Pivotal Response Treatment for Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

ArticleinJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 43(1) · May 2012with31 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s10803-012-1542-8 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Presently there is limited research to suggest efficacious interventions for infants at-risk for autism. Pivotal response treatment (PRT) has empirical support for use with preschool children with autism, but there are no reports in the literature utilizing this approach with infants. In the current study, a developmental adaptation of PRT was piloted via a brief parent training model with three infants at-risk for autism. Utilizing a multiple baseline design, the data suggest that the introduction of PRT resulted in increases in the infants' frequency of functional communication and parents' fidelity of implementation of PRT procedures. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility and utility of PRT for very young children at-risk for autism.
    • "Naturalistic behavioral approaches, such as Pivotal Response Training [3,4,14], emphasize strategies that parents can use to increase the child's motivation to engage in communication and social interaction in the natural environment, and developmental approaches include parental training in techniques to enhance social interactions and joint attention [5,8,9,15]. Results of a growing number of studies show that caregivers can be trained to effectively implement autism therapies, including Pivotal Response Treatment161718, the DIR/Floortime model [19,20], the TEACCH model [21], and the Early Start Denver Model [22]. In addition, surveys of parents' engaged in training largely show that parent satisfaction is high [20,23,24]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Son-Rise Program (SRP) is an intensive, child-centered approach for autism intervention, incorporating strategies to promote child-initiated social interactions. Parent training is an important element of SRP, which is intended to be implemented in home-based programs. In the present study, parents of autistic children, who participated in two five-day parent-training courses in SRP intervention (separated by several months), completed questionnaires and the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) prior to each course. Changes in ATEC scores were examined for parents who reported implementing (1) no SRP, (2) low intensity SRP or (3) high intensity SRP in their homes in the interval between courses. Parents who administered SRP intervention reported significant improvements in communication, sociability, and sensory and cognitive awareness in their children, with greater gains associated with high intensity as compared to low intensity interventions. These findings support the efficacy of parent-delivered SRP intervention for promoting social-communicative behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders.
    Article · Jan 2016 · BioMed Research International
    • "In fact, we know of none for children at risk of ADHD and could identify only a handful of intervention studies for children at risk of ASD. Three of these were small studies with less than 10 participants: one was a case series of seven siblings of children with ASD [138], while two used multiple-baseline designs of three participants [139, 140]. The best example of parent-mediated interventions for children at familial risk of ASD is captured in a recent study by Green and colleagues [141]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurodevelopmental disorders represent a broad class of childhood neurological conditions that have a significant bearing on the wellbeing of children, families, and communities. In this review, we draw on evidence from two common and widely studied neurodevelopmental disorders-autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-to demonstrate the utility of genetically informed sibling designs in uncovering the nature and pathogenesis of these conditions. Specifically, we examine how twin, recurrence risk, and infant prospective tracking studies have contributed to our understanding of genetic and environmental liabilities towards neurodevelopmental morbidity through their impact on neurocognitive processes and structural/functional neuroanatomy. It is suggested that the siblings of children with ASD and ADHD are at risk not only of clinically elevated problems in these areas, but also of subthreshold symptoms and/or subtle impairments in various neurocognitive skills and other domains of psychosocial health. Finally, we close with a discussion on the practical relevance of sibling designs and how these might be used in the service of early screening, prevention, and intervention efforts that aim to alleviate the negative downstream consequences associated with disorders of neurodevelopment.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
    • "In fact, we know of none for children at risk of ADHD and could identify only a handful of intervention studies for children at risk of ASD. Three of these were small studies with less than 10 participants: one was a case series of seven siblings of children with ASD [138], while two used multiple-baseline designs of three participants [139, 140]. The best example of parent-mediated interventions for children at familial risk of ASD is captured in a recent study by Green and colleagues [141]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurodevelopmental disorders represent a broad class of childhood neurological conditions that have a significant bearing on the wellbeing of children, families, and communities. In this review, we draw on evidence from two common and widely studied neurodevelopmental disorders—autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—to demonstrate the utility of genetically informed sibling designs in uncovering the nature and pathogenesis of these conditions. Specifically, we examine how twin, recurrence risk, and infant prospective tracking studies have contributed to our understanding of genetic and environmental liabilities towards neurodevelopmental morbidity through their impact on neurocognitive processes and structural/functional neuroanatomy. It is suggested that the siblings of children with ASD and ADHD are at risk not only of clinically elevated problems in these areas, but also of subthreshold symptoms and/or subtle impairments in various neurocognitive skills and other domains of psychosocial health. Finally, we close with a discussion on the practical relevance of sibling designs and how these might be used in the service of early screening, prevention, and intervention efforts that aim to alleviate the negative downstream consequences associated with disorders of neurodevelopment.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
Show more