TLQP-21, a VGF-derived peptide, stimulates exocrine pancreatic secretion in the rat
The aims of this paper were to study: (1) the effects of TLQP-21 (non-acronic name), the C-terminal region of the VGF (non-acronic name), polypeptide (from residue 557 to 576 of VGF), on in vitro amylase release from rat isolated pancreatic lobules and acinar cells; (2) the mechanism through which TLQP-21 regulates exocrine pancreatic secretion, by using the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (10(-6)M) and the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (10(-6)M). On pancreatic lobules of rats, concentrations of TLQP-21 from 10(-7) to 10(-5)M significantly (p<0.05) induced a 2-3-fold increase of baseline pancreatic amylase release, measured at the end of 60 min incubation period. Co-incubation with atropine 10(-6)M did not antagonise the enzyme outflow induced by the peptide. On the contrary, co-incubation of TLQP-21 (10(-7) and 10(-6)M) with indomethacin, at concentration of 10(-6)M, which alone did not modify enzyme secretion, completely suppressed the increase of amylase evoked by TLQP-21 on pancreatic lobules. On rat pancreatic acinar cells, TLQP-21, at all the concentrations tested, was unable to affect exocrine pancreatic secretion, indicating an indirect mechanism of action on acinar cells. These results put in evidence, for the first time, that TLQP-21, a VGF-derived peptide, modulates exocrine pancreatic secretion in rats through a stimulatory mechanism involving prostaglandin release. In conclusion, TLQP-21 could be included among the neurohumoral signals regulating pancreatic exocrine secretion, and increases the knowledge concerning the systems controlling this function.
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[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia causes oxidative stress that could damage vascular endothelial cells, leading to cardiovascular complications. The Vgf gene was identified as a nerve growth factor-responsive gene, and its protein product, VGF, is characterized by the presence of partially cleaved products. One of the VGF-derived peptides is TLQP-21, which is composed of 21 amino acids (residues 556-576). Past studies have reported that TLQP-21 could stimulate insulin secretion in pancreatic cells and protect these cells from apoptosis, which suggests that TLQP-21 has a potential function in diabetes therapy. Here, we explore the protective role of TLQP-21 against the high glucose-mediated injury of vascular endothelial cells. Using human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), we demonstrated that TLQP-21 (10 or 50 nM) dose-dependently prevented apoptosis under high-glucose (30 mmol/L) conditions (the normal glucose concentration is 5.6 mmol/L). TLQP-21 enhanced the expression of NAPDH, resulting in upregulation of glutathione (GSH) and a reduction in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). TLQP-21 also upregulated the expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which is known as the main source of NADPH. Knockdown of G6PD almost completely blocked the increase of NADPH induced by TLQP-21, indicating that TLQP-21 functions mainly through G6PD to promote NADPH generation. In conclusion, TLQP-21 could increase G6PD expression, which in turn may increase the synthesis of NADPH and GSH, thereby partially restoring the redox status of vascular endothelial cells under high glucose injury. We propose that TLQP-21 is a promising drug for diabetes therapy.
- "One of its best characterized peptides is TLQP-21 (amino acid residues 556 to 576) . At present, several biological functions of this peptide have been identified, including negative effects on body weight via increased energy expenditure and control of gut functioning678, a gastroprotective role against ethanol injury via increased levels of constitutive nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) , and possible indirect regulation of pancreatic exocrine secretion . However, most of these reports were based on mammalian neuroendocrine systems, excluding human beings. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: VGF (non-acronymic), a protein expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary, is involved in the control of metabolism and body weight homeostasis. Different active peptide fragments are generated from VGF, including TLQP-21. Previous studies of our group reported that this molecule participates also in the regulation of reproductive function in male rats, with predominant stimulatory effects. Methods: We report herein a series of studies on the reproductive effects of TLQP-21 in female rats, as evaluated by a combination of in vivo and in vitro analyses. Results: TLQP-21 modestly increased serum LH levels after systemic administration and directly stimulated pituitary LH and FSH secretion in prepubertal female rats, while acute central injection of TLQP-21 was unable to modify LH secretion at this age. Repeated central administration of TLQP-21 during the pubertal transition (between PND-28 and -35) to female rats fed ad libitum advanced the timing of vaginal opening and increased the percentage of animals with signs of ovulation. Moreover, an analogous treatment slightly enhanced ovarian maturation in pubertal female rats subjected to chronic undernutrition, but was unable to rescue the delay of vaginal opening induced by food deprivation. In addition, TLQP-21 oppositely modified LH secretion in adult female rats depending on the stage of the ovarian cycle: it stimulated LH secretion when injected in the morning of diestrus and decreased the magnitude of the preovulatory LH (but not FSH) surge when injected in the afternoon of proestrus. Conclusions: Our data are the first to document the potential involvement of TLQP-21 in the control of reproductive function in female rats.
- "These observations were later confirmed by a large series of studies in Siberian hamsters and mice [2,91011121314 . Thereafter, different experimental studies proposed that these peptides were also involved in the control of gastrointestinal function, water balance, endocrine and exocrine pancreatic secretion, neural and pancreatic islet β-cell survival, inflammatory pain, stress responses and emotional behavior151617181920212223 . Among the different Vgf -derived peptides, TLQP-21 has drawn considerable attention as a potential regulator of metabolism and body weight homeostasis. "
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in the regulation of pancreatic secretion by secretagogues, modulatory proteins and neural pathways are discussed. Downstream events involved in secretagogue stimulation of pancreatic secretion have been elucidated through characterization of the Src kinase pathway. An additional mechanism regulating vagus nerve effects on the pancreas involves Group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors that are located presynaptically on certain vagal pancreas-projecting neurons. Hypothalamic neurons perceive glucose and regulate insulin release by direct communication with islets, and activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons by leptin enhances insulin secretion and modulates glucose but not energy homeostasis. Ghrelin and somatostatin mediate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by differential receptor signaling that is dependent on the amount of ghrelin and state of receptor heterodimerization. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and loss-of-function mutations of a key ER stress protein are associated with disruption of membrane translocation and reduction in insulin secretion. The importance of hormones, neuropeptides, amino acids, cytokines and regulatory proteins in pancreatic secretion and the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes are also discussed. The biomolecular pathways regulating pancreatic secretions are still not fully understood. New secretagogues and mechanisms continue to be identified and this information will aid in drug discovery and development of new and improved therapy for pancreatic disorders.