Heritable factors influence sexual orientation in women.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 50:217-223
Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill 60208.Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 14.48). 04/1993; 50:217-223.
Homosexual female probands with monozygotic cotwins, dizygotic cotwins, or adoptive sisters were recruited using homophile publications. Sexual orientation of relatives was assessed either by asking relatives directly, or, when this was impossible, by asking the probands. Of the relatives whose sexual orientation could be confidently rated, 34 (48%) of 71 monozygotic cotwins, six (16%) of 37 dizygotic cotwins, and two (6%) of 35 adoptive sisters were homosexual. Probands also reported 10 (14%) nontwin biologic sisters to be homosexual, although those sisters were not contacted to confirm their orientations. Heritabilities were significant using a wide range of assumptions about both the base rate of homosexuality in the population and ascertainment bias. The likelihood that a monozygotic cotwin would also be homosexual was unrelated to measured characteristics of the proband such as self-reported history of childhood gender nonconformity. Concordant monozygotic twins reported similar levels of childhood gender nonconformity.
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- "Indeed, a significant body of empirical evidence affirms that at least some portion of sexual orientation is uncontrollable (e.g.,Hamer et al. 1993;LeVay 1991;Savic et al. 2005). A strong link to the uncontrollable roots of sexual orientation also exists when examining twin studies, which show that monozygotic twins have a greater probability of having the same sexual orientation than do dizygotic twins (Bailey et al. 1993;Pillard and Weinrich 1986). Recent research examining brain activity based on exposure to same-versus oppositesex stimuli show differences in response patterns to the stimuli for homosexual and heterosexual men, suggesting accuracy in predicting sexual orientation based on brain activity (Ponseti et al. 2009). "
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