Tracheostomy placement in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Safety and outcomes

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. .
Pediatric Pulmonology (Impact Factor: 2.7). 03/2013; 48(3). DOI: 10.1002/ppul.22572
Source: PubMed


Optimizing the timing and safety for the placement of a tracheostomy in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has not been determined. The purpose of the present study was to describe the data from a single institution about the efficacy and safety of tracheostomy placement in infants with BPD needing long-term respiratory support. We established a service line for the comprehensive care of infants with BPD and we collected retrospective clinical data from this service line. We identified patients that had a trachostomy placed using the local Vermont-Oxford database, and obtained clinical data from chart reviews. We identified infants who had a tracheostomy placed for the indication of severe BPD only. Safety and respiratory efficacy was assessed by overall survival to discharge and the change in respiratory supportive care from just before placement to 1-month post-placement. Twenty-two patients (750 ± 236 g, 25.4 ± 2.1 weeks gestation) had a tracheostomy placed on day of life 177 ± 74 which coincided with a post-conceptual age of 51 ± 10 weeks. At placement these infants were on high settings to support their lung disease. The mean airway pressure (MAP) was 14.3 ± 3.3 cmH2O, the peak inspiratory pressure was 43.7 ± 8.0 cmH2O, and the FiO2 was 0.51 ± 0.13. The mean respiratory severity score (MAP × FiO2) 1 month after tracheostomy was significantly (P = 0.03) lower than prior to tracheostomy. Survival to hospital discharge was 77%. All patients with tracheostomies that survived were discharged home on mist collar supplemental oxygen. In conclusion, the high survival rate in these patients with severe BPD and the decreased respiratory support after placement of a tracheostomy suggests that high ventilatory pressures should not be a deterrent for placement of a tracheostomy. Future research should be aimed at determining optimal patient selection and timing for tracheostomy placement in infants with severe BPD. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013; 48:245–249.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the functional outcomes of children who underwent a tracheostomy in the initial hospitalization after birth and to determine their correlates. Study design: We administered the validated 43-item Functional Status-II (FS-II) questionnaire by Stein and Jessop over the telephone to caregivers of surviving children. The FS-II items generated a total score, age-specific: (1) total; (2) general health (GH); and (3) responsiveness, activity, or interpersonal functioning (IPF) scores in specific age group categories. Results: FS-II was administered to 51/62 (82.2%) survivors at a median (range) age of 5 (1-10) years; 27% children were on the ventilator and 43% required devices. About 40% of children had a median of 1 (1-4) hospitalization in the previous 6 months. Scores were >2 SD below means in 55%, 24%, and 55% cases for age-specific T, GH, and R/A/IPF scores respectively. The T and R/A/IPF scales were significantly higher in those with private, rather than public, maternal insurance, as were T and R/A/IPF scores for children ≥ 4 years, compared with younger children. On regression analysis, FS-II T, GH, and R/A/IPF scores were independently associated with maternal private insurance (P = .02). R/A/IPF scores were also significantly associated with corrected age at FS-II administration. Conclusions: One-third of surviving children who underwent tracheostomy during their initial hospitalization remained technology-dependent. The parental FS-II questionnaires revealed low R/A/IPF scores, especially at younger ages and in those with maternal public insurance. Further research on family-level interventions to improve functional outcomes in this population is warranted.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · The Journal of pediatrics
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