Melatonin treatment alters glucosensing capacity and mRNA expression levels of peptides related to food intake control in rainbow trout hypothalamus
Laboratorio de Fisioloxía Animal, Departamento de Bioloxía Funcional e Ciencias da Saúde, Facultade de Bioloxía, Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Spain. General and Comparative Endocrinology
(Impact Factor: 2.47).
05/2012; 178(1):131-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.04.011
As demonstrated in previous studies, the functioning of brain glucosensing systems in rainbow trout is altered under stress conditions in a way that they are unable to respond properly to changes in glucose levels. Melatonin has been postulated as necessary for homeostatic control of energy metabolism in several vertebrate groups, and in fish it has been suggested as an anti-stress molecule. To evaluate the possible effects of melatonin on glucosensing, we have incubated hypothalamus and hindbrains of rainbow trout at different glucose concentrations in the presence of increased doses (0.01, 1, and 100nM) of melatonin assessing whether or not the responses to changes in glucose levels of parameters related to glucosensing (glucose, glycogen and glucose 6-phosphate levels, activities of GK, GSase and PK, and mRNA content of GK, GLUT2, Kir6.x-like, and SUR-like) are modified in the presence of melatonin. While no effects of melatonin were observed in hindbrain, in hypothalamus melatonin treatment up-regulated glucosensing parameters, especially under hypo- and normo-glycaemic conditions. The effects of melatonin in hypothalamus occurred apparently through MT(1) receptors since most effects were counteracted by the presence of luzindole but not by the presence of 4-P-PDOT. Moreover, melatonin treatment induced in hypothalamus increased mRNA expression levels of NPY and decreased mRNA levels of POMC, CART, and CRF. A role of the hormone in daily re-adjustment of hypothalamic glucosensor machinery is discussed.
Available from: Magdalena Chadzinska
- "In fish, melatonin plays a role in reproduction, growth and behavior (Falc on et al., 2009; Conde-Sieira et al., 2012). Radioligand binding studies for fish cells allowed the identification of three high affinity melatonin receptor subtypes, all belonging to the GPCR family: MT1, MT2 and Mel1c (Falc on et al., 2007). "
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ABSTRACT: Melatonin is responsible for the synchronization of many physiological processes, including the immune response. Here we focus on the expression of melatonin MT1 receptors in/on leukocytes, and on the effects of melatonin administration on the inflammatory processes of carp. For the first time, we showed that fish leukocytes express MT1 receptors, implicating direct responsiveness to melatonin stimulation. Moreover, both in vitro and in vivo, melatonin modulated the immune response. The most potent effects of melatonin concerned the regulation of leukocyte migration. Melatonin reduced chemotaxis of leukocytes towards CXC chemokines in vitro. In vivo, during zymosan induced peritonitis, i.p. administration of melatonin reduced the number of neutrophils. This correlated with a melatonin-induced decrease of gene expression of the CXCa chemokine. Moreover, melatonin induced a decrease of the respiratory burst in inflammatory leukocytes. Although these data do suggest a potent anti-inflammatory function for this hormone, melatonin-induced inhibition of leukocyte apoptosis clearly indicates towards a dual function. These results show that also in carp, melatonin performs a pleiotropic and extra-pineal function that is important in maintaining the delicate pro- and anti-inflammatory balance during infection. They furthermore demonstrate that neuroendocrine-immune interaction via melatonin is evolutionary conserved.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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ABSTRACT: To assess whether the glucosensing capacity in peripheral (liver and Brockmann bodies) and central (hypothalamus and hindbrain) locations of rainbow trout displays day-night variations in its response to changes in circulating glucose levels, we evaluated the response of parameters related to glucosensing [glucose, glycogen and glucose 6-phosphate levels, activities of glucokinase (GK), glycogen synthetase (GSase) and pyruvate kinase (PK), and mRNA abundance of GK, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and K(ATP) channel subunits Kir6.x-like and sulfonylurea receptor (SUR)-like] in fish subjected to hyperglycemic treatment under night or day conditions. No day-night significant variations were noticed in the glucosensing capacity of the hypothalamus, hindbrain and Brockmann bodies. In contrast, a clear differential response was noticed in the liver, where glucose levels, GK activity (and mRNA levels) and GSase activity displayed increased values during the day in hyperglycemic fish compared with controls, and lower (GK mRNA levels) or non-existent (glucose, GK and GSase activities, and Kir6.x-like mRNA levels) values during the night. A similar decrease in parameters related to glucosensing in the liver was observed when fish under day conditions were treated with melatonin, suggesting a modulatory role of melatonin in day-night changes of the glucosensing response in the same tissue.
Available from: Chiara Piccinetti
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Melatonin is a neuroendocrine transducer of circadian/circannual rhythms able to synchronize organism's physiological activity. On the basis of our recent findings on appetite regulation by melatonin in the zebrafish brain, the aim of this study was to evaluate melatonin's role in peripheral circuitries regulating food intake, growth, and lipid metabolism. For this purpose, the effect of two melatonin doses (100 nM and 1 μM) administered for 10 days, via water, to adult zebrafish was evaluated at both physiological and molecular levels. The major signals controlling energy homeostasis were analyzed together. Additionally, the effect of melatonin doses on muscle metabolic resources was evaluated. The results obtained indicate that melatonin reduces food intake by stimulating molecules involved in appetite inhibition, such as leptin (LPT), in the liver and intestine and MC4R, a melanocortin system receptor, in the liver. Moreover, melatonin decreases hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene expression, involved in growth process and other signals involved in lipid metabolism such as proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, β, and γ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). These results were correlated with lower levels of lipids in the muscles as evidenced by the macromolecular pools analyses. The findings obtained in this study could be of great interest for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms as the basis of food intake control and, in turn, can be a useful tool for medical and aquaculture applications.
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