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Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things

University of
Central Florida
In this issue:
Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things
by Donald A. Norman (New York: Basic Books, 2004, 287 pp., $26.00)
Building Strong Brands; Brand Leadership; and Brand Portfolio Strategy
Building Strong Brands
by David Aaker (New York: The Free Press, 1996, 380 pp. $28)
Brand Leadership
by David Aaker and Eric Joachimsthaler (New York: The Free Press, 2000, 350 pp. $30)
Brand Portfolio Strategy
by David Aaker (New York: The Free Press, 2004, 348 pp. $28)
A Chronological Overview of Antimarketing Books
Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things
by Donald A. Norman (New York: Basic Books, 2004, 287 pp., $26.00)
In his famous book The Design of Everyday Things (1998), Donald Norman argues for the
primacy of functionality over other considerations. Conversely, in his sequel Emotional Design:
Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things, Norman asserts that the emotional side of design may
be more critical to a product’s success than its practical elements. His fundamental thesis is that
attractive products work better. He contends that beautifully designed products make people feel
good, which in turn puts people in an open frame of mind to be creative and find solutions to the
problems they face. This viewpoint is gaining a lot of acceptance in the business world; for
example, Postrel (2004) similarly argues that the “look and feel” of people, places, and things are
more important than we think.
At a fundamental level, Norman contends that emotion and cognition work in tandem as
consumers relate to products. This idea fits in well with the state-of-the-art literature in cognitive
science that shows that emotions are inseparable from and a necessary part of cognition. Beyond
the functionality issues, accommodating aesthetic elements that appeal to the emotions is
extremely critical in the development of a “user-centric” design. Norman’s recommendation that a
good product design must accommodate both affective and cognitive approaches is well founded.
Norman suggests that there are three levels of design: The first is the “visceral” level, which
embodies the sensory aspects about how things look, feel, smell, and sound. Visceral design
elicits immediate and powerful responses that are involuntary and subconscious. Viscerally well-
designed products tend to evoke positive emotions in the consumers. Second is the “behavioral”
level, at which users form their perceptions of a particular product through use. Product
performance is paramount, and thus designers must ensure that the product is easy to use and
that the functionality of the product is easily decipherable. Norman suggests that good behavioral
design must be a fundamental part of the design process from the beginning. Third, the
“reflective” level is the level at which the product has meaning for consumers; it accounts for how
consumers maintain an innate sense of identity through the consumption of the product over time.
Marketing plays a large role in incorporating the reflective design elements in a product. The
interaction of these three levels of design leads to the culmination of the “emotional design,” a
new, holistic approach to designing successful products.
Although Norman does a good job of providing a unified theory of product design by incorporating
these three levels, the appeal of catering to consumers’ emotions is not really new to marketers.
Similarly, the notion of the reflective design, which states that objects in people’s lives are more
than mere material possessions, is also not new to the marketing literature. The idea that “we are
what we own” has been well articulated by several consumer behavior scholars. For example,
Belk’s (1988) classic article provides evidence of the diminished sense of self that people can
experience when prized possessions are lost or stolen. However, the larger point that Norman
makes is well taken in that reflective design becomes critical in a competitive marketplace in
which opportunities for differentiation on functionality are scarce.
After laying out his unified theory of design, Norman devotes the next few chapters to the practice
of design by providing a variety of examples, such as National Football League coaches
headsets, Diesel clothing stores, Swatch watches, and an Alessi tea strainer. These examples
add to the book by providing a concrete demonstration of his design principles. However, there is
one glaring omission in these chapters. Although Norman talks about the design aspects of
incremental innovations, calling them enhancers, he does not elaborate on the challenges of
designing radical innovations. Designers can observe the users of incremental innovations,
discover usage difficulties, and make appropriate changes to make them work better. However,
the design of radical innovations is a different challenge altogether, in which the design is based
totally on the vision of the product designers. In addition, the design of radical innovations may
have huge positioning implications. For example, the design of TiVo, a radical innovation, is
similar to that of a VCR or a DVD player. Could this design have influenced consumers to think of
TiVo as an enhanced VCR or DVD player? Could a radically new design farther from the VCRs
and DVD players have helped TiVo’s positioning as a truly radical innovation? Some discussion
on these aspects would have been invaluable to designers of radical innovations.
These chapters lead to the book’s final section, in which Norman discusses the role of emotional
machines and the future of robots. Norman believes that emotions will be an integral part of
machine designs in the future so that people may better communicate with these machines. I was
particularly fascinated by some of his thoughts in this section. People tend to attribute human
qualities to robots that appear human. However, Norman suggests that making a robot humanlike
may backfire because people are least accepting of creatures that look human (p. 176). This led
me to an intriguing thought--did Sony introduce its AIBO robots, which are shaped like dogs,
because these animals appeal to us at a visceral level and also because we are forgiving of
robots that are designed to look like pets? If this rationale is indeed correct, the potential of
emotional design to create entirely new marketspaces is extraordinary, and therein lies the
greater value of Norman’s theory of product design.
In summary, the central premise that a great product can be developed by integrating all three
aspects of design is innovative. The book educates designers and suggests that product design
is much more than visceral design, as is commonly practiced. The book is well written, has an
appropriate mix of academic rigor and practical relevance, and provides much food for thought.
-Raj Echambadi, University of Central Florida, Orlando
Belk, Russell W. (1988), “Possessions and the Extended Self,” Journal of Consumer Research,
15, 139-68.
Norman, Donald A. (1988), The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Basics Books.
Postrel, Virginia (2004), The Substance of Style: How the Rise of Aesthetic Value Is Remaking
Commerce, Culture, & Consciousness. New York: HarperCollins.
Building Strong Brands
by David Aaker (New York: The Free Press, 1996, 380 pp. $28)
Brand Leadership
by David Aaker and Eric Joachimsthaler (New York: The Free Press, 2000, 350 pp. $30)
Brand Portfolio Strategy
by David Aaker (New York: The Free Press, 2004, 348 pp. $28)
Whenever an author writes a series of management books in quick succession, it is important to
ask the following question: Does each book make a substantial contribution on its own? As I
began reviewing the three books Building Strong Brands, Brand Leadership, and Brand Portfolio
Strategy by noted marketing professor and branding guru David Aaker (he coauthored Brand
Leadership with Eric Joachimsthaler), I used this simple yardstick to evaluate the marginal
contribution of each book.
An integrative review calls for a comparison of three books to a common set of criteria. In Brand
Leadership, Aaker and Joachimsthaler provide a similar set of criteria to compare traditional
brand management and brand leadership. Bandyopadhyay and Serjak (2006) also use a similar
scheme to compare and contrast traditional and online brand management. There is a significant
overlap between the criteria I use herein and those used in the previously mentioned studies
(e.g., focus, perspective, management structure, control of communication). Table 1 lists the
criteria and my evaluation of each book against these criteria.
In general, the focus of Building Strong Brands is on a single brand. Although Aaker talks about
how to create and manage subbrands within an overall system approach, he concentrates mostly
on a single brand. Aaker presents a thorough, lucid description of how to create strong brand
identities, develop brand equity measures, and organize brand-building programs. He uses
examples of brand building in successful companies, such as General Electric, Saturn, Kodak,
and McDonald’s, to illustrate how strong brands are created and managed.
In Brand Leadership, Aaker and Joachimsthaler make a valid argument that classic brand
management is being replaced by what they call the brand leadership model, in which the
manager emphasizes both strategy and tactics, and has a broader scope. The focus is not only
on short-term sales and profits but also on brand equity measures. Thus, the focus is more on the
management of multiple brands than on a single brand.
The focus of Brand Portfolio Strategy is also on multiple brands, but within the framework of a
brand portfolio. This brand portfolio model emphasizes the relationship between brands and
seeks opportunities to leverage the strength of one brand to project another. The basic premise of
this model is that brands are not mutually exclusive but are part of a well-designed portfolio of
In Building Strong Brands, Aaker discusses practical management issues and introduces a set of
brand equity measures to help managers evaluate and track brand equity across products and
markets. Thus, the book is quite practical from a tactical point of view. For example, it provides a
tool for a brand manager to develop his or her own brand equity measures and a unique identity
for the brand. In other words, the book provides many take-aways for the practicing brand
Perhaps the most innovative aspect of this book involves Aaker’s suggestion to go beyond the
brand-as-attributes concept to embrace brand-as-organization, brand-as-person, and brand-as-
symbol perspectives as well. The brand-as-organization perspective focuses on the associations
of the company’s people, culture, programs, and values. Such organizational associations are
more endearing and more resistant to imitation by other companies than product attributes. The
brand-as-person perspective focuses on the brand personality, which can make a brand more
interesting and personalized. Aaker believes (p. 142) that “a brand without a personality, not
unlike a person, lacks friends and may be easily overlooked.” The brand-as-symbol perspective
focuses on a strong symbol that can provide cohesion and structure to the brand identity, thus
increasing brand recognition and brand recall.
In Brand Leadership, the brand manager takes the leadership position in planning and
implementing the business strategy. According to Aaker and Joachimsthaler (p. 7), “the brand
strategy should be influenced by the business strategy and should reflect the same strategic
vision and corporate culture.” In other words, managers must ensure that their strategies are in
sync with the company mission. Similar to Brand Leadership, the perspective of Brand Portfolio
Strategy is also strategic in nature.
Country Scope
Because brand management is the principal focus of Building Strong Brands, the brand manager
typically is responsible for the entire management of the brand in one country. Managing a brand
across countries requires a new set of skills, such as cross-cultural awareness and knowledge
about the channel structure, legal structure, and the demographics of each country. Thus, a
brand manager with a tactical flair in only one country may not be suitable for the task.
The brand leadership model, as espoused in Brand Leadership, takes a global perspective. A
global perspective involves not only global branding issues but also manufacturing, outsourcing,
and research and development. A “brand architecture” is particularly suitable for this perspective.
Brand architecture is a framework that identifies all the brands that are to be supported; their
respective roles; and, more importantly, their relationship with one another.
The brand portfolio strategy also has a global component. The portfolio concept is particularly
suitable for brand alliances (e.g., Star Alliance of air carriers), which are quite common in global
business. A key component of the brand portfolio strategy is defining the brand scope. For what
categories can the brand play a role? Is a new brand required to support a new product-market,
such as an international market? If it is found that a brand alliance is more suitable than a brand
extension for the global market, the brand portfolio strategy is compatible with such as a scenario.
However, Aaker and Joachimsthaler have not explicitly recommended a global brand alliance
strategy in their brand leadership model.
Management Structure
Because of the tactical orientation of the model developed in Building Strong Brands, this book is
more suitable for a mid-level brand manager. Although the concepts of brand equity and brand
identity are universal and relevant to managers at the mid- and upper levels, the book offers
guidelines and tools that are of practical significance to a mid-level brand manager.
The brand leadership model focuses more on the strategic aspect of brand management. Thus,
the manager must come from the upper echelons of corporate hierarchy because the task
requires coordination between a multitude of people and organizations. The manager who is
responsible for this position is often the “top honcho” in the marketing division.
The implementation of the brand portfolio strategy also requires a manager at the top-most
position of the marketing organization structure. The person should be responsible for designing
the brand portfolio, setting roles for the portfolio and the individual brands, defining the scope of
the brand (i.e., the relevance of each brand to a given product category), and formalizing the
portfolio. Thus, the manager should be near the top in the marketing division hierarchy. This
position is akin to the category manager position that is prevalent in many multiproduct multibrand
companies (for more details on category management, see, e.g., Bandyopadhyay and Divakar
1999; Zenor 1994). For example, a category manager oversees all shampoo brands (e.g., Pert
Plus, Pantene, Head & Shoulders, Vidal Sassoon) for Procter & Gamble. The category manger
ensures that each brand has a unique positioning and that all brands follow a coordinated
promotion strategy, thus minimizing promotional inefficiency and the possibility of brand
Control of Communication
The model in Building Strong Brands is designed in such as a way that the brand manager makes
most of the brand communication decisions. In addition, the communication is mostly geared
toward the consumer because customer relationship building is a key ingredient in this model.
The brand leadership model and the brand portfolio strategy are designed for both external and
internal communication. Although it is important to inform and persuade the consumer about
product benefits, it is perhaps equally important to communicate internally to the key people in the
organization to ensure complete convergence in strategic outlook. In the brand leadership model,
the control of communication essentially rests with the brand leader. According to Aaker and
Joachimsthaler (p. 12), a brand manager in the brand leadership model needs to be “a strategist
and communication team leader directing the use of a wide assortment of vehicles, including
sponsorships, the Web, direct marketing, publicity, and promotions.”
The brand manager in the brand portfolio strategy has similar responsibilities as the manager in
the brand leadership model, but the perspective is somewhat different. The portfolio approach
requires that the portfolio graphics (i.e., logo and visual representation) are well coordinated. The
selection of the logo and its dimension, color, and layout can be used to make a statement about
the brand and its relationship to other related brands. Aaker illustrates how Mariott uses portfolio
graphics to signal the relative driver role of a group of brands. For example, Mariott’s
endorsement of the Courtyard Inn is visually larger and stronger than its endorsement of the more
downscale Fairfield Inn.
Opportunity of Brand Leveraging
Leveraging a brand involves building a strong brand platform in the core market and then
extending the brand into other markets. It may involve brand extensions to a new product-market
or a vertical line extension that moves the brand upscale or downscale in the same market. In
Building Strong Brands, Aaker talks about a system approach in brand management, but the
focus is always on a single brand. This restricts the opportunity of brand leveraging even on a
dominant brand such as Coke or McDonald’s. Although scope for brand extension and line
extension is always there, it is limited. There is also the risk of hurting the dominant brand if the
extension goes awry.
The brand portfolio strategy provides the best opportunity for brand leveraging. Aaker suggests
(p. 12) that it provides “a structure and process to create brand extension opportunities, assess
their risks and adjust the portfolio accordingly.” A portfolio strategy helps identify and evaluate
risks of a possible extension both vertically and horizontally.
In addition, the brand portfolio management must consider not only the current scope of the
brand but also the future opportunities. Brands should be leveraged as part of a long-term plan
that outlines the ultimate product scope, the sequence that will take it to the destination, and the
associations that are necessary to be successful. This focus on the future distinguishes the brand
architecture concept proposed in the brand leadership model and the brand portfolio strategy.
Overall, I believe that Building Strong Brands is suitable for the mid- to upper-level brand
manager. It provides the manager with a tactical perspective on how to manage a brand. Aaker
explains the concept of brand equity clearly and outlines measures of brand equity. In addition,
Aaker urges the brand manager to expand his or her perception of the brand. The ideas of brand
as organization, brand as person, and brand as symbol are espoused in addition to the traditional
brand-as-product perspective.
There is little difference between Brand Leadership and Brand Portfolio Strategy. Indeed, Aaker
acknowledges the same in the preface of Brand Portfolio Strategy. In his words (p. xv), “brand
architecture [the term used in Brand Leadership] was an opaque concept for some, though, and
for others suggested the more limited problem of naming brands and developing logos. Thus, in
this book a new label, brand portfolio strategy, is used. It is more holistic, strategic, and
compatible with the book’s thrust—how to optimize and leverage a brand portfolio to enhance and
enable business strategy.”
However, I believe that the brand portfolio strategy is an improvement over the brand architecture
model because of its emphasis on the scope of the brand, especially the future scope of the
brand. This makes the brand portfolio strategy somewhat stronger than the brand architecture
model. If the potential reader has budget and/or time constraints, I suggest reading Brand
Portfolio Strategy instead of Brand Leadership. There is hardly any concept in Brand Leadership
that is not covered in Brand Portfolio Strategy. I suggest that brand managers also read Building
Strong Brands because it provides the tools to measure brand equity and offers ideas to treat the
brand as more than a “bundle of benefits.”
-Subir Bandyopadhyay, Indiana University Northwest
Bandyopadhay, Subir and Suresh Divakar (1999), “Incorporating Balance of Power in Channel
Decision Structure: Theory and Empirical Applications,Journal of Retailing and Consumer
Services, 6, 79–89.
——— and Rosemary Serjak (2006), “Key Success Requirements for Online Brand
Management” in Contemporary Research in E-Marketing, Vol. 2, Sandeep Krishnamurthy, ed.
Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing, 147–67.
Zenor, Michael (1994),”The Profit Benefits of Category Management,” Journal of Marketing
Research, 31 (May), 202–213.
Consumption, Happiness, and Marketing: A Review of Antimarketing Books
A clutch of books published over the past three decades appears to present an antimarketing
argument. Several prominent economists and psychologists have examined the predominant
way of life in consumer societies and have some surprising, some worrying, and some inspiring
things to say about the acquisition of goods and the use of services in the developed parts of
the world. This is a review of some of the more significant of these books. The question is, Why
should marketing academics engage with these analyses? All the books under consideration
highlight a misguided pursuit of fulfilment through material acquisition and the transformation of
the civil citizen into a self-centered consumer.
Why are such critiques problematic for the marketing discipline? The authors suggest that in
supposedly neutrally serving materialism and consumerism, managerial micromarketing is not
helping people be happier, even though this is primarily what is promised. The main idea
running throughout these works is that despite a gargantuan industry that teaches and trains
marketing managers, people are joyless, discontent, unhappy customers whose quality of life is
declining, whose social welfare is eroding, and whose physical habitat is being depleted and
destroyed. The best efforts of marketing technology notwithstanding, people have hit the social
limits of the ideology of consumption. How can marketers respond to such withering blows?
What can and should marketers do in recognition of the cultural, social, ecological, and
economic consequences of large-scale marketing systems?
I review the books in chronological order based on publication date, though I did not read them
in this sequence. All but one were written in the North American context, primarily by
economists. Two were written by psychologists, and the other two were written by laymen
consumers (or is that citizens?). In essence, the metatheme is consumption. The question
raised is, What good are the goods people acquire and use? Are marketers to blame for any
waste that ensues?
Dissatisfied Consumers
In scrutinizing the “joyless economy,” psychologist Tibor Scitovsky (1976, 1992) challenges
much of the standard explanation of buying motivation and satisfaction and the associated
decision process as examined in the consumer behavior literature. He points out that the
economist’s theory of rational consumer behavior completely overlooks pleasure. The economic
view is that higher spending produces more satisfaction, but there is evidence to the contrary.
Most survey data suggest that though economic welfare has undoubtedly risen, people are not
happier as a result. The question then is, How essential is this escalating consumption to
happiness? For Scitovsky, the answer lies in understanding and explaining comfort rather than
satisfaction. For example, North Americans acquire and pay for more comfort than is necessary
for “a good life.” Scitovsky explains that the desire for satisfaction is not the only motivation of
consumption behavior. People are driven by the desire to relieve discomfort and for stimulation
to relieve boredom. The main scope for choosing between pleasure and comfort in an affluent
society is stimulation. Ironically, the pleasures of want satisfaction are crowded out by affluence
(i.e., comfort). Scitovsky wonders when status seeking and conspicuous consumption benefit
society. He also importantly emphasizes that the North American lifestyle (on which many model
their expectations for their own lives) is very expensive in terms of energy and exhaustible
Goods and services are socially determined as necessities and luxuries. Necessities serve
biological functions for the satiable avoidance of pain. The consumption motive is comfort, and
the result is the satisfaction of a need. Luxuries are everything else. The motive is the
stimulation that satisfies wants, but pleasure seeking is insatiable. Thus, according to Scitovsky,
much of people’s consumption is in pursuit of status, that is, to gain and assert membership of a
Comfort is achieved when the level of arousal is at or near optimum. Pleasure accompanies
changes in this level, and therefore satisfaction of a need provides pleasure and comfort. Thus,
complete and continuous comfort is incompatible with pleasure. A choice must be made: A
person can have pleasure with some sacrifice of comfort or comfort with the giving up of some
pleasure. When comfort (i.e., the absence of pain and pleasure) is gained, pleasure is lost, and
there is usually the regretful awareness of the loss. What motivates the choice is either comfort
or pleasure. Increased affluence leads to the increased preference for comfort, but the price is
the loss of pleasure.
Satisfaction of a want eliminates a discomfort, the initial presence of which is a necessary
condition of pleasure. In contrast, stimulation eliminates the discomfort of boredom, but the
condition of deriving pleasure is the discomfort of the temporary strain it creates. The pleasures
of stimulation are more likely to win over comfort than are satisfaction of wants because there is
greater scope for free and rational choice. Too much of a good thing can be a bad thing. In the
“golden mean” lies the most pleasant experience, that is, between the extremes of too little and
too much. Too much comfort may preclude pleasure.
Scitovsky notes that people take for granted the good things of life and become addicted to
them. At one time, a proud self-image was that of the sovereign consumer basking in a free-
enterprise economy with freedom of choice to pursue his or her own personal tastes
independently, thus determining what is produced and what is not. Consumers in Scitovsky’s
context (i.e., the United States of the 1970s) view themselves as helpless, oppressed, harassed,
and cheated in an age of conformity to mass production. Society is an unhealthy plutocracy in
which those who have more money have more influence and those who have less money must
conform to what others want; this is the rule of modern capitalism. Tastes are well catered to if a
person is willing to conform. Could it be that people desire satisfaction in the wrong things and in
the wrong way and are then dissatisfied with the outcome? Is it those who offer the advantages
who are to blame for the drawbacks? Still, people want to retain the benefits, so they seek a
remedy in greater control over producers and their relationship with consumers; in others words,
it is marketers who are at fault, not the consumers.
By contrasting the analyses of economists with those of psychologists, Scitovsky shows the
conflict between what people choose to acquire and what will best satisfy them. It is assumed
that rational consumers know what they are doing, do what is best for them, and do the best
they can, and the job of the economy is to deliver what consumers want. However, Scitovsky
argues that this conceptualization overlooks that tastes are highly variable, easily influenced,
and modified by price changes and availability of alternatives. It also overlooks that what
modifies tastes may also modify the ability to derive satisfaction from things. Furthermore, both
consumers and producers benefit from the other conforming to their wishes, but producers have
far more power and influence than consumers. Harmony in the marketplace is derived through
the informing actions of competitors and buyers and sellers. However, most of the conforming is
done by those whose behavior is most flexible. Is adaptation of consumers’ tastes to the rigid
requirements of the productive system a cause for celebration?
Scitovsky’s discussion makes the reader pause and think about the economy’s contribution to
human welfare and consider both economic and noneconomic sources of satisfactions. He
points out that most life satisfactions come from outside of the market economy: from nonmarket
goods and services, self-sufficiency, mutual stimulation, externalities, and work. Yet people are
engulfed daily in a sea of promotional messages that tell them to find satisfactions in purchases.
As a result, they miss the realization that the contribution of the economic product (i.e., that
which passes through the formal contractual market process) to human welfare “turns out to be
small indeed” (Scitovsky 1992, p. 103).
What is perhaps more important is the economy’s ability to produce an economic product with a
maximum of beneficial effects and a minimum of harmful side effects. In the market, two parties
exchange because they prefer what they receive versus what they give. However, many
exchanges occur outside of a market, and many unreciprocated acts are satisfying to both giver
and receiver. Furthermore, some market exchanges create both satisfactions and the needs
they satisfy, and thus they have little or no use. Most stimuli bring external benefits that are
sensed by the consumer and others, so enjoyment is often enhanced by sharing. Most comforts
have no external benefits, and they generate external nuisances (e.g., noise annoyance,
chemical pollution).
Scitovsky also proposes four explanations for people’s tendency to self-rate happiness in
relation to their material standard of living (money income): satisfaction of status, satisfaction of
work, enjoyment of novelty, and addiction. Scitovsky argues that together these explain why
happiness depends on ranking in society rather than on absolute income. This is a recurring
theme in these books.
The Discontent of Economic Growth
Paul Wachtel uncovers the psychological consequences of a growth-oriented way of life
(Wachtel 1989). In this account, there is a sense of deprivation and decline that drives the
pursuit of greater economic growth, and this leads to serious harm to the life-sustaining
environment. The problem lies not in production, for people can make anything they need and
want, but rather in the distribution of goods and services.
A growth-based economy ultimately generates discontent. The prevailing approach to “living the
good life” is a quest for abundance, which is ironically self-defeating in that it destroys the
environment (i.e., the resources) on which it depends. Wachtel diagnoses basic misleading
assumptions about the individualistic consumerist way of life in North America. People have lost
track of what they really need: psychological well-being in terms of social ties, openness to
experience, and personal growth. In economic terms, well-being is calculated on quantity of
production and the accumulation of outputs.
What are the underlying sources of discontent? For Wachtel, it is citizens as consumers and not
only the corporate advertisers that continually generate discontent in a society that
overemphasizes growth and the economy, a cult of individualism, and an endless quest for
“more.” These are self-defeating choices of the consumer society. There are unrecognized
realities of consumer life. Third parties to market exchanges are usually powerless to affect
them. The contribution of material goods to life satisfaction has diminishing returns, and well-
being is wrongly defined in economic terms. People do not need to be more competitive, they
need to be clearer about what they have and what they need.
The Problem of Too Much and Too Little
What are the consequences of a consumption-oriented society in which people have too much
or too little (Durning 1992)? Today, the terms “consumer” and “person” are used as virtually
synonymous terms. Society has shifted in the past century from community as the organizing
principle of people’s lives to private consumption. Human wants are insatiable, so a consumer
society can never keep the promise of fulfilment through material possessions. People gorge on
material things while hungering socially, psychologically, and spiritually for family and social
relationships and meaningful work and leisure. For many people, consuming is now the primary
means of self-definition and leisure pastime activity. In an era when progress is still sought
through higher consumption, and the consuming elite are responsible for most of the
exhaustion, poisoning, and disfigurement of precious life-sustaining land, water, and air, are
people really dying to shop and, in so doing, dying of consumption?
How is it in people’s self-interest to waste, pollute, and destroy their habitat? Is concern with the
well-being of those beyond “significant others” too much to hope for? For Durning, the answer
lies in the idea that groups make choices that no member alone would make. People will take
the easier path unless they collectively take the more difficult one.
Writing at the beginning of the 1990s, Durning expresses the conundrum of consumption as
follows: There is little agreement on the seriousness of the problem and no apparent solution. It
remains morally indefensible to deny developing nations the benefits of increasing consumption
and politically impossible to reduce consumption in developed countries. Yet consumption
carries a heavy burden of cost on the environment and returns dubious rewards. The myth that
the alternative to consuming is decline is perpetuated as needs are cultivated by mass-media
Durning offers a culture of permanence and sufficiency as the necessary alternative to
economic collapse through unsustainable debt and as a way to tame consumerism. Logically,
consumption cannot produce fulfillment if human desires are infinitely expandable. Durning
believes that consumerism is likely to be a short-lived value system, and he expects to observe
lower consumption emerge as an ethical norm. Although progress remains highly desirable, it
will not be viewed in terms of more consumption. Consumption will be defined in terms of
experience rather than acquisition of objects. Luxury things will once again be considered more
of a privilege than a right. For Durning, the postconsumerism era will witness the ascent of the
golden rule: Do unto others as you would wish them to do unto you.
The New Consumerism
By the mid-1990s, the “economic progress” of consumerism was worrying some people. They
felt driven to acquire and spend money on “wish lists” that did not make them happy. Yet the
orgy of overspending and living beyond one’s means is not the consequence of a lack of self-
discipline or of advertisers. Harvard economist Juliet Schor (1998) examines the “new
consumerism” to try to understand and explain “why we want what we don’t need,” and she
finds that spending has become the ultimate social art. Most people seek comfort and
consolation in the pleasures and products of shopping as captives in a culture of consumption,
yet there is a growing gap between aspiration and resources. In a lifestyle wished for and
sought after—for psychological release and stress reduction—shopping has become a form of
recreation. Yet people never seem to have enough. Most is conspicuous consumption or
competitive acquisition for visibility, position, and emulative behavior (i.e., what people want
translates into what people “need”). Lifestyles are escalating through ostentatious, upscale
spending. Many consumption goals are unattainable and unaffordable, so the outcome is
inevitably dissatisfaction. While people feel powerful in spending and acquiring more, they feel
materially dissatisfied and compelled to spend whatever it takes to keep up with a chosen
reference group, motivated by a “fear of falling.” People work so that they can spend because
they believe that more “stuff” will bring more happiness. The rule for success is simple: Work
more to earn more to buy more. This upscaling of desire never urges people to want less.
Consumption continues to increase, and there are numerous imperatives to spend in consumer
society; the economy is driven by growth, so the market imperative is bigger, better, and more.
People have an ever-expanding list of things they must have, yet the Genuine Progress
Indicator and the Index of Social Health are both showing decline. People seek the status of
individuality and distinction through products, but at what cost? In being an effective and
efficient consumer, people also become socially dysfunctional.
Schor observes that consumption is correlated with the level of educational achievement, so
universities may be breeding this urge. Case studies of success inevitably have material wealth
on show. There are even class-based consumption norms to be readily observed.
To counter the moral conflicts of excessive spending, Schor suggests “safe spending,” in which
postmaterialist citizens attempt to share rather than to own. Market exchange (selling and
buying) emphasizes individual gain through ownership, whereas sharing emphasizes efficient
use through social interaction. For marketers, the question remains, Does selling lead to buying,
or is selling a natural requirement of the drive to acquire? Furthermore, how does buying things
produce life satisfaction?
Unhappy Affluence
How do buying and consuming contribute to well-being and ill-being? The political scientist
Robert Lane (2000) examines subjective well-being in ten Western European countries and
claims that the data show increasing slavery to the “hedonic treadmill” and an epidemic of
depression, resulting in a decline in reports of feeling happy (Lane 2000). Lane argues that
subjective well-being depends on money income but that money income alone does not buy
happiness, and diminishing returns set in when people move above the poverty line into
affluence. Then, the good that is most conducive to subjective well-being is not money, job
satisfaction, or even a sense of empowerment; it is the enjoyment of warm social relationships.
Markets tend to reduce the supply of this unpriced good, thus raising its marginal utility. Lane
believes (p. 45) that “people not money (or knowledge) make us happy and sad” and largely
blames a deterioration in companionship. He argues that markets are a source of unhappiness
because of the materialistic motives on which they rely, the job insecurity they cause, and the
way they deprive people of family time. According to Lane, consumer culture is a lonely one,
even though people exercise their personal freedom in meeting their personal preferences.
Markets are supposed to satisfy human desires. Money income is a central premise of the
market, and indeed, people try to value almost everything in money terms. Lane proposes that
the market (as a production system) should be judged on the basis of its capacity to produce
happiness and personal development (i.e., a person’s sense of self-esteem and of being in
control of his or her own life) through work as a source of lifetime satisfaction.
The trinity of ultimate “goods” in life are subjective well-being, human development (including
virtue), and justice; these outcomes provide happiness in terms of life satisfaction. How capable
is the chosen marketing system of delivering these? The evidence from the United States is that
happiness is declining and that depression is increasing as people pursue materialism in market
democracies. Lane examines whether well-being is a market externality and whether democracy
is inherently a source of unhappiness. Are people the best judges of their own well-being?
Lane identifies the apparent trade-off between money and companionship and argues for a
companionate democracy to supersede the market democracy. Lane identifies the “economistic
fallacy,” that beyond the poverty level of subsistence, higher incomes increase subjective well-
being. He argues that people are also experiencing the effects of the “titanic conflict” between
the oldest and the newest human institutions: the collective family group and the individual
personal market. The market undermines the collectivist people-oriented life by focusing
attention on objects of desire. The market has the capacity to maximise individualized
preference satisfaction or well-being by permitting the personal pursuit of happiness, but the
materialistic tendency causes unhappiness by emphasizing the importance of possessions and
acquisition to self-interested satisfaction and over well-being.
There seems to be a paradox in that materialists motivated by market rationality pursue wealth,
but this has little effect on their well-being. Indeed, people with materialist tendencies also tend
toward low life satisfaction; it seems that the “economic man” is destined to lose. At the same
time, satisfaction with life influences satisfaction that is derived from consumption. Furthermore,
increasing consumption requires more attention to earning and, thus, longer working hours.
Capitalism and liberal democracy are justified on the grounds of greatest happiness for the
greatest number of people, yet they leave so many dissatisfactions.
Hppiness is not
synonymous with the satisfaction of preferences.
Marketing, or at least promotional advertising, is professionalized arousal of dissatisfaction and
associated appeals to consume now. As consumers, people are encouraged to put themselves
before others. Markets create isolation. As society moves from collective activity to increased
individual consumption, social interaction declines. The popular idea of economic growth implies
and encourages rising expectations. Yet there is also “popular ignorance of the sources of
people’s own ill-being” (Lane 2000, p. 321) with “self-inspired unhappiness” (p. 301) For Lane,
the answer lies in companionship: friendships and good family life outside of the market.
Incentives to Consume
Robert Frank, Cornell professor of economics, ethics, and public policy, urges people to
understand their spending patterns and their sources (Frank 2000). He provides considerable
evidence that over the recent two decades, there has been a spectacular and uninterrupted rise
in luxury consumption. Ordinary, functional goods are no longer acceptable. For example, cars
are larger, heavier, and far more expensive. Almost everything offered today is bigger, has more
features, is of (arguably) higher quality, and is more expensive than the previous offer. As the
super rich set the pace, everyone else spends furiously in a competitive echo of wastefulness.
The costs are enormous: People spend more time at work, leaving less time for family and
friends and less time for exercise. Most people have been forced to save less and spend and
borrow much more. Productivity and income growth are declining. What is the cost of this
“luxury”? Are these changing spending patterns an improvement? Frank provides evidence that
spending choices are not making people as happy and as healthy as they could. In addition, in
the luxury consumption boom, people wanting more of what they want is a wasteful, excessive
“luxury fever.” The resources that could be used elsewhere (e.g., in the public sphere) are
commandeered. Personal savings are declining as debt increases. People spend more time
working and less time with companions. Air and water quality, food safety, education, transport,
and health care are under pressure. Somehow, people have sacrificed well-being for
consumption, even though they believe that the latter is the self-evident means to the desirable
Frank takes the “keeping up with the Joneses” idea very seriously, referring to it as a veritable
“arms race” in which people value the gains from their conspicuous consumption only in relative
terms. There has been huge growth in the income of the highest earners, and others try to
emulate their spending choices, even though the real-value earnings of the lowest earners are
declining. Frank warns that there are obvious long-term costs associated with the accelerating
spiral of buying excess in the status-directed demand for goods and services as symbols of
social identity and style. When the threshold of affluence is reached, the average level of human
well-being is almost completely independent of material consumption. Is there any useful
purpose in accumulating further wealth (as measured by an absolute living standard) in rich
countries? Frank asserts that there is not. Further wealth created by enterprise could be spent in
certain other ways to improve quality of life.
According to Frank’s analysis, people in overdeveloped economies have already fallen into the
social trap of being drawn by consumption incentives. Neither foolishness nor greed fuel
wasteful luxury spending, but rather what people observe their neighbors buying. This
competitive acquisition to achieve relative position in society does not make people as happy or
as healthy as they could be. Relative consumption is unchanged, while absolute consumption
escalates out of control. There are negative externalities to such habitual behavior; the tragedy
of the commons is borne out in daily lives. What is good for one is bad for all. This compulsive
and excessive consumption is driven by immoderate wants, by the belief that there can never be
legitimate limits and wants.
In society, there are a multitude of competing conceptions of the good life. Happiness is only
one goal. According to Frank, the problem is not one of overspending but rather of spending on
the wrong things. Why might absolute living standards matter? People might be able to spend
their money in other ways that would make them happier. Much of Frank’s analysis is to show
that and explain why people do not make these choices. Applied measures of subjective well-
being may miss other things that matter, such as health, longevity, and so on, even if not
happiness. Frank shows that alternative ways of using expendable natural resources can
produce the sustained increment in human welfare that people seem to desire and that careful
judgment is necessary because spending in some categories matters more than it does in
others. Some categories of consumption are inherently “dirty,” whereas others are “clean.”
Rationally, people would choose fewer things and closer social ties. This promotes health and
subjective well-being. However, at least in the United States, the opposite is the case. Does
money buy happiness? It depends on what people spend it on. Less conscious consumption
can result in healthier, longer, more satisfying lives. So why have people not changed their
spending patterns to bring this about? Some forms of inconspicuous consumption have actually
declined. Why do people buy things that do not best serve their interests? Is this about powerful
corporate manipulation? Is there some other plausible explanation?
The motivating satisfaction is derived from the relative standard of living, not from the absolute
standard. Frank draws on evolutionary psychology to examine the natural history of rivalry for
important resources. People instinctively believe that getting more moves them ahead, so
satisfaction depends on interpersonal comparisons of relative consumption. Humans are
evidently traders. The competition motive that Adam Smith saw in the “invisible hand” of the
market and that Charles Darwin saw in the “survival of the fittest” drives the desire to
accumulate, even though this has little positive impact on life satisfaction. In a stagnant
economy, someone loses when someone gains, whereas in a growth economy, all can win by
having more: Growth equals progress. A remedy might be to rearrange incentives to make
concerns for relative position far less costly in terms of wasteful spending patterns. Yet the
evolutionary purpose of motivation is not to make people happy but rather to ensure success in
Furthermore, there is widespread conflict between individual and group interest. There is an
incentive gap. According to Frank, this is the most important explanation for the imbalance in
current consumption patterns. In natural selection, individual interests often prevail, even when
what is efficient for one is wasteful for all. The individual motivation for self-gain produces
collective costs. The individual pursuit of self-interest does not produce the greatest collective
good when each person’s well-being depends on others’ actions. The spending decisions of
some people affect the frames of reference with which others make important choices, and
many goods become attractive to a person when others also have them. The consumption
imbalance that results is that too much time is spent earning money to buy material goods, and
too little time is spent with relatives and friends. This consumption imbalance results from
consumption activities that are more attractive to individuals than to society. The imbalance is
the result of faulty choices of individuals, and the solution to this problem lies in unilateral action.
These decision errors bias choices toward conspicuous consumption. Most conspicuous
consumption products and activities are commercially offered and are heavily and persuasively
promoted with biased, incomplete information. Inconspicuous consumption is not visible for
comparison, because, in general, such items are not offered for sale in the marketplace, so their
benefits are not promoted.
Adaptation is a further contributor to the problem. People adapt to their experiences, so
conspicuous consumption items are typically initially attractive, but they diminish in
attractiveness rapidly over time. There is an initial thrill of novelty, but the capacity to stimulate
decays. Inconspicuous consumption items exhibit the reverse characteristic. Therefore, people
tend to spend too much on the first and too little on the latter, even though in the long run, the
latter would contribute more to subjective well-being. Self-control is also a widespread source of
problems—or rather, a lack of it. Yet Frank shows that postponement of consumption can
produce more favorable consumption opportunities.
With so many incentives for excessive conspicuous consumption, Frank is concerned that
people might adopt a progressive consumption tax to alter the consumption mix. This would tax
spending, rather than income, with savings exempted. He recommends that people redeploy the
money they do not waste in escalating luxury spending into public service jobs to improve
quality of life. He also recognizes that all opportunities are greater in a wealthy society than in a
poor society, and he argues that progress in all spheres of life, including the environment,
requires stimulation of the economy, provided people spend their money wisely.
Trading Money and the Pursuit of Wealth for Precious Time
Following the hugely influential public service television documentary, De Graaf, Wann, and
Naylor (2002), discuss a widespread dysfunctional relationship that the people in the United
States have with money and the pursuit of wealth. Although the evidence is found in the United
States, it can be found widely elsewhere in any “developed” society that overemphasizes
economic profit and growth. This “affluenza” is making culture sick by producing a loss of
economic and emotional balance. The authors reassure that it can be cured if people just
recognize and take the symptoms (an embarrassment of costly riches) seriously, identify
responsibility for the causes, and apply remedies of moderation in treatment of the illness. If
people reduce and redirect their consumption, the authors believe that quality of life in a
sustainable society can be enhanced. This will require people to recalculate their taken-for-
granted desire to trade time for money.
Assimilation into society at an early age and our daily life experiences train people in the
dysfunctional pursuit of money and wealth. It is argued that people engage in an obsessive
quest for material gain and are addicted to material consumption. More than ever before, people
live their lives by buying for instant gratification and face daily incentives to spend. This rampant
consumerism has reached the level of overconsumption behavior that is deliberately
encouraged by those who benefit from such habits. The economic system is programmed for
dissatisfaction and designed to make money from commercial consumption messages. Buying
has become a socially sanctioned addiction, borne out in shopping as therapy, even though
societal discontent rises through the promotion of dissatisfaction by those whose goal is to sell
something (provocatively termed “pushers”). The cost is depression and the erosion of family,
community, and habitat. The effects of the dogged pursuit of more “stuff” are damaging
mentally, physically, and socially, and they destroy the means of survival as a species. In
consuming, people discard things and people, always in search of something better, even
though happiness does not come from material possessions.
De Graaf and colleagues tackle the social problem of the damage done to people’s health, their
families, their communities, and their environment by the obsessive quest for material gain. The
authors show that problems such as loneliness, rising debt, longer working hours, environmental
pollution, family conflict, inadequate financial reserves, and rampant commercialism are caused
by the epidemic of affluence seeking. Swelling expectations for wealth are played out in the
conspicuous consumption of status symbols. The very definition of “wealth” draws on the
economic rhetoric of “goods.” Progress is defined in terms of what is consumed, so people
increasingly choose things over other people. “Despite tangible indications of indigestion, we
keep consuming” (p. 36). Even too much is never enough, and people fall victim to their self-
induced possession overload. The corrosive effect of consumerism is to privatize much of life.
Unlike citizens, consumers have no duties, responsibilities, or obligations to other consumers.
The time urgency of “busyness” comes from efforts to compete in the consumption arena,
bathed in exhortations to consume. The good life has become the “goods life,” the basis of
which is greed, status, and image.
There is hope if people seek lifestyles of the content and healthy rather than of the rich and
famous. This will require that people redefine wealth in terms of sufficiency and responsibility.
Commercial colonization has led to acquiring material affluence at a nonmaterial price.
Hypercommercialization encourages people to meet their nonmaterial needs through material
means, even as natural capital is destroyed. People must come to believe that the real need for
high fulfilment with low environmental impact is not the false needs created by advertisers.
Again, quality supersedes mere quantity.
The View from the Hill
The issue identified in these books is not how to be a successful marketer or who should control
big business. It is whether the level and way of resource consumption is self-defeating; in the
pursuit of more, people actually get less. It is whether, in the acquisition of some things, people
deny themselves other things without realizing that the success formula is wrong (i.e., more =
better). People need to make a conscious choice: Does more consumption bring a better life, or
does it make them miserable? The answer depends on who consumes, what they consume,
how they consume, and the starting point. In an era when consumption is the practical ideology
of capitalism, these authors examine the effects of the market system on personality, culture,
and the ecosystem of which people are a part.
The commercial logic is simple: An open market operates in free competition that produces
consumer value-for-money at a profit. Might persuasion and seduction of less-than-willing
consumers to buy things also be recognized? Consumer sovereignty is a means to an end, and
the marketing concept is a strategic means to corporate growth and profit. Yet the marketing
system is not separate from or delivering benefits to society. It is an integral, constitutive social
institution of society, yet it fosters the decline of civic engagement.
To what extent is marketing not responsible for overconsumption? Does marketing serve society
by serving the individual? In serving society, are the interests of the individual necessarily
served? Why does society permit, encourage, and facilitate the marketing system? From
society’s point of view, the role of marketing is to encourage morally defensible exchanges, that
is, to increase the likelihood and frequency of free and fully informed market transactions; it
claims to function as an ally to consumer buying and choice making. How are the costs
justified? Is it good enough to claim that marketers give people what they want? Recently, even
the foundational principle of the free market, consumer choice, has come under scrutiny. More
choice is assumed to lead to greater satisfaction, yet far too much choice produces debilitating
stress that erodes psychological emotional well-being and leads to clinical depression (Schwartz
2004). Social comparison also brings unhappiness for people who believe that they have failed
by not choosing the best option. Perhaps marketers would better serve the interests of cost
accountants and consumers if they eliminated choice to reduce stress, anxiety, busyness, and
In 1969, William Lazer pointed out that in a growth-directed economy with an abundance of
available resources, marketing is more than a managerial technology; its responsibility extends
beyond the economic realm of profit. He viewed marketing as an institution of social control that
is instrumental in reorienting culture from producer, work, and product to consumer, product,
and value in consumption. Is this good for us as a species? Materialism is easy to practice in an
abundant world. Marketing expands and stabilizes consumption in pursuit of economic goals,
such as full employment, growth, stability, and so on. Therefore, marketing is a social instrument
through which a standard of living is transmitted to society. Lazer further argued that marketers
have a duty to stimulate consumption beyond consumers’ natural inclination and the gratification
of needs. He claimed that marketing is brought into existence by abundance. So what about
social responsibility in the face of the profit motive, social goals in the face of corporate
marketing objectives, and public welfare in the face of marketing actions? At about the same
time, another marketing professor, R.J. Lavidge (1970) believed that marketing could contribute
to the solution of social and economic problems, but he also worried about the creation or
exacerbation of social problems through the stimulation of selfish desires. He urged marketers
to ask not only “Can it be sold?” but also “Should it be sold?” and “Is it worth its cost to society?”
He urged marketers to adopt a customer concept and to pay attention to the preservation and
improvement of the habitat.
The particular criticisms set out in these books say little about marketing practice beyond
persuasive advertising. There is little said about how these practices bring about the
externalities that are highlighted in the analyses or about the growing sense of corporate social
responsibility and corporate citizenship. The focus is on consumer culture, commercialization,
and the wider economic system. The consumer movement is not antagonistic toward the
marketing system (at least in principle), but it aims to ensure that the system serves both sellers
and buyers as consumers and as citizens. Yet who is responsible for improving the public
interest in the total consumption system or for acting as stewards of society’s resources? “Good”
marketing is more than profitably efficient. It must account for benefits and costs. Producers
need consumers who buy what they make. To what extent do consumers need marketing, and
in what form? What is the price paid for this society-wide function? The economic model of the
market is premised on scarcity, but there is an apparent abundance (though this is finite).
There is another set of books that portray a growing distrust of corporate capitalism played out
in corporate marketing. What would society be like without large-scale marketing? These books
are a critique of the consumption ethic, and it is for the marketing field to appreciate the
consequences of thinking and acting in operating corporate capitalism through a profit-oriented,
competitive market system. Is there something to fear? Is there a growing backlash? The
discussion here is not antimarketing. The principles of the (ideal) market system are sound. It is
multinational corporations’ ways of bringing products and markets to consumers that is of
concern. They invade work, civil liberties, and civic space. In a sense, through branding,
corporations have (literally) shifted products from their inventories to the pockets of consumers.
People now construct their social identity through consumption patterns rather than through
work roles. What if marketing were responsibly and consciously practiced as beneficent
Can environmental and social problems really be solved through market incentives? It is
necessary to precede this question with another fundamental choice. What kind of life do people
want? Do people want to be responsible citizens of sustaining, livable, and humane
communities? How long can people survive and prosper as a species if they treat the world as a
consumable resource rather than as a nourishing habitat?
Sustainable consumption would require sustainable marketing principles, so the concepts of
well-being and the good life would need to be redefined on the basis of social development
through value creation and protection. When enough is enough, and people do not “need more,”
each generation can strive to meet its needs without jeopardizing the prospects for future
generations to meet their own (as yet undefined) needs. Marketers can contribute by identifying
through values and ideals rather than through material things.
In an era in which the triumph of consumerism in the popular will is celebrated by scrutinizing
corporate “success factors,” such as market share, brand awareness, product popularity,
growth, return on investment, profit, and so on, when will enough be enough? In the economics
of happiness, welfare is still measured in terms of household consumption (captured in terms of
money income). Where does the future lie?
The idea of a satiable human need will be workable in public discourse only if the ruling ideal of
the unending proliferation of human wants is relinquished and replaced by a conception of
sufficiency in which it is the quality of social life, rather than the quantity of goods and services,
that is the central object of public policy. (Gray 1994, p. 45)
There is a need for education among the educators who set the agenda for marketing
practitioners. What would “marketing for sufficiency” or “sustainable marketing” be like?
Ironically, I acquired a copy of each of the books I reviewed second hand. Finding that these
books are readily available through this channel, I was able to “recycle.” Thus, the purchase
cost was lower, and no further copies needed to be printed, but the consumption of polluting
aviation fuel and the paper and sticky tape of international mailing increased through my
actions. Let us hope that it was worth it.
This analysis suggests that marketers need to understand the individual motivation and
behavior of citizens as consumers in the societal system of habitat, ecology, and evolution.
Sustainable marketing is not about prolonging the efficient marketing system and the economic
prosperity of individual participants. Much more profoundly, sustainability is the necessary
condition for survival and well-being, and it requires (nondestructive) value creation.
Civilization is a limitless multiplication of unnecessary necessaries.
—Mark Twain
De Graaf, John, David Wann, and Thomas H. Naylor (2002), Affluenza: The All-Consuming
Epidemic. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Durning, Alan Thein (1992), How Much Is
Enough? The Consumer Society and the Future of the Earth. New York: W.W.
Norton/WorldWatch Institute. Frank, Robert H. (2000), Luxury Fever: Money and Happiness in
an Era of Excess. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gray, John (1994), The Undoing of Conservatism. London: The Social Market Foundation.
Lane, Robert E. (2000), The Loss of Happiness in Market Democracies. New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press.
Lavidge, R J. (1970), “The Growing Responsibilities of Marketing,” Journal of Marketing, 34
(January), 25–28.
Lazer, William (1969), “Marketing’s Changing Social Relationships,” Journal of Marketing, 33
(January), 3–9.
Schor, Juliet B (1998), The Overspent American: Why We Want What We Don’t Need:
Upscaling, Downshifting, and the New Consumer. New York: HarperPerennial/Basic Books.
Schwartz, Barry (2004), The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less. New York: HarperCollins.
Scitovsky, Tibor (1976), The Joyless Economy: An Inquiry into Human Satisfaction and
Consumer Dissatisfaction. New York: Oxford University Press. ——— (1992), The Joyless
Economy: The Psychology of Human Satisfaction, Rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wachtel, Paul L. (1989), The Poverty of Affluence: A Psychological Portrait of the American
Way of Life. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers.
Endnote: Liberty is defined as whatever people want the most must be best for them;
consumption is sacred.
-Richard J. Varey, University of Waikato
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... Kaynak: Lin, 2007:46 Kültürel nesnenin üç düzeyi (Dış-Orta-İç seviye), Şekil 1'de görüldüğü gibi içgüdüsel tasarım, davranışsal tasarım ve yansıtıcı tasarım olarak üç düzey tasarım özelliği ile eşleştirilebilir (Norman, 2005). ...
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Müşerref ÇAKIR Öğr. Gör., Selçuk Üniversitesi, Mimarlık ve Tasarım Fakültesi, Moda Tasarımı Anabilim Dalı (Emekli), Konya, Türkiye Öz Moda tasarım sürecinde geleneksel ve kültürel unsurların esin kaynağı olarak kullanılması, yenilik elde etmek ve fark yaratmanın en önemli yollarından biridir. Ürün tasarımının bir yönü olarak kültürel unsurlar, benzersiz ve orijinal ürün özellikleri oluşturarak küreselleşmiş pazarda katma değerli ürünlerin yaratılmasını sağlayabilir. Ayrıca kültürel sürdürülebilirlik ve kültürel mirasın korunması açısından kültürel unsurları yeniden tasarım yoluyla gelecek nesillere taşımak ve yaşatmak oldukça önemlidir. Kültürel mirası gelecek nesillere taşımanın ve yaşatmanın yanı sıra moda tasarımı alanında kültürel unsurların esin kaynağı olarak kullanılmasına dikkat çekmek; yerel ve küresel pazarlara uyabilecek, tüketicileri kültürel ve estetik olarak tatmin edebilecek yeni ürünler tasarlamak; tasarım ve ürün geliştirme sürecinde kültürel ögelerin düşünülmesi veya gözden geçirilmesi için farkındalık yaratmak ve tasarımcılar için kültür odaklı koleksiyon geliştirme süreci modeli oluşturmanın amaçlandığı bu çalışmada Konya Etnografya Müzesi'nde bulunan geleneksel Konya kadın giysisi olan işlik ve şalvar moda tasarım sürecinde kültürel esin kaynağı olarak kullanılmıştır. Çağdaş ve evrensel tasarım yaklaşımları doğrultusunda, kültür odaklı tasarım anlayışını temel alarak oluşturulan bu yeni koleksiyon geliştirme süreci modeli kullanılarak 6 görünüm ve 9 parçadan oluşan özel bir kapsül koleksiyon hazırlanmıştır. Bu kapsamda uygulama temelli bir çalışma yapılmıştır. Tasarlanan ürünlerin yerel ve küresel pazarlarda yer alabilecek nitelikte bir ürün kimliğine sahip olabileceği; kültürün moda tasarımına sanatsal ve estetik değer katma anlamında farklı bakış açıları geliştirebileceği aynı zamanda estetik açıdan yeniden kullanılabilirliği vurgulanmıştır. Bu şekilde somut olmayan kültürel miras ögelerinin gelecek nesillere aktarılabilmesi ve sürdürülebilir moda yoluyla daha kalıcı olabileceği vurgulanmıştır. Abstract The use of traditional and cultural elements as a source of inspiration in the fashion design process is one of the most important ways to innovate and make a difference. Cultural elements as an aspect of product design can * Bu çalışma 08-10 Eylül 2021 Uluslararası "Anadolu'nun Geleneksel El Sanatları; Sanatçı ve Zanaatkar Buluşması" Sempozyumu ve Sergisi isimli sempozyumda, sözlü olarak sunulmuş ve özeti yayınlanmıştır.
... The model of four product pleasures (Jordan, 2000) was selected by the researcher as a reference to structure the pre-session and session activities because it was considered concrete and explicit (even for practitioners with no previous knowledge about UX) in how different pleasure strategies relate to product properties. The model was expected to be more accessible on a theoretical level than, for example, Norman's (2004) visceral, behavioural and reflective levels of design, or Desmet's (2002) model of product emotions. However, the practitioners highlighted that the socio-pleasures (i.e., pleasures derived from relationships with others and/or society as a whole, including status, self-image, or social interaction) and ideo-pleasures (i.e., pleasures related to ideals such as tastes, aspirations, values, or religious beliefs), were rather abstract. ...
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This paper addresses the exploration of design opportunities for artefacts and spaces enabling a positive user experience (UX) with flexible offices. A series of collaborative sessions were conducted with practitioners from a Nordic European office furniture manufacturer that culminated in a furniture prototype to be tested in real offices. The prototyped concept is intended to improve the experience of control over sound stimuli in open and shared flexible office spaces. The value of this paper lies in: (i) the utilisation of research findings from studies in real offices to guide the exploration of design opportunities for meaningful user experiences; and (ii) a collaboration between user-centred design research and product development practice that fosters innovation.
... verici (kaynak), (Norman, 2004) benzer bir ...
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|EN| In terms of its focus and core challenges, interior design naturally centers on the human being. A user who needs interior design wants their space to reflect or create their values. Before building a space, interior designers create its physical and intangible aspects. The interior designer uses spatial representation tools to propose a design based on user demands, anthropometric, sensory, perceptual, and cultural factors. Spatial representation tools allow the interior designer, space, and user to interact in a common understanding. These tools, usually generated using computer-aided design software, are now provided to users as presentation files with sequential visuals and drawings on digital screens. This makes it hard for users to understand the space and choose amongst options. In this thesis, the processes of communication and meaning construction are examined first, followed by an analysis of the relationship between design and interpretation actions. The aspects that constitute the field of interior design are then defined, along with the spatial representation methods applied in interior design today and their historical development. In the following section, a mobile application prototype that is produced and intended to be a spatial representation tool within the scope of this study is shown with all of its processes (design, development, and usability tests), and in the last section, the impact of the application on the user's comprehension and decision-making process is presented along with findings and comments from a pilot study. |TR| İlgi alanı ve temel sorunsalı bakımından içmimarlık disiplininin doğal odağında insan vardır. İçmimarlık hizmetine ihtiyaç duyan bir kullanıcı, sahip olduğu iç mekanın kendi istek ve ihtiyaçları doğrultusunda, kendi değerini yansıtan veya üreten şekilde tasarlanmasını ister. Bir içmimari projede mekanın fiziksel üretiminden önce özdeksel ve tinsel yönlerini de kapsayan tasarım süreci vardır. Bu süreçte içmimar mekan temsil araçlarını kullanarak, kullanıcının istek ve gereksinimlerinin yanında antropometrik, duyusal, algısal ve kültürel boyutları doğrultusunda bir tasarım önerisinde bulunmaktadır. Mekan temsil araçlarının temel amacı içmimar-mekan-kullanıcı arasında oluşan iletişim üçgenindeki anlam ve dil birliğinin kurulmasıdır. Günümüzde genellikle bilgisayar destekli tasarım yazılımları kullanılarak ortaya çıkan bu araçlar kullanıcıya çoğunlukla görsel ve çizimlerin dijital ekranlar vasıtasıyla sunulmaktadır. Bu durum kullanıcının mekan ile kurduğu anlamsal ilişkilerde ve dolayısıyla seçim yapmasında zorluklar yaratmaktadır. Yapılan bu tez çalışmasında öncelikle iletişim ve anlam oluşumu ele alınarak tasarım ve anlamlama eylemlerinin ilişkisi aktarılmış, daha sonra içmimarlık disiplinini oluşturan öğeler açıklanarak günümüzde içmimarlıkta kullanılan mekan temsil araçları, tarihsel gelişimiyle birlikte açıklanmıştır. Sonraki bölümde çalışma kapsamında geliştirilen ve mekan temsil aracı olması hedeflenen bir mobil uygulama prototipi tüm süreçleriyle (tasarım, geliştirme ve kullanılabilirlik testleri) aktarılmış ve en sonunda bir pilot uygulama vasıtasıyla gerçek kullanıcının kullanması sağlanarak mekanı anlaması ve seçim yapma sürecine olan etkisi, bulgular ve yorumlar ile ortaya konmuştur.
... The emotional design has been studied and put into practice by other disciplines that use object or symbols (Norman D.A., 2002(Norman D.A., , 2004kim H., & Lee w., 2014). The hospitality industry is becoming a trend sector for applying new methodologies in interaction with the human behaviors. ...
El principal objetivo de este artículo es poner de relieve aquellas acciones que pueden cambiar la experiencia de los clientes durante su estancia a través del diseño. La investigación llevada a cabo escogió hoteles localizados en EE.UU y Europa, con la finalidad de descubrir y comparar posibles estrategias diferenciadas entre ambos destinos.La investigación analizó diez casos de estudios los cuales obtuvieron la certificación LEED. Una vez estudiadas las acciones necesarias para alcanzar una optima calidad del aire interior en hoteles LEED, se comparó cuales de ellas tienen un impacto sobre la experiencia durante su estancia según los comentarios y fotografías en la plataforma Tripadvisor. Los resultados destacan aquellas acciones del diseño de las habitaciones de los hoteles con certificados LEED que poseen un impacto en la experiencia del cliente. Además, la investigación revela un grupo de códigos emocionales en las habitaciones de hoteles, en términos de confort, descanso y relaciones visuales entre espacios construidos y naturales.
... de, aber nicht überfordernde Anwendung. Software soll beim Nutzer somit Spaß 20 und die Motivation zur Anwendung erzeugen (vgl. ebd.). Darüber hinaus wird auch die Ästhetik der Anwendung berücksichtigt, da diese erheblich zur subjektiven Einschätzung der Usability bzw. pragmatischen Qualität sowie zur Bewertung der hedonistischen Qualität beiträgt.Norman (2004) prägte dazu die Aussage "Attractive Things Work Better" (S. 17). Zudem kann die Nutzung einer Software mit der Bildung einer spezifischen Identität oder mit einem symbolischen Wert verknüpft sein, wobei eine positive UX dann entsteht, wenn der Nutzer seine individuellen Ziele in diesen Bereichen, den sogenannten Dabei wird zwischen der ...
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Präsentiert werden die Grundlagen der Technikakzeptanzforschung, die Ergänzung dieser durch Erkenntnisse der Human Computer Interaction, deren Bedeutung im Zuge der Digitalisierung steigt, sowie Erweiterungen durch Ansätze zur Vertrauensforschung hinsichtlich zunehmend autonomer Systeme. Abschließend wird eine Synthese dieser Ansätze geliefert, in der die zentralen Annahmen und Einflussfaktoren zusammengeführt werden.
... As Norman [56] emphasized: "One cannot evaluate an innovation by asking potential customers for their views. This requires people to imagine something they have no experience with." ...
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In the early stages of the design process, designers explore opportunities by discovering unmet needs and developing innovative concepts as potential solutions. From a human-centered design perspective, designers must develop empathy with people to truly understand their needs. However, developing empathy is a complex and subjective process that relies heavily on the designer's empathetic capability. Therefore, the development of empathetic understanding is intuitive, and the discovery of underlying needs is often serendipitous. This paper aims to provide insights from artificial intelligence research to indicate the future direction of AI-driven human-centered design, taking into account the essential role of empathy. Specifically, we conduct an interdisciplinary investigation of research areas such as data-driven user studies, empathetic understanding development, and artificial empathy. Based on this foundation, we discuss the role that artificial empathy can play in human-centered design and propose an artificial empathy framework for human-centered design. Building on the mechanisms behind empathy and insights from empathetic design research, the framework aims to break down the rather complex and subjective concept of empathy into components and modules that can potentially be modeled computationally. Furthermore, we discuss the expected benefits of developing such systems and identify current research gaps to encourage future research efforts.
... Nevertheless, the user engagement model has been extended and redesigned several times to better reflect technological and behavioral developments in business and academic studies. The foundations of user experience emerge from an examination of the conventional perspective of usability, which does not consider the emotional experience of engaging with a service or product (Norman, 2004). As a result, several frameworks have emerged as extensions that explain the emotive responses and experiences with interactive technologies (e.g., McCarthy & Wright, 2004). ...
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Purpose Agricultural technologies (agri-techs) have focused on developing the AI perspective of human-AI interaction rather than human perceptions and responses. A lack of understanding of their employees’ behavioral responses when interacting with advanced technologies can lead to unexpected problems in the future. Drawing on the theoretical perspective of advanced user engagement, this paper examines the impact of five different technostressors on user engagement and, consequently, user experience. Design/methodology/approach For data collection, 464 participants from the U.S. and Asian (Singaporean) agri-tech sectors were interviewed via an electronic survey. Findings The U.S. study showed that techno-overload, techno-complexity, and techno-uncertainty were positively related to user engagement (t = 2.609; t = 6.998, and t = 6.013, respectively), whereas techno-invasion and techno-uncertainty were negatively correlated with user engagement (t = –2.167 and t = –3.119, respectively). The Singapore study showed that techno-overload, techno-complexity, and techno-invasion were negatively related to user engagement (t = –2.185, t = –2.765; t = –5.062, respectively), while techno-insecurity and techno-uncertainty surprisingly showed nonlinear correlations with user engagement. In both studies, user engagement is positively related to user experience (t = 2.009 for the U.S. study and t = 2.887 for the Singapore study). Originality/value First, this paper provides agri-techs with a modern framework to better predict the behavioral responses of their employees when managing AI. Second, this paper expands the equation of change in the discipline of change management by introducing the dimension of readiness.
... More and more attention is being given to aesthetics considered capable to captivate the person's attention (Gaviria, 2008) and fostering engagement. The way people feel influences the use of a device (Norman, 2005) in the idea that "effective is often affective" (Mackinlay & Winslow, 2009). Aesthetics prompts the intention to start using e.g the device (Kurosu & Kashimura, 1995) and motivates the person to spend more time with it, while being more forgiving when errors occur (Moere & Purchase, 2011). ...
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Huge amounts of information are increasingly being created and shared from various platforms with georeference playing a popular role. New and effective ways to manage and understand information are needed in order to deal with this growing complexity. Graphic and interface design can help. With roots in research on visual perception, the role of visualization is to ease the understanding and managing of complex information. In later work, we presented and applied a set of graphic and interface design fundamentals as hints to the representation of spatiotemporal information. We now support them on perception and cognition through the way the mind works.
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The objective of a manufacturer is to maximize the profits of its brands. The retailer, on the other hand, is not interested in the profitability of any particular brand but concentrates on the overall category profit. In spite of these apparently diverging profit objectives, both manufacturers and retailers are increasingly realizing that profit margins for both may be increased when retailers and manufacturers recognize the strengths of each other and utilize them to maximize the overall category profit. We develop a game theoretic model to demonstrate that when the retailer allows a few large manufacturers to practice independent brand management but manages the rest of the brands, the category profit is indeed higher than the profits generated when it allows independent brand management by all manufacturers or acts as an uncompromising category manager. We also provide an empirical application of our model on scanner data.
What are marketing's boundaries in a highly automated, industrialized society? What are marketing's social responsibilities today? These and other important questions are raised by the author. He contends that in an economy of abundance, marketing is more than a technology of the firm, and that marketing responsibilities extend beyond the profit realm. Marketing is viewed as an institution of social control instrumental in reorienting a culture from a producers' to a consumers' culture. Appraisal of the many complex issues raised in this article requires a broader conception of marketing than commonly used.
The Undoing of Conservatism
  • John Gray
Gray, John (1994), The Undoing of Conservatism. London: The Social Market Foundation.
The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less The Joyless Economy: An Inquiry into Human Satisfaction and Consumer Dissatisfaction The Joyless Economy: The Psychology of Human Satisfaction, Rev
  • Barry Schwartz
Schwartz, Barry (2004), The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less. New York: HarperCollins. Scitovsky, Tibor (1976), The Joyless Economy: An Inquiry into Human Satisfaction and Consumer Dissatisfaction. New York: Oxford University Press. ——— (1992), The Joyless Economy: The Psychology of Human Satisfaction, Rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The Loss of Happiness in Market Democracies
  • Robert E Lane
Lane, Robert E. (2000), The Loss of Happiness in Market Democracies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic How Much Is Enough? The Consumer Society and the Future of the Earth
  • De Graaf
  • David John
  • Thomas H Wann
  • Naylor
De Graaf, John, David Wann, and Thomas H. Naylor (2002), Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Durning, Alan Thein (1992), How Much Is Enough? The Consumer Society and the Future of the Earth. New York: W.W.