Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(18), pp. 4640-4646, 16 September, 2011
Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/JMPR
ISSN 1996-0875 ©2011 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Chemical composition and seasonal variation of
essential oil of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst
subsp birrea leaves from Benin
Dossou Sika Salomé Kpoviessi1,2,3*, Fernand A. Gbaguidi1,2, Cosme Kossouoh1,
Pierre Agbani4, Eléonore Yayi-Ladekan1, Brice Sinsin4, Mansourou Moudachirou2,
Georges C. Accrombessi1 and Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq3
1Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Physique et de Synthèse (LaCOPS). Faculté des Sciences et Techniques (FAST).
Université d’Abomey-Calavi (UAC), BP: 526 Cotonou, Bénin.
2Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et des Huiles Essentielles (LAPHE). Faculté des Sciences de la Santé (FSS). Faculté
des Sciences et Techniques (FAST) Université d’Abomey-Calavi (UAC), 01BP: 188 Cotonou, Bénin.
3Pharmacognosy Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, B1 7203 Av. E.
Mounier 72, B-1200 Bruxelles, Belgium.
4Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA) de la Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques (FSA), Université d’Abomey-Calav,
03 BP : 1974 Cotonou, Bénin.
Accepted 18 July, 2011
Essential oils from fresh leaves of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. were extracted by steam
distillation. The oil yield from plant collected during the hot season (February) was 0.10±0.02 and
0.24±0.01% from plant collected during the cold season (August). GC/FID and GC/MS analysis allowed
us to identify a total of 49 compounds, representing 98% of the hydrodistillate. The oils contained about
96% sesquiterpenes among which 38±0.034% of 7-epi-α-selinene during the hot season and 51.7±0.12%
of 7-epi-α- selinene during the cold. The main components of the oil from the hot period were 7-epi-α-
selinene (38±0.03%), α-muurolene (25±0.03%), valencene (17±0.06%), β-selinene (4.3±0.01), β-
caryophyllene (3.2±0.02) allo-aromadendrene-epoxide (1.5±0.03) and 14-hydrox-α-humulene (1.5±0.03).
The essential oil from the cold season was characterized by 7-epi-α-selinene (51.7±0.12%), β-selinene
(15.1±0.2%), valencene (12.9±0.05%), α-selinene (8.1±0.03) and β-caryophyllene (1.8±0.02%). This is the
first report of these components in the essential oil of Sclerocarya birrea.
Key words: Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.), essential oils, seasonal variation, 7-epi-α-selinene, α-muurolene,
Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. (Anacardiaceae) is
a medium-sized to large deciduous tree with an erect
trunk and rounded crown. It is one of the plants that
played a role in feeding people in ancient times. It is
widespread in Africa from Ethiopia in the north to
KwaZulu-Natal in the south (Van Wyk et al., 1997). It is
more dominant in the Baphalaborwa area in Limpopo in
South Africa and in the woody vegetation of the Park W
in Benin (Gouwakinnou et al., 2009). It occurs naturally in
*Corresponding author. E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org. Tel:
various types of woodland, on sandy soil or occasionally
sandy loam. This tree grows easily from seed sown in
washed river sand in spring. It can also grow from a
truncheon planted in the early spring. It is fast-growing,
with a growth rate of up to 1.5 m per year (Coates, 1983).
In Southern African the plant fruit is edible, eaten either
fresh or made into a delicious jelly. It also makes
alcoholic beer known as Mukumbi by the Vhavenda
people. This liqueur is available commercially (Venter
and Venter, 1996). The white nut is highly nutritious and
is eaten as it is or mixed with vegetables. Fruit-farming
communities prefer planting a couple of these trees to attract
pollinators to their farm in early spring. It is a dioecious fast-
growing tree species in Benin. Flowering takes place in
the dry season when the trees are leafless. The major
pollinators (or flower visitors) of tree are honey bees
(Chirwa and Akinnifesi, 2008). The tree bears plum-sized
stone fruits with a thick yellow peel and translucent white
flesh. They are eaten fresh and can be processed into
things such as beverages, jams and jellies. The juice
contains as much as four times the vitamin C of orange
juice (National Research Council, 2008). In Benin, the
species has a multitude of uses; all organs are used for
more than 20 different purposes.
The kernels are eaten or the oil extracted; the leaves
are browsed by livestock and have medicinal uses, as
does the bark. The wood is carved into spoons, plates
and decorative animal figures (Gouwakinnou, 2008;
Gouwakinnou et al., 2011). The powdered bark is used to
treat pregnant women to determine the gender of an
unborn baby. If a pregnant woman wishes to have a girl,
she will take a preparation from the female plant and for a
boy she will use the male plant. Traditional healers use
the hard nut in their divining dice (Mutshinyalo et al.,
2003). A decoction of the bark treats dysentery, diarrhea
and rheumatism and has a prophylactic effect against
malaria. The bark is an excellent remedy for
hemorrhoids. Roots and bark are also used as laxatives.
A drink made from the plant leaves is used for the
treatment of gonorrhea. Sometimes one finds a tree with
a wound, probably caused by a traditional healer or
someone who collected material for medicinal use
(Gouwakinnou, 2008; Gouwakinnou et al., 2011).
Previously, a quantitative study of the phenolic
constituents of wild and cultivated leaves of Sclerocarya
birrea (Anacardiaceae) was carried out by HPLC-
UV/PDA and LC-MS. Phytochemical analysis of the
methanol extract of wild plants led to the isolation of one
flavonol glycoside, quercetin 3-O-α-L-(5”-galloyl)-
arabinofuranoside, and eight known phenolic
compounds; two epicatechin derivatives were also
isolated from the same extract of the cultivated species.
The antioxidant activity of all isolated compounds was
determined by measuring free radical scavenging effects
using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay
and the coupled oxidation of β-carotene and linoleic acid
(autoxidation assay) (Braca et al., 2003). The partial
nutrient content of the edible part of the plant seed, a
snack food eaten by children in rural Niger was also
reported. The part contained relatively large amounts of
copper (24.8 mg/g dry wt), magnesium (4210 mg/g dry
wt), and zinc (62.4 mg/g dry wt). The protein content of
the pit was high (36.4% of dry wt); however, the protein
fraction contained relatively low proportions of leucine,
phenylalanine, lysine, and threonine. Fatty acids
accounted for 47 mg/g dry weight of the part, two-thirds
of which was due to oleic acid. The essential fatty acid
linoleic acid was present (24.5 mg/g dry wt), but the other
essential fatty acid, α-linolenic acid, was absent (Glew et
al., 2004). The tree inner bark extracts tended to be the
most potent in antimicrobial activities; followed by outer
Kpoviessi et al. 4641
bark and leaf extracts, but the differences were not
statistically significant (Eloff, 2001). Stem bark ethanol
extracts exhibited strong activity against Candida
albicans (Adoum et al., 1997) and Candida krusei
(Hamza et al., 2006; Samie et al., 2010). To our
knowledge there are no literature reports to date
concerning the volatile components of the leaves of S.
birrea essential oils. Our main aim here was thus to study
the chemical composition of essential oils extracted from
fresh leaves of S. birrea of Benin, the variation of this
chemical composition and extraction yields according to
the season when the leaves were harvested.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Leaves of S. birrea were collected from the same place, in the
morning, in the Botanical Garden of the Abomey-Calavi University.
The fresh leaves were harvested in February 2009 (sample I), a
period of very hot weather (35°C), and in August 2009 (sample II)
(21°C), a colder period with occasional light rain. A voucher
specimen (n°AA6384/HNB) of these leaves was conserved at the
University of Abomey-Calavi Herbarium.
Essential oil isolation
Five hundred grams (500 g) of the fresh leaves were steam distilled
for 3 h in an improved Clevenger-type apparatus (Clevenger, 1928;
Bruneton, 1993). The extraction of each leaves (I and II) was
carried out in triplicate. Each essential oil sample was dried over
anhydrous sodium sulphate and preserved in sealed sample tubes
and stored at 0°C until GC/FID and GC/MS analyses. The essential
oil yields were calculated taking into account the fresh vegetable.
Essential oil analysis
The analysis of the essential oils was performed by GC/FID and
GC/MS (AFNOR, 2000). GC/FID: The analysis was carried out on a
FOCUS GC (Thermo Finigan; Milan, Italy) using the following
operating conditions: capillary column, CP W ax 52 CB (15 m × 0.25
mm; film thickness: 0.25 µm) (J and W Scientific Column of Agilent
Technologies, N° US167072Ã, USA); injection mode, splitless;
injection volume, 1 µL (TBME solution); flow of split, 10 ml/min;
splitless time, 0.80 min; injector temperature, 260°C; oven
temperature programmed, 50 to 250°C at 6°C/min and held at
250°C for 5 min; carrier gas, helium with a constant flow of 1.2
ml/min; FID detector temperature, 260°C. The data were recorded
and treated with the ChromCard software.
The quantification was completed by the calculation of the areas
under curve of the peaks (GC/FID, by the process of normalization)
and the identification of compounds by comparison of the retention
indices with the references. GC/MS: with an aim of confirming the
identifications obtained by the GC/FID method, GC-EIMS analysis
were carried out on a TRACE GC 2000 series (Thermo-Quest,
Rodano, Italy), equipped with an autosampler AS2000 Thermo-
Quest. The GC system was interfaced to a Trace MS mass
spectrometer (ThermoQuest) operating in the electronic impact
mode. The same capillary column (CP W ax 52 CB) was used with
the same conditions of injection, flow of helium and programming of
the temperature of the oven as above. The coupling temperature
4642 J. Med. Plant. Res.
of the GC was 260°C. The energy of the electrons was 70 eV and
the source of the electrons at 260°C. The data were recorded and
analyzed with the Xcalibur 1.1 software (ThermoQuest). The mass
spectra of the peaks were analyzed and compared with references
and NIST/EPA/NIH database (1998, version 1.6).
Identification of oil constituents
Individual components of the volatile oils were identified by
comparison of their relative retention times with those of authentic
standard references, computer matching against commercial library
(Sadler, 1986; Sandra, 1987; NIST, 1998; Adam, 2007) and home-
made library mass spectra made from pure substances and
components of known oils. Mass spectrometry literature data
(Masada, 1976; Heneberg, 1995; Mclafferty, 1991) were also used
for the identification, which was confirmed by comparison of the GC
retention indices (RI) on a polar column (determined from the
retention times of a series of n-alkanes “C8-C24” mixture). The
Kovats indices (KI) calculated were in agreement with those
reported by Adams (2007). A quantitative analysis of each oil
component (expressed as percentages) was carried out by
normalization measurement of peak area obtained by FID.
α-Pinene, β-pinene, camphene, p-cymene, myrcene, α-terpinene, γ-
terpinene,1,8-cineol, terpinolene, borneol, citronellyl acetate,
terpine-4-ol, α-terpineol, geraniol, verbenone, carvacrol, thymol,
bornyl acetate, α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, fenchone, thujone,
trans-pinocarveol, trans-verbenol, lavandulol, myrtenal, trans-
carveol, carvone, aromadendrene, allo-aromadendrene, γ-
gurjunene, cis-ocimene, camphor and n-alkanes “C8-C26” were
obtained from Sigma-Aldrich chemie (Germany), Acros Organics
(New jersey, USA), and Fluka Chemie (Switzerland); α-thujene,
-3-carene, limonene, linalool, α-humulene, cis-pinane,
α-phellandrene, p-cymenene, myrtenyl acetate and valencene were
purchased from Extrasynthese (Genay, France). All compounds
were of analytical standard grade. Ter-Butyl methyl ether was an
analytical grade solvent purchased from Fluka Chemie, and
anhydrous Na2SO4 was of analytical reagent grade from UCB
All data were expressed as mean±standard deviation of triplicate
measurements. The confidence limit was set at P<0.05. Standard
deviations did not exceed 5% for the majority of values obtained.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The oils extracted from samples I and II were obtained in
small quantities with different yields (0.10±0.02% and
0.24±0.01%, respectively). The cold period would be
favourable for quantity production of essential oil by S.
birrea from Benin. A total of 49 compounds, representing
98% of hydrodistillate, were identified by GC/FID and
GC/MS analysis (Table 1).
The oils were characterized by four major chemical
groups: hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpenes;
hydrocarbon and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with high
amount of hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes in all studied
seasons (95.44±1.19% in cold season and 90.9±1.09% in
hot season). We observed the presence of a higher
percentage of monoterpenes (and particularly
hydrocarbons) in the sample collected in February
(1.6±0.51%) as compared to the sample collected during
the cold season (1%). The same is observed concerning
oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.2±0.56% and 1.2±0.17%,
respectively) and the contrary is observed concerning
hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (90.9±1.09% and
95.44±1.19%, respectively) (Table 2). Phytol is the only
one diterpene identified in the two studied seasons with
0.3±0.01%. Non terpenic compounds represented
0.4±0.09% of the essential oil collected during the hot
season and comprised 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-pentan-2-one
(0.2±0.06%), phthalates (0.1±0.02%) and hexadecanoic
acide (0.1±0.01%), while we found phthalates
(0.1±0.02%) and hexadecanoic acide (0.1±0%)
representing 0.2% of the extract of the cold season
sample (Table 2).
The essential oil of S. birrea leaves contained more
than 90% hydrocarbon compounds. The higher amount is
found in the sample collected in August (96.53±1.27%)
as compared to the sample collected during the hot
season (92.5±1.6%). The contrary is observed
concerning oxygenated compounds (1.99±0.27 and
5.3±0.72%, respectively) (Table 2). Extract I (45
compounds) obtained from the leaves harvested during
the hot season was characterised by the presence as
main constituents of 7-epi-α-selinene (38±0.03%), α-
muurolene (25±0.03%) and valencene (17±0.06%)
together with β-selinene (4.3±0.01%), β-caryophyllene
(3.2±0.02%), allo-aromadendrene-epoxide (1.5±0.03%),
14-hydroxy-α-humulene (1.5±0.03%) and α-copaene
(1.2±0.04%). Extract II obtained during the cold season
(49 constituents) was characterised by a high
concentration of 7-epi-α-selinene (51.7±0.12%) along
with β-selinene (15.1±0.2%), valencene (12.9±0.05%), α-
selinene (8.1±0.03%) and β-caryophyllene (1.8±0.02%).
The concentrations of all the other constituents were less
than 1%. Each extract was thus characterised by known
but different main compounds; for I, 7-epi-α-selinene, α-
muurolene and valencene and for II (with different levels),
of 7-epi-α-selinene, α-selinene, β-selinene and
valencene. This is the first report of these components in
the essential oil of S. birrea (Anacardiaceae). If we
compare the essential oils of the two samples, we see
that the differences between samples are noted
especially on the level of five sesquiterpenes: β-
selenene, α-selinene, valencene, α-muurolene and 7-epi-
α-selinene. 7-epi-α-selinene (Figure 1) was the
predominant compound in the both essential oils of the
studied seasons with a level of 51.7±0.12% in sample II
and 38±0.03% in sample I. This sesquiterpene was
previously identified in the essential oil of Eugenia
platysema (10.4%) (Apel et al., 2002), Stachys laxa
collected from north of Iran (8.3%) (Morteza-Semnani et
al., 2006) and in low levels in the oil of other plants such
Kpoviessi et al. 4643
Table 1. Volatile compounds identified in the leaves essential oils of Sclerocarya birrea from Benin.
Compound aKI KI (I) (II)
SD % ±
1 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-pentan-2-one&o 835 835 0.2 ± 0.06 tr
2 α-thujene*h 925 931 0.1 ± 0.05 0.07 ± 0.01
3 α-pinene*h 932 939 0.1 ± 0.05 0.07 ± 0.01
4 Sabinene*h 972 976 0.2 ± 0.08 tr
5 β-pinene*h 977 980 0.2 ± 0.1 tr
6 Myrcene*h 989 991 0.1 ± 0.02 0.08 ± 0
7 p-cymene*h 1024 1026 0.5 ± 0.13 0.48 ± 0.04
8 Limonene*h 1029 1031 0.1 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0
9 1,8-cineole*o 1033 1033 - tr
(E)-β-ocimene*h 1047 1050 0.2 ± 0.04 0.2 ± 0.01
γ-terpinene*h 1059 1062 tr tr
Linalol*o 1100 1096 0.4 ± 0.05 0.19 ± 0.03
(E)-4,8-dimethyl-1, 3,7-nonatriene*h 1113 1113 0.1 ± 0.03 0.11 ± 0.01
α-terpineol*o 1197 1196 tr 0.1 ± 0.01
Thymol*o 1294 1298 0 ± 0.01 tr
Cyclosativene**h 1375 1378 0.3 ± 0.03 0.3 ± 0.01
α-copaene**h 1381 1379 1.2 ± 0.04 0.74 ± 0.43
β-bourbonene**h 1390 1388 0.2 ± 0.01 tr
β-elemene**h 1394 1391 - 0.6 ± 0.1
β-caryophyllene**h 1424 1418 3.2 ± 0.02 1.8 ± 0.02
β-copaene**h 1433 1430 0.1 ± 0.04 0.3 ± 0
Selina-5,11-diene**h 1448 1444 0.1 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0.01
Aromadendrene**h 1450 1441 0.1 ± 0.05 0.1 ± 0
α-humulene**h 1457 1454 0.1 ± 0.01 0.8 ± 0.02
4,5-di-epi-aristochene**h 1470 1470 0.2 ± 0.05 0.2 ± 0.02
Selina-4,11-diene**h 1473 1475 0.4 ± 0.06 0.4 ± 0.02
Germacrene-D**h 1481 1480 tr 0.4 ± 0.04
β-selinene**h 1484 1485 4.3 ± 0.01 15.1 ± 0.2
α-selinene**h 1489 1494 0.4 ± 0.2 8.1 ± 0.03
Valencene**h 1492 1494 17 ± 0.06 12.9 ± 0.05
α-muurolene**h 1495 1496 25 ± 0.03 1.7 ± 0.09
7-epi-α-selinene**h 1522 1522 38 ± 0.03 51.7 ± 0.12
selina-3,7(11)-diene**h 1556 1557 0.3 ± 0.4 0.1 ± 0
(E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene**h 1567 1565 - 0.1 ± 0.03
Caryophyllene oxide**o 1580 1581 0.1 ± 0.04 0.1 ± 0.01
Humulene-1,2-epoxide**o 1607 1608 - 0.1 ± 0.01
epi-cubenol**o 1624 1627 0.1 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.03
γ-eudesmol**o 1632 1632 0.1 ± 0.1 tr
allo-aromadendrene epoxide **o 1636 1641 1.5 ± 0.03 0.1 ± 0.03
epi-α-muurolol**o 1640 1641 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0
α-muurolol**o 1643 1646 0.1 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.03
α-cadinol**o 1652 1654 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.03
Selin-11-en-4-α-ol**o 1655 1660 0.2 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.01
Intermedeol**o 1662 1667 0.2 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.02
14-hydroxy-α-humulene**o 1713 1714 1.5 ± 0.03 tr
Nootkatone**o 1797 1800 0.1 ± 0.01 tr
Phtalates&o 1851 1852 0.1 ± 0.02 0.1 ± 0.02
4644 J. Med. Plant. Res.
Table 1. Contd.
Hexadecanoïc acide&o 1950 1951 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0
Phytol***o 2096 2097 0.3 ± 0.01 0.3 ± 0
Total 97 ± 0.06 98.1 ± 0.03
KI = Kovats indices; a = calculated; bn=3; I = Sample of Sclerocarya birrea harvested in February 2009 ; II = Sample of Sclerocarya birrea
harvested in August 2009; tr = traces (inferior or equal to 0.05%); (-) = absence or not identified; * = monoterpenes ; ** = sesquiterpenes; *** =
diterpene; & = non terpenes; h = hydrocarbons ; o = oxygenetad.
Table 2. Seasonal variation of the composition of the essential oils of Sclerocarya birrea.
Chemical groups (I) II
Hydrocarbon compounds 92.5±1.6 96.53±1.27
Oxygenated compounds 5.3±0.72 1.99±0.23
hydrocarbon monoterpenes 1.6±0.51 1.09±0.08
oxygenated monoterpenes 0.4±0.06 0.29±0.04
Monoterpenes 2±0.57 1.38±0.12
hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes 90.9±1.09 95.44±1.19
oxygenetad sesquiterpenes 4.2±0.56 1.2±0.17
Sesquiterpenes 95.1±1.65 96.64±1.36
Diterpenes 0.3±0.01 0.3±0
Non terpenes 0.4±0.09 0.2±0.02
I = Sample of Sclerocarya birrea harvested in February 2009, II = Sample of Sclerocarya birrea harvested in August 2009; bn=3.
as Callicarpa americana (1.3%) (Tellez et al., 2000),
Anthemis altissima (0.2%) (Javidnia et al., 2004), Zea
mays L. (1.13%) (El-Ghorab et al., 2007), fruit of
Mangifera indica L. (0.2-0.5%) (Pino et al., 2005) and
Gomidesia tijucensis (1.5%) (Limberger et al., 2003). 7-
epi-α-selinene, α-selinene and β-selenene are isomers.
α-selinene (8.1%, II; Figure 1) was previously found in
high levels in the essential oil of G. tijucensis (27.1%)
(Limberger et al., 2003), Eugenia brasiliensis (13.3 to
14.8%) (Fischer et al., 2005), Eugenia uniflora (15.1%)
(Henriques et al., 1993), Psidium guajava (10.0%)
(Ramos et al., 2006) and β-selenene (15.1%, II; Figure 1)
in the essential oil of E. uniflora (25.9%) (Henriques et
al., 1993), G. tijucensis (22.9%) (Limberger et al., 2003),
E. brasiliensis (12.6 to 17.3%) (Fischer et al., 2005),
Eugenia platysema (17.9%) (Apel et al., 2002), Eugenia
schuechiana (10.5%) (Henriques et al., 1993) and
Psidium cattleyanum (10.1%) (Marin et al., 2008). These
essential oils showed antibacterial, antifungal,
antioxidant, antinociceptive, cytotoxic, antilarvae,
hypothermic and anthelmintic activities (Bhalke et al.,
2008; Santos et al., 1998; Marin et al., 2008; Ogunwande
et al., 2005; Adebajo et al., 1989; Lima et al., 1993;
Adebayo et al., 1999; Amorim et al., 2009; Magina et al.,
2009; Apel et al., 2006). α-muurolene (25%, I; Figure 1),
second major constituent of S. birrea essential oils, was
the first component of the essential oil of Eryngium
billardieri F. Delaroche (42.0%) (Sefidkon et al., 2004).
Valencene (17%, I, Figure 1) is an aroma component of
citrus fruit and citrus-derived odorants. It is cheaply
obtained from valencia oranges (Mai et al., 2005) and is
used as a flavor and fragrance ingredient.
The majority of the applications are found in flavors for
the beverage industry (especially in citrus flavors).
Although minor, valencene also can be found in
Fragrances applications (Elston et al., 2005). Some
biological activities of these major compounds could
explain a part of traditional uses of S. birrea. The lack of
literature for most essential oils makes comparison in
This is the first report of sesquiterpenes: 7-epi-α-selinene,
α-muurolene, valencene, β-selenene and α-selinene as
major components of the essential oil of S. birrea leaves
from Benin. Our work also showed that the season of
harvest influenced the extraction yields and the chemical
composition of the essential oil. The study of the
biological activities of S. birrea essential oils could help to
clarify a part of its traditional uses.
This work was supported by the CUD (Commission
Universitaire pour le Développement), CIUF (Coopération
Institutionnelle Universitaire Francophone).
Kpoviessi et al. 4645
α−muurolene (25%, I) α−selinene (8.1%, II)
7−epi −α−selinene (51.7%, II)
β−selinene (15.1%, II) valencene (17%, I)
Figure 1. Major essential oil constituents of Sclerocarya birrea samples harvested in (I) February
2009 and (II) August 2009.
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