Nonrestorative sleep: Symptom or unique diagnostic entity?

Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Harbord Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3G5, Canada.
Sleep Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.15). 05/2012; 13(6):561-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2012.02.002
Source: PubMed


Nonrestorative sleep (NRS) refers to the subjective experience of sleep as insufficiently refreshing, often despite the appearance of normal sleep according to traditionally assessed objective parameters. This has led researchers to pursue alternative physiological markers of nonrestorative or unrefreshing sleep, though much of this research remains controversial and inconclusive. This review summarizes the recent findings on NRS in the literature and discusses some of the issues inherent in current efforts to define and measure NRS. We offer a summary of recommended clinical approaches to NRS and discuss a new potential paradigm for the assessment of NRS-an approach modelled on current diagnosis of insomnia.

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Available from: Kate Wilkinson, Feb 13, 2014
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    • "From a methodological perspective, it is also possible that the low internal consistency of this scale contributed in part to these findings. However, from a conceptual perspective, it may also be that feeling unrested or " bad " upon waking is an indicator of nonrestorative sleep, a common and peripheral symptom of insomnia that is not necessarily accompanied by sleep disturbances or lack of sleep (Stone, Taylor, McCrae, Kalsekar, & Lichstein, 2008; Wilkinson & Shapiro, 2012). Thus, procrastinators may apparently not have a lack of sleep, but because the quality of their sleep is poor without necessarily being accompanied by frequent waking , they feel unrested upon waking. "

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