Sebastián M, Pitta P, González JM, Thingstad TF, Gasol JM.. Bacterioplankton groups involved in the uptake of phosphate and dissolved organic phosphorus in a mesocosm experiment with P-starved Mediterranean waters. Environ Microbiol 14: 2334-2347
Departament de Biologia Marina i Oceanografia, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Pg Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, E08003 Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain. Environmental Microbiology
(Impact Factor: 6.2).
05/2012; 14(9):2334-47. DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2012.02772.x
The use of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) by different bacterial groups was studied in experimental mesocosms of P-starved eastern Mediterranean waters in the absence (control mesocosms) and presence of additional Pi (P-amended mesocosms). The low Pi turnover times in the control mesocosms and the increase in heterotrophic prokaryotic abundance and production upon Pi addition confirmed that the bacterial community was originally P-limited. The bacterioplankton groups taking up Pi and DOP were identified by means of microautoradiography combined with catalysed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization. Incubations with leucine were also performed for comparative purposes. All the probe-identified groups showed a high percentage of cells taking up Pi and DOP in the control, P-limited, mesocosms throughout the experiment. However, in response to Pi addition two contrasting scenarios in Pi use were observed: (i) on day 1 of the experiment Pi addition caused a clear reduction in the percentage of SAR11 cells taking up Pi, whereas Gammaproteobacteria, Roseobacter and Bacteroidetes showed similar percentages to the ones in the control mesocosms and (ii) on day 4 of the experiment, probably when the bacterial community had fully responded to the P input, all the probe-identified groups showed low percentages of cells taking up the substrate as compared with the control mesocosms. These differences are likely related to different P requirements among the bacterial groups and point out to the existence of two contrasting strategies in P use.
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Available from: Yin Chen
- "Membrane lipids were extracted and quantified as detailed previously (Popendorf et al., 2013), with the exception of the identification and characterization of glucuronic acid diacylglycerol (GADG) (see below). The bacterial community composition was evaluated by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ Lipid remodelling in marine heterotrophic bacteria M Sebastián et al 2 The ISME Journal hybridization as described elsewhere (Sebastián et al., 2012). Natural seawater samples were also collected at the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory (Western Mediterranean Sea) in August and September 2012 and processed as described above. "
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ABSTRACT: Upon phosphorus (P) deficiency, marine phytoplankton reduce their requirements for P by replacing membrane phospholipids with alternative non-phosphorus lipids. It was very recently demonstrated that a SAR11 isolate also shares this capability when phosphate starved in culture. Yet, the extent to which this process occurs in other marine heterotrophic bacteria and in the natural environment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the substitution of membrane phospholipids for a variety of non-phosphorus lipids is a conserved response to P deficiency among phylogenetically diverse marine heterotrophic bacteria, including members of the Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. By deletion mutagenesis and complementation in the model marine bacterium Phaeobacter sp. MED193 and heterologous expression in recombinant Escherichia coli, we confirm the roles of a phospholipase C (PlcP) and a glycosyltransferase in lipid remodelling. Analyses of the Global Ocean Sampling and Tara Oceans metagenome data sets demonstrate that PlcP is particularly abundant in areas characterized by low phosphate concentrations. Furthermore, we show that lipid remodelling occurs seasonally and responds to changing nutrient conditions in natural microbial communities from the Mediterranean Sea. Together, our results point to the key role of lipid substitution as an adaptive strategy enabling heterotrophic bacteria to thrive in the vast P-depleted areas of the ocean.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 13 November 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.172.
Available from: Stilianos Fodelianakis
- "be limited by phosphorus (Thingstad et al. 2005; Sebastian et al. 2012) or organic carbon (Teira et al. 2011) in the Mediterranean Sea, depending on the region. Therefore, the accumulation of nutrient-rich organic matter in the sediment in the vicinity of the cages can alter the stability and dynamics of the bacterial communities. "
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ABSTRACT: We investigated changes in sediment bacterial community structure across a spatial organic enrichment gradient associated with fish farms in two different sites in the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece). The observed trend was similar at both fish farms even though they are far from each other. The mean number of the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was not significantly different, either among samples across the organic enrichment gradient or between impacted and control samples at both fish farms. Nevertheless, community structure differed both within each site (impacted vs. control samples) and between the two sites. We found that most of between-site differences in community structure could be attributed to differences in grain size, redox potential of the sediment, and, to a lesser extent, chlorophyll α, while within-site differences were attributed to the distance from the cage and the median grain size. Sequenced DGGE bands that were present only at samples directly beneath the cages, affiliated with different phylogenetic groups at each site. These results indicate that aquaculture effluents affect the structure of sediment bacterial communities, but without any apparent impact on the number of the most abundant OTUs.
Available from: Manuela Hartmann
- "The other common marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus is also able to take up organic molecules but its photoheterotrophy is less consistent. For example, a higher proportion of Synechococcus cells than of SAR11 cells took up ATP in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, depleted in phosphate (Sebastian et al., 2012). In this study, it was shown that Synechococcus cells took up significantly more ATP than either SAR11 or Prochlorococcus cells (Table 2), however, in the present study Synechococcus uptake rate of ATP was light insensitive (Figure 6) whereas the uptake of amino acids by Synechoccocus cells did increase when exposed to light (Mary et al., 2008). "
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ABSTRACT: Subtropical oceanic gyres are the most extensive biomes on Earth where SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacterioplankton numerically dominate the surface waters depleted in inorganic macronutrients as well as in dissolved organic matter. In such nutrient poor conditions bacterioplankton could become photoheterotrophic, that is, potentially enhance uptake of scarce organic molecules using the available solar radiation to energise appropriate transport systems. Here, we assessed the photoheterotrophy of the key microbial taxa in the North Atlantic oligotrophic gyre and adjacent regions using (33)P-ATP, (3)H-ATP and (35)S-methionine tracers. Light-stimulated uptake of these substrates was assessed in two dominant bacterioplankton groups discriminated by flow cytometric sorting of tracer-labelled cells and identified using catalysed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridisation. One group of cells, encompassing 48% of all bacterioplankton, were identified as members of the SAR11 clade, whereas the other group (24% of all bacterioplankton) was Prochlorococcus. When exposed to light, SAR11 cells took 31% more ATP and 32% more methionine, whereas the Prochlorococcus cells took 33% more ATP and 34% more methionine. Other bacterioplankton did not demonstrate light stimulation. Thus, the SAR11 and Prochlorococcus groups, with distinctly different light-harvesting mechanisms, used light equally to enhance, by approximately one-third, the uptake of different types of organic molecules. Our findings indicate the significance of light-driven uptake of essential organic nutrients by the dominant bacterioplankton groups in the surface waters of one of the less productive, vast regions of the world's oceans-the oligotrophic North Atlantic subtropical gyre.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 25 October 2012; doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.126.
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