Hypertension in Women of Reproductive Age in the United States: NHANES 1999-2008

Division of Obstetric Anesthesia, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 04/2012; 7(4):e36171. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036171
Source: PubMed


To examine the epidemiology of hypertension in women of reproductive age.
Using NHANES from 1999-2008, we identified 5,521 women age 20-44 years old. Hypertension status was determined using blood pressure measurements and/or self-reported medication use.
The estimated prevalence of hypertension in women of reproductive age was 7.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.9%-8.5%). The prevalence of anti-hypertensive pharmacologic therapy was 4.2% (95% CI 3.5%-4.9%). The prevalence of hypertension was relatively stable across the study period; the age and race adjusted odds of hypertension in 2007-2008 did not differ significantly from 1999-2000 (odds ratio 1.2, CI 0.8 to 1.7, p = 0.45). Significant independent risk factors associated with hypertension included older age, non-Hispanic black race (compared to non-Hispanic whites), diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and higher body mass index. The most commonly used antihypertensive medications included diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE), and beta blockers.
Hypertension occurs in about 8% of women of reproductive age. There are remarkable differences in the prevalence of hypertension between racial/ethnic groups. Obesity is a risk factor of particular importance in this population because it affects over 30% of young women in the U.S., is associated with more than 4 fold increased risk of hypertension, and is potentially modifiable.

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    • "Stratified analyses were conducted for men and women [14], age-groups (<65 and 65+), different categories of the CCI, and ethnic groups. The latter offers the opportunity to evaluate whether the score holds across different ethnic groups and is in concordance with many other studies performed in NHANES [15-17]. We also assessed the association between the mortality score and the CCI by calculating the correlation coefficient and kappa’s coefficient of agreement between both measurements. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background A score based on serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and HDL cholesterol was positively associated with death from cancer, circulatory disease, and all-cause mortality. We replicated this in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a US nationally representative survey conducted between 1988–1994. Methods Baseline measurements of CRP, albumin, GGT, and HDL were available for participants with mortality follow-up (n=13,056). A biomarker score, ranging 0–4, was created by adding number of markers with abnormal values (cut-off: CRP>10mg/L, albumin<35mg/L, GGT>36U/L, HDL<1.04mmol/L). Its association with mortality was analyzed with multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results The score was positively associated with death from all causes, cancer and circulatory disease [e.g. HR all-cause mortality: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.35), 1.92 (1.67, 2.20), 3.38 (2.62, 4.36), and 7.93 (5.77, 10.89), for score 1, 2, 3, 4 vs.0]. These patterns were found across the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Where CCI =3, risk of cancer death was 1.09 (0.93, 1.28), 1.81 (1.43, 2.29), 4.67 (3.05, 7.14), and 6.97 (5.32, 9.14) for score 1, 2, 3, 4 vs. 0. No effect-modification by sex or race/ethnicity was observed. Conclusions These findings correlate with results from a Swedish study. This biomarker-based score could help clinicians make decisions in prevention and disease management.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · BMC Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Famine provides quasi-experimental conditions for testing the hypothesis of "programming" health effects by poor nutrition in early life. It remains uncertain whether early life exposure to famine increases the risk of hypertension in adulthood. There is a lack of data on the relative impact of exposure to famine during fetal development versus infancy (<2 years postnatal). We sought to assess the impact of exposure to the 1959-1961 Chinese Great Famine (the largest in human history) during fetal development and infancy on the risks of hypertension, short stature and obesity in adulthood. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 12,065 adults (46-53 years of age) born 1957-1964 in the Zhongshan and Nanhai municipalities of Guangdong province, China. Adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, as compared to subjects who were unexposed to famine, the risk of hypertension was not significantly elevated in subjects exposed to famine during fetal development only overall, but was 1.36-fold higher in those exposed during the first trimester of pregnancy only [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.36 (95% confidence intervals 1.03-1.79)], 1.83-fold higher in those exposed during infancy only [adjusted OR 1.83 (1.61-2.08)], and 1.31-fold higher in those exposed during both fetal development and infancy [adjusted OR 1.31 (1.14-1.51)]. Exposure to famine during infancy increased the risk of short stature. Early life exposure to famine did not increase the risk of obesity. Exposure to the Chinese Great Famine during the first trimester of pregnancy only, or during infancy only, or during both fetal development and infancy increased the risk of hypertension in adulthood, suggesting an important role of changes in exposure to famine during fetal development and from prenatal to early postnatal life in developmental "programming" cardiovascular disease risk.
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