Resilience in developmental psychopathology: Contributions of the Project Competence Longitudinal Study

Institute of Child Development, University of Minnestoa, 51 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
Development and Psychopathology (Impact Factor: 4.89). 05/2012; 24(2):345-61. DOI: 10.1017/S095457941200003X
Source: PubMed


Contributions of the Project Competence Longitudinal Study (PCLS) to resilience science and developmental psychopathology are highlighted in this article. Initiated by Norman Garmezy, the PCLS contributed models, measures, and methods, as well as working definitions of concepts like competence, developmental tasks, protective factors, and resilience. Findings from the study corroborated the feasibility of studying adaptation in a normative group of school children, identifying patterns of resilience, competence without major adversity, and maladaptive paths through life. Competence was multidimensional, showing continuity and change over time. Cascading effects across domains indicated that competence and problems spread over time. Thus, adult achievements in developmental tasks were rooted in childhood and adolescence. Young people who showed resilience had much in common with similarly successful peers who experienced less adversity over time, including high-quality relationships with parents and other adults, and good cognitive, as well as social-emotional, skills. Maladaptive youth in the study often faced high adversity with little adaptive capacity (internal or external) and tended to generate stressful experiences. Resilience often emerged in childhood and endured, but there also were late bloomers whose lives turned around in the transition to adulthood. The role of collaboration and mentorship in the PCLS is also discussed.

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    • "Desde esta perspectiva, se destacan aquellos recursos positivos o fortalezas del alumnado que permiten adquirir un funcionamiento óptimo en el entorno educativo (Kristjánsson, 2012). El constructo de resiliencia sobresale como elemento implicado en la adaptación exitosa del ser humano (Masten y Tellegen, 2012). Es un concepto científico emergente que ha ido adquiriendo una considerable atención en el ámbito de la psicología eductiva debido al relevante rol de la escuela como promotora de bienestar (Toland y Carrigan, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar las relaciones entre la resiliencia y los componentes conductual, emocional y cognitivo de la implicación escolar. Participaron 1.250 estudiantes de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (M = 13,72, DT = 1,09), de los cuales 612 (49%) eran chicos y 638 (51%) chicas. Se administraron los siguientes instrumentos de evaluación: la escala Connor-Davidson de Resiliencia (CD-RISC) y el Cuestionario de Implicación Escolar (SEM). Los resultados indican que los adolescentes resilientes presentan puntuaciones significativamente más altas que sus iguales no resilientes en implicación conductual, implicación emocional e implicación cognitiva. Este patrón de resultados es el mismo tanto para la muestra total como para las muestras en función del sexo y el nivel educativo. La discusión se centra en la importancia de fomentar el ajuste escolar de los adolescentes a través de la mejora de competencias socioemocionales.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
    • "Recognizing the fact that resilience can be developed through personal experience during the life course and specialized training, a group of researchers conceptualize it as the capacity to adapt to and bounce back from adversity and stressful events (Davidson et al., 2005; Prince-Embury & Saklofske, 2014). This concept has gained increased acceptance in the literature, including measurement tool development (Masten & Tellegen, 2012) and behavioural intervention research (Sood, Prasad, Schroeder, & Varkey, 2011). This conceptualization can also be applied to help understand why resilience sometimes looks like a trait because some individuals are born to be more resilient than others (Amstadter, Myers, & Kendler, 2014; Hansson et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Further advancement in stress and health research calls for better tools to assess resilience. In this study, we developed the Essential Resilience Scale (ERS) and investigated the association between ERS scores and several health and behaviour measures. We developed the ERS with an operationalized definition of resilience-an individual's capability to anticipate, be flexible with and bounce back from three types of traumatic and adverse events (physical, emotional and social). The 15-item ERS was assessed using survey data from a diverse sample (n = 238, aged 18-45 years, 76 rural-to-urban migrants, 85 rural residents, 77 urban residents) recruited in Wuhan, China. Results showed a high reliability of the ERS (α = 0.94). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a satisfactory fit of the proposed second-order ERS measurement model (goodness-of-fit index = 0.94, comparative fit index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.06, chi-square/df = 1.75). Multivariate regression analysis indicated that ERS scores significantly predicted perceived health status, stress, anxiety, depression and cigarette smoking after controlling for important covariates. Findings of this study indicate high reliability and validity of the scale and its potential use in advancing stress and health research. Further studies are implied to provide additional support for the ERS and its relations with other health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Stress and Health
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    • "multidimensional perspective on resilience is needed to obtain a broader understanding of this phenomenon (Luthar 2006; Masten and Tellegen 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study explores the phenomenon of resilience among older adolescents in foster care. Data from 351 youths approaching the age of emancipation were examined. Resilience was measured by a composite score combining six domains: educational attainment, and avoidance of teen pregnancy, homelessness, mental illness, substance use and criminal involvement. Increased physical abuse, a history of sexual abuse, placement instability and delinquency in youths’ original families were associated with lower resilience. Non-white race was associated with higher resilience even after risk and protective factors were controlled. These findings highlight factors that contribute to resilient functioning and may be targeted for interventions promoting competence among these high-risk youth.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
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