Heritable factors influence sexual orientation in women.Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 50:217-223

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill 60208.
Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 14.48). 04/1993; 50:217-223.
Source: PubMed


Homosexual female probands with monozygotic cotwins, dizygotic cotwins, or adoptive sisters were recruited using homophile publications. Sexual orientation of relatives was assessed either by asking relatives directly, or, when this was impossible, by asking the probands. Of the relatives whose sexual orientation could be confidently rated, 34 (48%) of 71 monozygotic cotwins, six (16%) of 37 dizygotic cotwins, and two (6%) of 35 adoptive sisters were homosexual. Probands also reported 10 (14%) nontwin biologic sisters to be homosexual, although those sisters were not contacted to confirm their orientations. Heritabilities were significant using a wide range of assumptions about both the base rate of homosexuality in the population and ascertainment bias. The likelihood that a monozygotic cotwin would also be homosexual was unrelated to measured characteristics of the proband such as self-reported history of childhood gender nonconformity. Concordant monozygotic twins reported similar levels of childhood gender nonconformity.

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    • "Indeed, a significant body of empirical evidence affirms that at least some portion of sexual orientation is uncontrollable (e.g.,Hamer et al. 1993;LeVay 1991;Savic et al. 2005). A strong link to the uncontrollable roots of sexual orientation also exists when examining twin studies, which show that monozygotic twins have a greater probability of having the same sexual orientation than do dizygotic twins (Bailey et al. 1993;Pillard and Weinrich 1986). Recent research examining brain activity based on exposure to same-versus oppositesex stimuli show differences in response patterns to the stimuli for homosexual and heterosexual men, suggesting accuracy in predicting sexual orientation based on brain activity (Ponseti et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose This article expands the discourse of the impact of the passage of the Civil Rights Act (CRA) of 1964 to sexual orientation minorities (SOM). Design/Methodology/Approach We first discuss the challenges faced by SOM in the workplace. We then present a model adapted from Edelman’s “Handbook of employment discrimination research (pp. 337–352). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer (2005)” theory of endogeneity of law to discuss the impact that such leaders and their supportive organizational SOM policies can have on the passage of nationwide SOM legislation. Finally, we discuss how organizational leaders’ beliefs and actions can play a major role in affecting organizational SOM policies. Findings We argue that the presence of organizational protective policies can facilitate the passage of federal SOM legislation by establishing and legitimizing social norms. We also highlight how beliefs about religion, morality, controllability, and occupational stereotypes contribute to prejudice and lack of support for SOM-protective organizational policies. Implications We discuss the importance that organizational SOM policies have on larger societal legislative issues, and outline how specific individual-level beliefs can impact organizational-level support for SOM. Originality/Value We take a novel approach by focusing on what organizational leaders can do to enact SOM policies that may further influence protective laws. We also draw upon neo-institutional theory to show specifically how organizations can affect legislation; a topic often ignored in organizational psychology.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of Business and Psychology
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    • "Recruitment nonheterosexual probands recruited through ads in gayoriented publications Classification [homosexual/bisexual] vs heterosexual Men 52% MZ concordance (N=56 pairs) 22% DZ concordance (N=54 pairs) 11% adoptive brothers concordance (N=57 pairs) Bailey et al. 1993 Recruitment nonheterosexual probands recruited through ads in gayoriented publications Classification [homosexual/bisexual] vs heterosexual Women 48% MZ concordance (N=71 pairs) 16% DZ concordance (N=37 pairs) 6% adoptive sisters concordance (N=35 pairs) Kendler et al. 2000 Recruitment national twin sample Classification [homosexual/bisexual] vs heterosexual Men and women combined .68 MZ twin pair correlation (N=324 pairs) .43 "

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    • "As with differences seen between individual members of any other cultural group, LGBT persons cannot be uniformly characterized, and racial and ethnic associations may contribute to an individual's specific cultural identity. A heritable component to sexual orientation, which suggests a unique, shared genetic connection between LGB persons, has been suggested by certain twin (Bailey, Pillard, Neale, & Agyei, 1993;Kendler, Thornton, Gilman, & Kessler, 2000) and linkage (Hamer, Hu, Magnuson, Hu, & Pattatucci, 1993) studies. This topic remains hotly debated in the medical literature (Baron, 1993;Byne & Parsons, 1993;Lidz, 1993;Risch, Squires-Wheeler, & Keats, 1993). "
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    ABSTRACT: Although there are currently at least 6 million lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in the United States, there are no prior studies analyzing how this group is represented in the medical literature. An examination of published LGBT topics over a 57-year period was performed using OvidSP. A total of 21,728 publications was analyzed for topic using information from the title, keywords, subject headings, and abstracts. Several trends became apparent. The largest proportion of LGBT publications (31.78%) was devoted to HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), yet there was an overall lack of emphasis on general health topics or common causes of mortality. Further analysis showed that if publications on HIV/AIDS or STIs addressed sexual orientation, they were more likely to be about LGBT persons than heterosexuals. Overall, the volume and range of medical publications on LGBT persons may not be reflective of the health care needs of this population.
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