Radioautographic investigation of gliogenesis in the corpus callosum of young Rats I. Sequential changes in oligodendrocytes
The corpus callosum of young rats was examined to clarify the behavior of the three subtypes of oligodendrocytes (the large organelle-rich “light oligodendrocytes,” the smaller and more densely stained cells referred to as “medium oligodendrocytes,” and the even smaller and denser “dark oligodendrocytes”). It was hoped to find out whether cells of the three subtypes undergo division and how they are related to one another. 3H-thymidine was given intraperitoneally as single or three shortly spaced injections to a first group of 19- to 20-day old rats weighing about 40 g, and to a second group of 25-day old rats weighing about 80 g. The animals were sacrificed at various time intervals from 2 hours to 35 days after 3H-thymidine administration. Pieces of corpus callosum were taken near the superior lateral angle of the lateral ventricles; and semithin sections were radioautographed and stained with toluidine blue.
Two hours after 3H-thymidine injection, label is virtually absent from light, medium and dark oligodendrocytes, from microglia, and probably from astrocytes, but is present in about 10% of the immature glial cells, which include the poorly differentiated glioblasts and the partially differentiated oligodendroblasts and astroblasts. Hence, the cells undergoing DNA synthesis and mitosis in the corpus callosum are these three types of immature cells.
During the week that follows the administration of 3H-thymidine, label appears in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, which presumably have arisen from the initially labeled immature cells. The oligodendrocytes acquire label in a sequential manner: the light cells show label first and their labeling index reaches a peak at the seven-day interval; the medium oligodendrocytes become labeled next with a labeling peak toward the 14- and 21-day intervals and, finally, the dark oligodendrocytes with a peak around the 28-day interval. Analysis by the method of Zilversmit et al. (1942-1943) provides precise details on the sequence: immature cells presumed to be oligodendroblasts give rise to light oligodendrocytes which, after four to seven days, transform into medium oligodendrocytes which, after another 11 to 18 days, transform into dark oligodendrocytes. The dark cells may persist indefinitely or turn over at a very slow rate.
It is concluded that oligodendrocytes arise from the last division of oligodendroblasts and develop in three main periods; a light stage lasting less than a week, a medium stage lasting about two week, and a very long lasting dark stage.
Available from: Laurent Lecanu
- "capacity of adult ependymal cells to become neural progenitor cells remains controversial and seemingly contradictory results have been published on the subject. This apparent discrepancy likely originates from the fact that experiments showing a lack of proliferative capacity of adult ependymal cells were performed under physiological conditions without injury or trauma of any kind (Chiasson et al., 1999; Imamoto et al., 1978; Smart, 1973; Spassky et al., 2005). However, the proliferative and neuronal progenitor properties of adult ependymal cells have been reported numerous times in vivo after various types of insult (Attar et al., 2005; Ke et al., 2006; Mothe and Tator, 2005; Zhang et al., 2005). "
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we explored the capacity of the naturally occurring compound solasodine to promote neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Mouse embryonic teratocarcinoma P19 cells exposed to solasodine for 2 days followed by a 5-day washout differentiated into cholinergic neurons that expressed specific neuronal markers and displayed important axonal formation that continued growing even 30 days after treatment. In vivo, a 2-week infusion of solasodine into the left ventricle of the rat brain followed by a 3-week washout resulted in a significant increase in bromodeoxyuridine uptake by cells of the ependymal layer, subventricular zone, and cortex that co-localized with doublecortin immunostaining, demonstrating the proliferative and differentiating properties of solasodine on neuronal progenitors. In addition, these data demonstrate that under our experimental conditions adult ependymal cells retrieved their proliferative and differentiating abilities. The GAP-43/HuD pathway was activated both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a role in the differentiating process triggered by solasodine. Solasodine treatment in rats resulted in a dramatic increase in expression of the cholesterol- and drug-binding translocator protein in ependymal cells, suggesting a possible role played by neurosteroid production in solasodine-induced neurogenesis. In GAD65-GFP mice that express the green fluorescent protein under the control of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-kDa promoter, solasodine treatment increased the number of GABAergic progenitors and neuroblasts generated in the subventricular zone and present in the olfactory migratory tract. Taken together, these results suggest that solasodine offers an interesting approach to stimulate in situ neurogenesis from resident neuronal progenitors as part of neuron replacement therapy.
Available from: Steven Scherer
- "Oligodendrocytes had electron-dense cytoplasm with abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum and no intermediate filaments; cells with these morphological characteristics were found in continuity with myelin sheaths. They were typically found in rows, these included " light " oligodendrocytes (Imamoto et al., 1978). Astrocytes had electron-lucent cytoplasm that contained intermediate filaments and glycogen; cells with these morphological characteristics were found adjacent to blood vessels. "
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ABSTRACT: In addition to the extensive gap junction coupling between astrocytes themselves, oligodendrocytes are thought to be exclusively coupled to astrocytes (O:A coupling) via heterotypic gap junctions composed of Cx47:Cx43 and Cx32:Cx30. We used fluorescent dyes to examine functional coupling in acute slices from the cerebra of mice lacking Cx32 and/or Cx47. In the corpus callosum, unexpectedly, oligodendrocytes appeared to be directly and exclusively coupled to other oligodendrocytes (O:O coupling), and electron microscopy revealed gap junctions between adjacent oligodendrocytes. O:O coupling was more affected in mice lacking Cx32 than in mice lacking Cx47. In the neocortex, oligodendrocytes appeared to be directly and exclusively coupled to astrocytes; Cx47, but not Cx32, was required for O:A coupling.
Available from: Florian Merkle
- "Smart (1961) injected 3-d-old mice with [ 3 H]thymidine and found no labeled ependymal cells in the lateral ventricle 32 d later. Imamoto et al. (1978) administered three [ 3 H]thymidine injections at 7 hr intervals to young rats and also found no labeled ependymal cells in the lateral ventricle. After two [ 3 H]thymidine injection in adult rats, none of the ependymal cells were labeled in either the third ventricle (Altman, 1963) or the central canal of the spinal cord (Kerns and Hinsman, 1973). "
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ABSTRACT: Ependymal cells on the walls of brain ventricles play essential roles in the transport of CSF and in brain homeostasis. It has been suggested that ependymal cells also function as stem cells. However, the proliferative capacity of mature ependymal cells remains controversial, and the developmental origin of these cells is not known. Using confocal or electron microscopy (EM) of adult mice that received bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) or [3H]thymidine for several weeks, we found no evidence that ependymal cells proliferate. In contrast, ependymal cells were labeled by BrdU administration during embryonic development. The majority of them are born between embryonic day 14 (E14) and E16. Interestingly, we found that the maturation of ependymal cells and the formation of cilia occur significantly later, during the first postnatal week. We analyzed the early postnatal ventricular zone at the EM and found a subpopulation of radial glia in various stages of transformation into ependymal cells. These cells often had deuterosomes. To directly test whether radial glia give rise to ependymal cells, we used a Cre-lox recombination strategy to genetically tag radial glia in the neonatal brain and follow their progeny. We found that some radial glia in the lateral ventricular wall transform to give rise to mature ependymal cells. This work identifies the time of birth and early stages in the maturation of ependymal cells and demonstrates that these cells are derived from radial glia. Our results indicate that ependymal cells are born in the embryonic and early postnatal brain and that they do not divide after differentiation. The postmitotic nature of ependymal cells strongly suggests that these cells do not function as neural stem cells in the adult.
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