Healthy lifestyle behaviors and all-cause mortality among adults in the United States. Prev Med
Division of Population Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. Preventive Medicine
(Impact Factor: 3.09).
04/2012; 55(1):23-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.04.016
To examine the links between three fundamental healthy lifestyle behaviors (not smoking, healthy diet, and adequate physical activity) and all-cause mortality in a national sample of adults in the United States.
We used data from 8375 U.S. participants aged ≥ 20 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 who were followed through 2006.
During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 745 deaths occurred. Compared with their counterparts, the risk for all-cause mortality was reduced by 56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35%-70%) among adults who were nonsmokers, 47% (95% CI: 36%, 57%) among adults who were physically active, and 26% (95% CI: 4%, 42%) among adults who consumed a healthy diet. Compared with participants who had no healthy behaviors, the risk decreased progressively as the number of healthy behaviors increased. Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval were 0.60 (0.38, 0.95), 0.45 (0.30, 0.67), and 0.18 (0.11, 0.29) for 1, 2, and 3 healthy behaviors, respectively.
Adults who do not smoke, consume a healthy diet, and engage in sufficient physical activity can substantially reduce their risk for early death.
Available from: Daniel Reidpath
- "The evidence on the role of particular lifestyles, smoking, binge drinking, lack of physical activity, and poor health care seeking, in increased risks for mortality and morbidity is compelling . Understanding the pathways through which these various " unhealthy " behaviours affect health is complicated by the broader ecological context in which they occur. "
- ") to cardiovascular disease (Alberg and Samet 2003; Ambrose and Barua 2004; Blair et al. 1996) and diabetes (Hu et al. 2001; Magliano et al. 2008), and are also associated with higher all-cause mortality (Ford et al. 2012) as well as reductions in physical functioning (Paterson and Warburton 2010) and cognitive reserve (Lee et al. 2010). Indeed, smoking alone may explain as much as 25% of the risk of mortality at midlife (Jha et al. 2013). "
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ABSTRACT: Education is a fundamental cause of social inequalities in health because it influences the distribution of resources, including money, knowledge, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections, that can be used in situ to influence health. Recent studies have highlighted early-life cognition as commonly indicating the propensity for educational attainment and determining health and age of mortality. Health behaviors provide a plausible mechanism linking both education and cognition to later-life health and mortality. We examine the role of education and cognition in predicting smoking, heavy drinking, and physical inactivity at midlife using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 10,317), National Survey of Health and Development (N = 5,362), and National Childhood Development Study (N = 16,782). Adolescent cognition was associated with education but was inconsistently associated with health behaviors. Education, however, was robustly associated with improved health behaviors after adjusting for cognition. Analyses highlight structural inequalities over individual capabilities when studying health behaviors.
© American Sociological Association 2015.
Available from: Paul D Loprinzi
- "Using the average of the two-day HEI scores, and consistent with other studies (Ford et al., 2012; Loprinzi et al., 2014c), participants at or above the 60th percentile (i.e. top 40%) of HEI scores in the sample were categorized as consuming a healthy diet. "
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Emerging work suggests an independent association of physical activity and healthy eating on diabetic retinopathy. No study, however, has examined whether physical activity and healthy eating have an additive and/or additive interaction effect on diabetic retinopathy. Methods: Data from 2005-2006 NHANES were used (N. = 223). Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry; healthy eating was assessed from an interview with the Healthy Eating Index calculated to represent healthy eating; and diabetic retinopathy was assessed from the Canon Non-Mydratic Retinal Camera CR6-45NM. Results: Physical activity (OR = 0.70, p = 0.42) and healthy eating (OR = 0.36, p = 0.16) were not independently associated with moderate-to-severe retinopathy. However, individuals with both health behaviors, compared to none, had a reduced odds of moderate-to-severe retinopathy (OR = 0.03, p = 0.02). Further, the attributable proportion (AR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.02-1.12, p < 0.05) was significant, suggesting that a significant proportion of retinopathy may be attributed to the additive interaction between inactivity and unhealthy eating. Conclusion: The concurrent presence of physical activity and healthy eating was associated with reduced odds of diabetic retinopathy, with the additive interaction effects suggesting that this observed association is more than summation.
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