Childhood socioeconomic position, adult socioeconomic position and social mobility in relation to markers of adiposity in early adulthood: Evidence of differential effects by gender in the 1978/79 Ribeirao Preto cohort study

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
International journal of obesity (2005) (Impact Factor: 5). 05/2012; 37(3). DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2012.64
Source: PubMed


Longitudinal studies drawn from high-income countries demonstrate long-term associations of early childhood socioeconomic deprivation with increased adiposity in adulthood. However, there are very few data from resource-poor countries where there are reasons to anticipate different gradients. Accordingly, we sought to characterise the nature of the socioeconomic status (SES)-adiposity association in Brazil.

We use data from the Ribeirao Preto Cohort Study in Brazil in which 9067 newborns were recruited via their mothers in 1978/79 and one-in-three followed up in 2002/04 (23–25years). SES, based on family income (salaries, interest on savings, pensions and so on), was assessed at birth and early adulthood, and three different adiposity measures (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) ascertained at follow-up. The association between childhood SES, adult SES and social mobility (defined as four permutations of SES in childhood and adulthood: low–low, low–high, high–low, high–high), and the adiposity measures was examined using linear regression.

There was evidence that the association between SES and the three markers of adiposity was modified by gender in both adulthood (P<0.02 for all outcomes) and childhood SES (P<0.02 for WC and WHR). Thus, in an unadjusted model, linear regression analyses showed that higher childhood SES was associated with lower adiposity in women (coefficient (95% confidence intervals) BMI: −1.49 (−2.29,−0.69); WC: −3.85 (−5.73,−1.97); WHR: −0.03 (−0.04,−0.02)). However, in men, higher childhood SES was related to higher adiposity (BMI: 1.03 (0.28,−1.78); WC: 3.15 (1.20, 5.09); WHR: 0.009 (−0.001, 0.019)) although statistical significance was not seen in all analyses. There was a suggestion that adult SES (but not adult health behaviours or birthweight) accounted for these relationships in women only. Upward mobility was associated with protection against greater adiposity in women but not men.

In the present study, in men there was some evidence that both higher childhood and adulthood SES was related to a higher adiposity risk, while the reverse gradient was apparent in women.

Download full-text


Available from: Heloisa Bettiol, Jan 28, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the population, particularly in women. Obesity has an impact on the musculoskeletal system, leading to knee and ankle overexertion, difficulty with balance, and functional disability. The aim of this study was to identify changes in kinematic parameters of gait in obese young women. A case-control study with 24 obese women (mean age 35.20 ± 9.9 years and mean body mass index of 31.85 ± 2.94 kg/m(2)) and 24 eutrophic women (mean age of 36.33 ± 11.14 and mean body mass index of 21.82 ± 1.58 kg/m(2)). The gait of women was evaluated by the system Vicon Motus® 9.2. The linear parameters of speed, cadence, right and left step, and stride lengths were studied, as well as the angular parameters of knee and ankle. There was a decrease in linear gait parameters (P < 0.001), speed, cadence, right and left step, and stride lengths. In regard to the angular parameters of the knee and ankle, there were also differences between the analyses (P < 0.001). At the knee joint, obese women have delayed onset of the second wave of flexion, exacerbating such movement in order to compensate. In regard to the ankle, both groups showed curves of normal plantar flexion and dorsiflexion, but there was a delay in the path graph in the ankle of obese women indicating a reduced range of motion and possible over-exertion of the pretibial muscles and soleus muscles simultaneously. The results of this study revealed that obesity is a factor that negatively influences the kinematic parameters of gait of young women.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · International Journal of General Medicine
  • Source

    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Revista de Saúde Pública
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To analyze the association between social mobility, lifestyle and body mass index in adolescents. A cohort study of 1,716 adolescents aged 10 to 17 years of both sexes. The adolescents were participants in a cohort study and were born between 1994 and 1999. The adolescents, from public and private schools, were assessed between 2009 and 2011. Lifestyle was assessed by interview and anthropometry was used to calculatebody mass index. For the economic classification, both at pre-school age and in adolescence, the criteria recommended by the Brazilian Association of Research Companies were used. Upward social mobility was categorized as an increase by at least one class in economic status within a 10-year-period. Poisson regression was used to estimate the association between upward social mobility and the outcomes assessed. Among all respondents (71.4% follow-up of the cohort), 60.6% had upward social mobility. Among these, 93.6% belonged to socioeconomic class D and 99.9% to economy class E. Higher prevalence of social mobility was observed for students with black skin (71.4%) and mulatto students (61.9%) enrolled in public schools (64.3%) whose mothers had less schooling in the first evaluation (67.2%) and revaluation (68.7%). After adjustment for confounding variables, upward social mobility was associated only with sedentary behavior (p = 0.02). The socioeconomic class in childhood was more associated with the outcomes assessed than was upward mobility. Upward social mobility was not associated with most of the outcomes evaluated, possibly as it is discreet and because the period considered in the study may not have been sufficient to reflect substantial changes in lifestyle and body mass index in adolescents.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Revista de saude publica
Show more