analysis
All data were expressed as mean±standard deviation of triplicate
measurements. The confidence limit was set at P<0.05. Standard
deviations did not exceed 5% for the majority of values obtained.
The oils extracted from samples I and II were obtained in
small quantities with different yields (0.10±0.02% and
0.24±0.01%, respectively). The cold period would be
favourable for quantity production of essential oil by S.
birrea from Benin. A total of 49 compounds, representing
98% of hydrodistillate, were identified by GC/FID and
GC/MS analysis (Table 1).
The oils were characterized by four major chemical
groups: hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpenes;
hydrocarbon and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with high
amount of hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes in all studied
seasons (95.44±1.19% in cold season and 90.9±1.09% in
hot season). We observed the presence of a higher
percentage of monoterpenes (and particularly
hydrocarbons) in the sample collected in February
(1.6±0.51%) as compared to the sample collected during
the cold season (1%). The same is observed concerning
oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.2±0.56% and 1.2±0.17%,
respectively) and the contrary is observed concerning
hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (90.9±1.09% and
95.44±1.19%, respectively) (Table 2). Phytol is the only
one diterpene identified in the two studied seasons with
0.3±0.01%. Non terpenic compounds represented
0.4±0.09% of the essential oil collected during the hot
season and comprised 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-pentan-2-one
(0.2±0.06%), phthalates (0.1±0.02%) and hexadecanoic
acide (0.1±0.01%), while we found phthalates
(0.1±0.02%) and hexadecanoic acide (0.1±0%)
representing 0.2% of the extract of the cold season
sample (Table 2).
The essential oil of S. birrea leaves contained more
than 90% hydrocarbon compounds. The higher amount is
found in the sample collected in August (96.53±1.27%)
as compared to the sample collected during the hot
season (92.5±1.6%). The contrary is observed
concerning oxygenated compounds (1.99±0.27 and
5.3±0.72%, respectively) (Table 2). Extract I (45
compounds) obtained from the leaves harvested during
the hot season was characterised by the presence as
main constituents of 7-epi-α-selinene (38±0.03%), α-
muurolene (25±0.03%) and valencene (17±0.06%)
together with β-selinene (4.3±0.01%), β-caryophyllene
(3.2±0.02%), allo-aromadendrene-epoxide (1.5±0.03%),
14-hydroxy-α-humulene (1.5±0.03%) and α-copaene
(1.2±0.04%). Extract II obtained during the cold season
(49 constituents) was characterised by a high
concentration of 7-epi-α-selinene (51.7±0.12%) along
with β-selinene (15.1±0.2%), valencene (12.9±0.05%), α-
selinene (8.1±0.03%) and β-caryophyllene (1.8±0.02%).
The concentrations of all the other constituents were less
than 1%. Each extract was thus characterised by known
but different main compounds; for I, 7-epi-α-selinene, α-
muurolene and valencene and for II (with different levels),
of 7-epi-α-selinene, α-selinene, β-selinene and
valencene. This is the first report of these components in
the essential oil of S. birrea (Anacardiaceae). If we
compare the essential oils of the two samples, we see
that the differences between samples are noted
especially on the level of five sesquiterpenes: β-
selenene, α-selinene, valencene, α-muurolene and 7-epi-
α-selinene. 7-epi-α-selinene (Figure 1) was the
predominant compound in the both essential oils of the
studied seasons with a level of 51.7±0.12% in sample II
and 38±0.03% in sample I. This sesquiterpene was
previously identified in the essential oil of Eugenia
platysema (10.4%) (Apel et al., 2002), Stachys laxa
collected from north of Iran (8.3%) (Morteza-Semnani et
al., 2006) and in low levels in the oil of other plants such
Kpoviessi et al. 4643
Table 1. Volatile compounds identified in the leaves essential oils of Sclerocarya birrea from Benin.
Compound aKI KI (I) (II)
% ±
SD % ±
1 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-pentan-2-one&o 835 835 0.2 ± 0.06 tr
2 α-thujene*h 925 931 0.1 ± 0.05 0.07 ± 0.01
3 α-pinene*h 932 939 0.1 ± 0.05 0.07 ± 0.01
4 Sabinene*h 972 976 0.2 ± 0.08 tr
5 β-pinene*h 977 980 0.2 ± 0.1 tr
6 Myrcene*h 989 991 0.1 ± 0.02 0.08 ± 0
7 p-cymene*h 1024 1026 0.5 ± 0.13 0.48 ± 0.04
8 Limonene*h 1029 1031 0.1 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0
9 1,8-cineole*o 1033 1033 - tr
(E)-β-ocimene*h 1047 1050 0.2 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.01
γ-terpinene*h 1059 1062 tr tr
Linalol*o 1100 1096 0.4 ± 0.05 0.19 ± 0.03
(E)-4,8-dimethyl-1, 3,7-nonatriene*h 1113 1113 0.1 ± 0.03 0.11 ± 0.01
α-terpineol*o 1197 1196 tr 0.1 ± 0.01
Thymol*o 1294 1298 0 ± 0.01 tr
Cyclosativene**h 1375 1378 0.3 ± 0.03 0.3 ± 0.01
α-copaene**h 1381 1379 1.2 ± 0.04 0.74 ± 0.43
β-bourbonene**h 1390 1388 0.2 ± 0.01 tr
β-elemene**h 1394 1391 - 0.6 ± 0.1
β-caryophyllene**h 1424 1418 3.2 ± 0.02 1.8 ± 0.02
β-copaene**h 1433 1430 0.1 ± 0.04 0.3 ± 0
Selina-5,11-diene**h 1448 1444 0.1 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.01
Aromadendrene**h 1450 1441 0.1 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0
α-humulene**h 1457 1454 0.1 ± 0.01 0.8 ± 0.02
4,5-di-epi-aristochene**h 1470 1470 0.2 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.02
Selina-4,11-diene**h 1473 1475 0.4 ± 0.06 0.4 ± 0.02
Germacrene-D**h 1481 1480 tr 0.4 ± 0.04
β-selinene**h 1484 1485 4.3 ± 0.01 15.1 ± 0.2
α-selinene**h 1489 1494 0.4 ± 0.2 8.1 ± 0.03
Valencene**h 1492 1494 17 ± 0.06 12.9 ± 0.05
α-muurolene**h 1495 1496 25 ± 0.03 1.7 ± 0.09
7-epi-α-selinene**h 1522 1522 38 ± 0.03 51.7 ± 0.12
selina-3,7(11)-diene**h 1556 1557 0.3 ± 0.4 0.1 ± 0
(E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene**h 1567 1565 - 0.1 ± 0.03
Caryophyllene oxide**o 1580 1581 0.1 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.01
Humulene-1,2-epoxide**o 1607 1608 - 0.1 ± 0.01
epi-cubenol**o 1624 1627 0.1 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.03
γ-eudesmol**o 1632 1632 0.1 ± 0.1 tr
allo-aromadendrene epoxide **o 1636 1641 1.5 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.03
epi-α-muurolol**o 1640 1641 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0
α-muurolol**o 1643 1646 0.1 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.03
α-cadinol**o 1652 1654 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.03
Selin-11-en-4-α-ol**o 1655 1660 0.2 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.01
Intermedeol**o 1662 1667 0.2 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.02
14-hydroxy-α-humulene**o 1713 1714 1.5 ± 0.03 tr
Nootkatone**o 1797 1800 0.1 ± 0.01 tr
Phtalates&o 1851 1852 0.1 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.02
4644 J. Med. Plant. Res.
Table 1. Contd.
Hexadecanoïc acide&o 1950 1951 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0
Phytol***o 2096 2097 0.3 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0
Total 97 ± 0.06 98.1 ± 0.03
KI = Kovats indices; a = calculated; bn=3; I = Sample of Sclerocarya birrea harvested in February 2009 ; II = Sample of Sclerocarya birrea
harvested in August 2009; tr = traces (inferior or equal to 0.05%); (-) = absence or not identified; * = monoterpenes ; ** = sesquiterpenes; *** =
diterpene; & = non terpenes; h = hydrocarbons ; o = oxygenetad.
Table 2. Seasonal variation of the composition of the essential oils of Sclerocarya birrea.
Chemical groups (I) II
Hydrocarbon compounds 92.5±1.6 96.53±1.27
Oxygenated compounds 5.3±0.72 1.99±0.23
hydrocarbon monoterpenes 1.6±0.51 1.09±0.08
oxygenated monoterpenes 0.4±0.06 0.29±0.04
Monoterpenes 2±0.57 1.38±0.12
hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes 90.9±1.09 95.44±1.19
oxygenetad sesquiterpenes 4.2±0.56 1.2±0.17
Sesquiterpenes 95.1±1.65 96.64±1.36
Diterpenes 0.3±0.01 0.3±0
Non terpenes 0.4±0.09 0.2±0.02
I = Sample of Sclerocarya birrea harvested in February 2009, II = Sample of Sclerocarya birrea harvested in August 2009; bn=3.
as Callicarpa americana (1.3%) (Tellez et al., 2000),
Anthemis altissima (0.2%) (Javidnia et al., 2004), Zea
mays L. (1.13%) (El-Ghorab et al., 2007), fruit of
Mangifera indica L. (0.2-0.5%) (Pino et al., 2005) and
Gomidesia tijucensis (1.5%) (Limberger et al., 2003). 7-
epi-α-selinene, α-selinene and β-selenene are isomers.
α-selinene (8.1%, II; Figure 1) was previously found in
high levels in the essential oil of G. tijucensis (27.1%)
(Limberger et al., 2003), Eugenia brasiliensis (13.3 to
14.8%) (Fischer et al., 2005), Eugenia uniflora (15.1%)
(Henriques et al., 1993), Psidium guajava (10.0%)
(Ramos et al., 2006) and β-selenene (15.1%, II; Figure 1)
in the essential oil of E. uniflora (25.9%) (Henriques et
al., 1993), G. tijucensis (22.9%) (Limberger et al., 2003),
E. brasiliensis (12.6 to 17.3%) (Fischer et al., 2005),
Eugenia platysema (17.9%) (Apel et al., 2002), Eugenia
schuechiana (10.5%) (Henriques et al., 1993) and
Psidium cattleyanum (10.1%) (Marin et al., 2008). These
essential oils showed antibacterial, antifungal,
antioxidant, antinociceptive, cytotoxic, antilarvae,
hypothermic and anthelmintic activities (Bhalke et al.,
2008; Santos et al., 1998; Marin et al., 2008; Ogunwande
et al., 2005; Adebajo et al., 1989; Lima et al., 1993;
Adebayo et al., 1999; Amorim et al., 2009; Magina et al.,
2009; Apel et al., 2006). α-muurolene (25%, I; Figure 1),
second major constituent of S. birrea essential oils, was
the first component of the essential oil of Eryngium
billardieri F. Delaroche (42.0%) (Sefidkon et al., 2004).
Valencene (17%, I, Figure 1) is an aroma component of
citrus fruit and citrus-derived odorants. It is cheaply
obtained from valencia oranges (Mai et al., 2005) and is
used as a flavor and fragrance ingredient.
The majority of the applications are found in flavors for
the beverage industry (especially in citrus flavors).
Although minor, valencene also can be found in
Fragrances applications (Elston et al., 2005). Some
biological activities of these major compounds could
explain a part of traditional uses of S. birrea. The lack of
literature for most essential oils makes comparison in
composition difficult.
This is the first report of sesquiterpenes: 7-epi-α-selinene,
α-muurolene, valencene, β-selenene and α-selinene as
major components of the essential oil of S. birrea leaves
from Benin. Our work also showed that the season of
harvest influenced the extraction yields and the chemical
composition of the essential oil. The study of the
biological activities of S. birrea essential oils could help to
clarify a part of its traditional uses.
This work was supported by the CUD (Commission
Universitaire pour le Développement), CIUF (Coopération
Institutionnelle Universitaire Francophone).
Kpoviessi et al. 4645
α−muurolene (25%, I) α−selinene (8.1%, II)
7−epi −α−selinene (51.7%, II)
β−selinene (15.1%, II) valencene (17%, I)
Figure 1. Major essential oil constituents of Sclerocarya birrea samples harvested in (I) February
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... Individual components of the volatile oils were identified by comparison with computer matching of their retention times against those of commercial EI-MS spectra library (NIST/EPA/NIH, 1998;Adams, 2007), home-made mass spectra library made from pure substances and components of known oils (Kpoviessi et al., 2011). Mass spectrometry literature data were also used for the identification, which was confirmed by comparison of the GC retention indices (RI) on a non-polar column (determined from the retention times of a series of n-alkanes "C 7 -C 28 " mixture) (VanDenDool and Kratz, 1963). ...
... For Pg, the yield (0.78%) was closer to that reported for this plant at Tchaada in Benin (0.82%) (Noudogbessi et al., 2013) and in Nigeria (0.75%) (Ogunwande et al., 2003) but different from the one described by Noudogbessi et al. (2013) in Missérété (0.25%) and Adjarra (0.30%) in outhern Benin. The leaves of Sb gave an oil yield (0.24%) in accordance with that indicated by Kpoviessi et al. (2011) for the same plant in the same area during the rainy season. These authors had also showed that this yield varies depending on the season (Kpoviessi et al., 2011). ...
... The leaves of Sb gave an oil yield (0.24%) in accordance with that indicated by Kpoviessi et al. (2011) for the same plant in the same area during the rainy season. These authors had also showed that this yield varies depending on the season (Kpoviessi et al., 2011). The difference between essential oil yields or chemical composition of the same plant could be explained by the influence of the location, season, and time of harvest in the day or the vegetative stage of the plant (Noudogbessi et al., 2013;Kpadonou-Kpoviessi et al., 2012;Kpoviessi et al., 2011;Moudachirou et al., 1999). ...
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The uncontrolled use of antimicrobials leads to an increase in the resistance of bacteria which becomes a public health problem. To overcome this problem, our study aims to establish a link between chemical composition and antimicrobial activity and then evaluate cytotoxicity, of seven essential oils. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils was assessed by macrodilution and solid-medium diffusion method on agar, then cytotoxicity test was evaluated in vitro by MTT method. Results showed that essential oils of Cymbopogon schoenantus, Cymbopogon giganteus, Cymbopogon citratus and Citrus aurantifolia are the most bactericidal. Analysis of antimicrobial activity and chemical composition reveal that the essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the least oxygenated (14.9%), is the least active. The other essential oils, which are more active, are all rich in oxygenated compound (28.4% to 87.0%). The cytotoxicity assessment shows that our essential oils are less cytotoxic than camptothecin.
... The GC-FID analysis was adapted from the work of Kpoviessi et al., 22 . It was carried out on a FOCUS GC (Thermo Finnigan, USA) using the following operating conditions: CP Wax 52 CB capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., film thickness 0.25 μm) (Agilent Technologies, USA); injection mode: splitless; injection volume: 1 μL (dilution with tert-butyl methyl ether); split flow: 10 ml/min; splitless time: 0.80 min; injector temperature: 260°C; oven temperature was programmed as following: 50°C to 250°C at 6°C/min and held for 5 min; the carrier gas was helium with a constant flow of 1.2 mL/min; FID detector temperature was: 260 °C. ...
... MS identification of compounds was realised on a TRACE GC 2000 series (ThermoQuest, USA), equipped with an autosampler AS2000 ThermoQuest 22 . The GC system was interfaced to a Trace MS mass spectrometer (ThermoQuest) operating in the electronic impact ionisation mode at 70 eV. ...
... Individual components of the volatile oils were identified by comparison of their retention times with those of reference standards, computer matching of their MS spectra with commercial EI-MS spectra library or home-made mass spectra library made from pure substances and components of known oils 22 and confirmed by comparison of the GC retention indices (RI) (determined from the retention times of a series of nalkanes "C7-C28" mixture) 23 . The Kovats indices (KI) calculated were in agreement with those reported by Adams 24 . ...
The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum and Ocimum gratissimum from Benin as affected by harvesting time, were analyzed by GC-FID (Gas chromatography-Flame ionization detector) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Based on the composition analysis, major components were as follows: estragol (43.0–44.7%) and linalool (24.6–29.8%) in O. basilicum oils; carvacrol (12.0–30.8%) and p-cymene (19.5–26.2%) in O. canum oils; thymol (28.3–37.7%) and γ-terpinene (12.5–19.3%) in O. gratissimum oils. Disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils and their main components against two foodborne bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. The tested oils and their components exhibited notable antimicrobial activities against L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium. The O. canum and O. gratissimum oils collected at 7h and 19h showed significant higher activities against L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium (MICs and MBCs 0.34–2.5 μL/ mL) (p < 0.05), whereas O. basilicum showed lower activity (MICs and MBCs 2.0–8.0 μL/mL) at any daytime of harvest, the weakest being at 19h (MIC and MBC 12.0–32.0 μL/mL). The daytime of harvest can influence the composition of oils and their activities on bacteria.
... From these findings, it is clear that fruit pulp extracts are mainly abundant in β-caryophyllene, with minor contents of α-humulene (8.3%) and germacrene D (0.1%), as compared to intact fruits, that are composed of diverse compounds and relatively high levels of heptadecene. In a study by Kpoviessi et al. (2011), steam distillation was applied in S. birrea (leaves) essential oils and compounds were measured using GC/ FID and GC-MS system. Essential oils comprised of sesquiterpenes, 7epi-α-selinene, α-muurolene, valencene, β-selenene and α-selinene as major chemical compounds with relatively low β-caryophyllene content. ...
... Nevertheless, flavonol content accumulated more in the wild population (ca. 3 times) as compared to cultivated plants. Seasonal variation greatly influenced the chemical profile in S. birrea plants in Benin (Kpoviessi et al., 2011). Essential oil yield in samples collected in summer (February) was 0.10% and 0.24% in winter (August). ...
As the use of medicinal plants continues to gain popularity worldwide, there is dire need for herbal medicines to be guaranteed in their safety and efficacy. South Africa has a largely under-explored medical flora scientifically due to the vast number of plant species that are consumed for medicinal purposes by the public, creating an urgent need to better define plants with therapeutic effects. To meet these aims, a combination of high-throughput analytical techniques that are sensitive and versatile are used for the standardization and authentication of commercialized natural products as part of quality control regimes. These methods also serve to highlight the role of analytical methods in providing accurate and reliable information pertaining to the biochemicals of medicinal plants in those species whose chemistry remains partially understood or poorly characterized. The review highlights the advancements made in analytical technology for the assessment of biochemical profiles, biomarker compounds and quality control in chosen commercialized products, produced from indigenous South African species. We also summarize studies on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, clinical trials and available patents associated with some of South Africa's medicinal plants where commercialization has occurred or is imminent. This was achieved through a detailed literature search using web-based database searches including Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) as well as ethnobotanical literature on South African medicinal plants. Bibliometric analysis was performed on the data mined from WoS. It is clear that future advancements and further development of the natural products industry in South Africa will benefit from a diverse range of technological approaches.
... In aboveground plant organs, MeSA is involved in responses to biotrophic pathogens and piercing-sucking herbivores (De Vos et al. 2005). Aboveground MeSA is often induced by herbivore feeding and consequently is used by natural enemies as a cue to localize their host (De Boer et al. 2004;Kpoviessi et al. 2011). There is only indirect evidence that MeSA may play a similar role belowground. ...
... Volatiles produced by plant roots may exert short (µm) and long (mm) distance effects on microbes in the rhizosphere. As mentioned above, only a few studies have shown that volatiles produced by roots are also emitted in the rhizosphere (Cecchini et al. 2010;Del Giudice et al. 2008;Kpoviessi et al. 2011;Steeghs et al. 2004;Yeo et al. 2013). Based on in vitro assays, the bioactivities of root-specific volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds have been associated primarily with growth inhibiting effects (Wenke et al. 2010). ...
Volatile organic compounds play an important role in the communication between plants and other organisms. The rhizosphere contains a large and diverse microbial community whose members use similar volatiles for intra- and interspecific communication. However, the analysis of volatiles produced in the rhizosphere and their ecological functions have been little explored so far. In this chapter, we outline what is known about the classes of volatiles that are emitted into the rhizosphere by roots and soil microbes, and the effect they have on different interactors in the soil. Additionally, we review current approaches to sample volatiles in mesocosms and field soils. We conclude that to better understand the production and functions of volatiles in the rhizosphere, it is of critical importance to design set-ups that account for the natural complexity of soils. This will help to apply this knowledge for sustainable agriculture and the identification of novel agrochemicals.
... Both α-copaene and (E)-caryophyllene are common essential oil components, including the Anacardiaceae (see, for example [35,36]). Selin-4,11-diene, on the other hand, is relatively uncommon in the family, but has been observed in Sclerocarya birrea leaf essential oil [37] and Haematostaphis barteri leaf essential oil [38]. Likewise, α-panasinsen is a rare volatile component in the Anacardiaceae, but detected as an aroma component of Mangifera indica cv. ...
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Lannea egregia (Anacardiaceae) and Emilia sonchifolia (Asteraceae) are plants used in traditional medicine in southwestern Nigeria. The essential oils from the leaves of L. egregia and E. sonchifolia were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Both essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenoids. The major components in L. egregia leaf essential oil were α-panasinsen (34.90%), (E)-caryophyllene (12.25%), α-copaene (11.39%), and selina-4,11-diene (9.29%), while E. sonchifolia essential oil was rich in γ-himachalene (25.16%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.72%), and γ-gurjunene (8.58%). The essential oils were screened for antimicrobial activity against a panel of bacteria and fungi and displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 156 μg/mL to 625 μg/mL. Based on these results, either L. egregia or E. sonchifolia essential oil may be recommended for exploration as complementary antibacterial or antifungal agents.
... Plusieurs études ethnobotaniques (Asase et al., 2005 ;Amadou et al., 2009 ;et biochimiques (Kubmarawa et al., 2009 ;Kpoviessi et al., 2011) ont montré que les fruitiers spontanés possèdent une valeur nutritionnelle indéniable. Ils participent ainsi considérablement à l'alimentation et à l'amélioration des conditions socio-économiques des populations rurales, particulièrement en Afrique (Larwanou et al., 2010 ;Mapongmetsem et al., 2012). ...
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Introduction: The present work focused on the multiplication by seeds and cuttings of H. barteri, L. microcarpa, and S. birrea, three spontaneous fruit trees in decrease in Togo. Material and methods: Seeds and cuttings were taken from the savannas region in Togo. The multiplication essays were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse in the University of Lomé. Germination essays were conducted using distilled water soaking, sulfuric acid treatment or mechanical scarification. Propagation by cuttings essays were conducted in greenhouse on soil taken from the Botany garden of the University of Lomé or sea sand previously treated with sulfuric acid and thoroughly rinsed with distilled water in presence of ¼ diluted Hoagland solution added with or not of IAA. Results: H. barteri seeds showed a low germination rate: 10% for freshly harvested seeds, 23% for seeds conserved for three months and 8% for one year seeds. L. microcarpa seeds sprout at 82% during the first week of harvest and lost viability about 14 weeks after harvest. For S. birrea germination rate increased from 50.12% when harvested to 69.18% and 74.6% for respectively 3 and 12 months after harvest and room conservation. For propagation using cuttings, only S. birrea was capable of multiplication in our essay conditions with a success rate of root cuttings of 71% for adult plants and 79.28% for young plants. Conclusion: these results constituted very precious tools for production program of these 3 fruit trees for their sustainable conservation.
... The bark, which contains 10-20% tannin as well as traces of alkaloids, provides fiber and gum to produce ink or red dye [3]. A decoction of the bark has been used to treat dysentery, diarrhea, rheumatism, and as a prophylactic remedy against malaria [4]. Moreover, several studies about S. birrea steam bark extracts Figure 1 shows the base peak chromatograms (BPCs) obtained in negative polarity for representative SLE, SFE, and PLE extracts. ...
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Sclerocarya birrea is a tree indigenous to Southern Africa with significant importance in rural livelihoods for food, medicine, and carving. The bark, which contains 10-20% tannin, provides several pharmacological benefits as an antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-atherogenic, and antioxidant medication, among others. This study compared different extraction techniques used to recover bioactive compounds from marula bark. For this purpose, solid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) were performed under selected conditions, using only "food-grade" solvents. The potential use of the proposed extraction methodologies was evaluated in term of yield, and the individual phenolic composition determined by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. PLE provided a high extraction yield in all experimental conditions. With regard to bioactive compounds composition, a total of 71 compounds, a significant percentage of which in a galloyl form, were distributed in five major categories. The largest number of compounds, mostly flavonoid aglycones, were extracted by PLE, generally when the extraction was developed at low temperatures. SFE did prove effective as a way of extracting antidiabetic proanthocyanidins. Advanced extraction techniques represent a powerful tool to obtain bioactive compounds from S. birrea bark, which can be used as supplements or food ingredients, promoting the valorization of this crop.
en Climate change threatens the persistence of some plant species, especially those highly adapted to their microclimates. The aim of the study was to determine the current suitable habitat of marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra) and to forecast the habitat under different climate change scenarios. Predictions were made in Maxent using 490 occurrence records, four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and three general circulation models (GCMs). Variables used were altitude, soil characteristics, monthly precipitation, monthly minimum and maximum temperatures and 19 bioclimatic variables. The current suitable habitat of marula largely occurs in mopane and dry miombo woodlands of southern Africa, including Madagascar. Permutation importance test showed that precipitation in November (30.1%), temperature seasonality (22.1%) and mean temperature of wettest quarter (14.3%) contributed significantly to the model of the current suitable habitat. When forecasted, the suitable habitat expanded under all GCMs and RCPs. On average in 2050, the range expanded by 26.0% (RCP2.6), 33.8% (RCP4.5), 24.8% (RCP6.0) and 42.3% (RCP8.5), while in 2070, it expanded by 30.0% (RCP2.6), 39.9% (RCP4.5), 33.3% (RCP6.0) and 45.1% (RCP8.5). The subspecies is not directly threatened by climate change, but indirect threats remain uncertain. Résumé fr Le changement climatique menace la persistance de certaines espèces végétales, en particulier celles qui sont très adaptées à leurs microclimats. L'objectif de l'étude était de déterminer l'habitat convenable actuel de marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra) et de prévoir l'habitat dans différents scénarios de changement climatique. Les prédictions ont été faites dans Maxent à l'aide de 490 enregistrements d'occurrence, de quatre voies de concentration représentatives (RCP) et de trois modèles de circulation générale (GCM). Les variables utilisées étaient l'altitude, les caractéristiques du sol, les précipitations mensuelles, les températures minimales et maximales mensuelles et 19 variables bioclimatiques. L'habitat convenable actuel du marula se trouve en grande partie dans les forêts de mopane et de miombo sèches d'Afrique australe, y compris Madagascar. Le test d'importance de la permutation a montré que les précipitations de novembre (30.1 %), la saisonnalité de la température (22.1 %) et la température moyenne du trimestre le plus humide (14.3 %) ont contribué de manière significative au modèle de l'habitat convenable actuel. Lorsqu'il a été prévu, l'habitat convenable s'est élargi sous tous les GCM et PCR. En moyenne, en 2050, la fourchette s'est élargie de 26.0 % (RCP2.6), 33.8 % (RCP4.5), 24.8 % (RCP6.0) et 42.3 % (RCP8.5), tandis qu'en 2070, elle a augmenté de 30.0 % (RCP2.6), 39.9 % (RCP4.5), 33.3 % (RCP6.0) et 45.1 % (RCP8.5). La sous-espèce n'est pas directement menacée par le changement climatique, mais les menaces indirectes restent incertaines.
Sclerocarya birrea is a well known African wild tree disseminated in numerous African nations where the different parts are utilized in sustenance and conventional prescription; the fruit is rich in vitamin C. The fruit juice contains sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, which are terpenes found in plants that are accounted for to have bacteriostatic properties. The fruit contains a hard dark colored seed. The seed encases a delicate white bit wealthy in oil and protein. The oil contains oleic, palmitic, myristic, and stearic acids; the protein contains amino acids, with a power of glutamic and arginine. The concentrates from various parts indicated high complete phenolic mixes and radical-scavenging limits and cancer prevention agent activities. Sclerocarya birrea is broadly examined with respect to its antidiabetic, hostile to inflammatory, pain relieving, antiparasitic, antimicrobial, and antihypertenisve activities.
Essential oils from fresh aerial parts of . Hemizygia bracteosa (Benth.) Briq. were extracted by steam distillation. The oil yield from plants collected during the hot season (February) and during the cold season (August) were 0.12 ± 0.01% and 0.25 ± 0.02%, respectively. GC/FID and GC/MS analyses allowed us to identify a total of 65 compounds, representing 97% of the hydrodistillate. The main components of the oil from the hot period were (E)-β-farnesene (64 ± 0.04%), β-elemene (7.4 ± 0.05%), . trans-nerolidol (6.2 ± 0.04%), and α-muurolene (2.7 ± 0.03%). The essential oil from the cold season was characterized by the presence, as major compounds, of (E)-β-farnesene (67 ± 0.04%) along with β-caryophyllene (3.6 ± 0.06%), β-elemene (3.3 ± 0.05%), 7-epi-α-selinene (3.1 ± 0.01%) and . p-cymene (2.5 ± 0.04%). This is the first report of these components in the essential oil of . Hemizygia bracteosa (Benth.) Briq.
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Adams, R. P. 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, 4th Edition. Allured Publ., Carol Stream, IL Is out of print, but you can obtain a free pdf of it at
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The volatile aroma compounds of fresh edible fruit of guabiju (Myrcianthes pungens), guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa), cereja-do-rio-grande (Eugenia involucrata), pitanga (Eugenia uniflora) and araçá (Psidium cattleyanum), cultivated in Southern Brazil, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Altogether sixty-six compounds were identified, representing 94.6-99.1% of the total oils content. The major components were limonene (10.9%) and β-caryophyllene (21.8%) for guabiroba; β-caryophyllene (32.7%), germacrene D (14.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (11.2%) for guabiju; hexadecanoic acid (11.7%) for pitanga; β-caryophyllene (22.5%), neo-intermedeol (14.2%) and β-selinene (10.1%) for araçá; and β-caryophyllene (10.1%) for cereja-do-rio-grande. An antioxidant property was tested with all the oils obtained by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Except for guabiju, all samples presented interesting radical scavenging activity.
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Infection with HIV leads to immunosuppression and up to 90% of HIV infected individuals contract fungal infections of which 10 -20% die as a direct consequence of these infections. In the present study, 76 extracts from 30 plants used by Venda traditional healers for the treatment of fungal related ailments, were tested for their antifungal activities against clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans using the agar diffusion and the microdilution methods. The minimum fungicidal concentrations as well as the time kill curves of the thee most active plants were also determined. Extracts from 25 plants (83.3%) were active against C. albicans, C. krusei or C. neoformans. Thirty two extracts were active against C. neoformans, while 15 were active against C. albicans and 12 were active against C. krusei. Warburgia salutaris, Cassine transvaalensis, Piper capense, Maerua edulis, Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia, Berchemia discolor and Lippia javanica were not only inhibitory to fungal growth but also had fungicidal effects against one or all the 3 fungi tested (MIC/MFC between 0.11 and 7.5 mg/ml). Hexane extracts were also active indicating that many of the antifungal components of these plants are non-polar compounds. Time-to-kill experiments indicated an intense time-dependent fungicidal effect against C. albicans, achieving over a 5 h-period a 6 log 10 -unit decrease in CFU/ml at a concentration of 0.4 mg/ml for W. salutaris. The present study justifies the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of opportunistic infections in the region.
The toxicity of the essential oils from the leaves of Lantana camara L., Eugenia uniflora L. and fruits of Aframomum daniellii K. Schum to the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and Culex pipiens fatigans was investigated. The results indicated that 0.02-0.04% of the oils produced 90-100% mortality on the larvae of all the three mosquitoes. The oils from E. uniflora and L. camara at a concentration of 0.02% were more toxic to Culex pipiens fatigans and Aedes aegypti (producing 100% mortality at 24h.) than Anopheles gambiae. Key Words: Lantana camara, Eugenia uniflora, Aframomum daniellii, essential oils, toxicity, mosquito larvae. Nig. J. Nat Prod. And Med. Vol.3 1999: 74-76
The chemical composition of the oils obtained from leaves of five Eugenia species, collected from different areas of southern Brazil, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Seventy-one compounds were identified in the different samples analyzed representing 81.9–93.6% of the oil contents. E. umbelliflora and E. uruguayensis oils were found to be rich in α- and β-pinene (24.7% and 23.5%, and 11.0% and 11.8%, respectively). In E. pluriflora, α-pinene (24.0%) and 1, 8-cineole (12.7%) were the principal components. In addition, E. pluriflora oil also contained an important amount of (E)-nerolidol (24.6%). E. platysema and E. ramboi oils were characterized by being rich in sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons of the germacrane group. Aromadendrane and selinane skeletons, such as allo-aromadendrene (12.6%) and β-selinene (17.9%), characterized E. platysema oil, while E. ramboi oil elemane and germacrane skeletons, such as β-elemene (10.6%) and bicyclogermacrene (9.7%) were the major compounds.