Shilajit: evalution of its effects on blood chemistry of normal human subjects

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Abstract
The effect of Shilajit on blood chemistry was studied in normal human volunteers. Administration of two gms of Shilajit for 45 days did not produced any significant change in physical parameters i.e. blood pressure, pulse rate and body weight and similarly no charge was observed in hematological parameters. A signification reduction in Serum Triglycerides, Serum cholesterol with simultaneous improvement in HDL Cholesterol was seen, besides Shilajit also improved antioxidant status of volunteers. Results of study suggest hypolipidemic and strong antioxidant activity of Shilajit.
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Ancient Science of Life Vol : XXIII(2) October, November, December 2003 3DJHV
SHILAJIT: EVALUTION OF ITS EFFECTS ON BLOOD
CHEMISTRY OF NORMAL HUMAN SUBJECTS
Pravenn Sharma1, Jagrati Jha1, V. Shrinivas2, L.K. Dwivedi2,
P. Suresh2 and M. Sinha1
1Department of Biochemistry, SMS Medical College, Jaipur – 302 004.
2National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur – 302 004.
Received : 03-02-2003 Accepted: 26-08-2003
ABSTRACT: The effect of Shilajit on blood chemistry was studied in normal human volunteers.
Administration of two gms of Shilajit for 45 days did not produced any significant change in
physical parameters i.e. blood pressure, pulse rate and body weight and similarly no charge was
observed in hematological parameters. A signification reduction in Serum Triglycerides, Serum
cholesterol with simultaneous improvement in HDL Cholesterol was seen, besides Shilajit also
improved antioxidant status of volunteers. Results of study suggest hypolipidemic and strong
antioxidant activity of Shilajit.
INTRODUCTION:
Shilajit is a bituminous substance which is
compact mass of vegetables matter composed
of dark, red, gummy matrix interspersed with
vegetable fibres, sand and earthy matter (1).
In ‘folklore’ medicine Shilajit has been
implicated in several clinical conditions and is
being prescribed by Ayurvedic physicians for
the treatment of diabetes, jaundice, gall
bladder disease and renal calculi, enlarged
spleen, digestive troubles, fermentative
dyspepsia, adiposity, anasarca, anuri, hysteria,
neurological diseases, amenorrhoea,
dysmenorrhoea and menorrhagia, genitor –
urinary diseases, tuberculosis, leprosy,
eczema, anemia, anorexia, chronic bronchitis,
asthma, fracture of bones and many other
clinical conditions. It has also been claimed
that “There is hardly any curable diseases
which cannot be controlled / cured with the
aid of Shilajit” (2,3,4) Survey of literatures
reveals that there are only a few studies which
have been carried out systematically to
understand therapeutic and biological action
of Shilajit. Aqueous suspension of Shilajit
has been found to have analgesic and anti –
inflammatory activity without any toxic effect
given in dose of 1 gm./kg body weight to
albino mice (5). More recently researchers
have indicated antistress and adaptogenic (6)
and antioxidant action of Shilajit (7).
Ghoshal and Bhattacharya (1996) reported
that processed Shilajit provides significant
antioxidants defence as compared to native
Shilajit, which has weak antioxidant action
(8). Various Therapeutic actions of Shilajit
have been attributed to its active principles
fulvic acid and dialphabenzopyrones.
Although Shilajit has been claimed to cure
several diseases, its effect on blood chemistry,
organ functions and antioxidant action has not
been examined in vivo, hence the present
study is an attempt to examine the effect of
Shilajit on blood chemistry of normal human
subjects.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
30 medical students from National Institution
of Ayurveda, Jaipur participated in the present
Pages 114 - 119
2
study ranging in age from 16 to 30 years. A
written consent was obtained from each of
them and they were appraised of the purpose
of study. Care was taken to ensure that all the
subjects were from similar socioeconomic
status, symptom free, without any obvious
clinical disorder on examination, not taking
any drug therapy, vitamins and health booster,
non smokers and lacto vegetarian and non
pregnant. Subjects were administered with 2
gms Shilajit per day in the form of capsules of
500 mg. each.
Crude Shilajit was procured from Pharmacy
of National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, and
purified by one of us (V.S) who is an
Ayurvedic Physician himself by “Agnitapi”
method. (9, 10) Purification of Shilajit by
Agnitapi method essentially involves four
steps. 1. Soaking in water/preparation of
solution of Shilajit. 2. Filteration – to remove
impurities and practicles. 3. Boiling of clear
watery filtrate until a thick viscous liquid is
obtained. 4. Drying of thick viscous liquid
obtained in preceding step in incubator at
500C. The purity of processed Shilajit so
obtained was assessed by Ayurvedic method-
“Jalapariksha” and “Agnipariksha”. Shilajit
has a characteristic solubility, shape, from and
smoke. Capsules of 500 mg. of processed
and purified Shilajit were prepared.
Processed Shilajit was analyzed at Dabur
Research Foundation for its active principles.
Figure 1 shows fingerprints of purified
Shilajit relation to standard. Its chemical
analysis is given in Table 1. All the subjects
were clinically examined by one of us (V.S)
and their body weight, pulse rate, blood
pressure and history of any past illness were
carefully recorded. Double blind placebo
study was carried out and 20 subjects were
administered with two grams Shilajit per day
(4 capsules of 500 mg. each) under the
supervision of Ayurvedic physician and 10
subjects were given sugar capsules (placebo).
Subjects were unaware of the contents of
capsule.
Blood samples were drawn before and after
45 days of supplemention of Shilajit and
analyzed of Sugar, Urea, Creatinine, Total
Protein, Albumin, A/G Ration, Uric Acid,
SGOT, SGPT, Alkaline Phosphatase,
Triglycerides (TG), Cholesterol, HDL, LDL
and VLDL on Merck selectra auto analyzer
using standard kits. SOD was analysed by
kits supplied by Randox, Vitamin C and E
analysed by manual methods (11,12)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Study was conducted on 30 normal healthy
human subjects in the age range 16-30 years.
Median age 24 years, out of which 20
subjects were given 2 gms of purified Shilajit
and 10 were placebo controls. Processed
Shilajit was procured from crude (native)
Shilajit through several steps of purification.
Native Shilajit is found to be contaminated
with polymeric quinines, microbial debris and
heavy metals (13, 14). These contaminants
are required to be removed by purification.
Purified Shilajit improves its beneficial
effects in living system. (Ghosal and
Bhattacharya 1996).
Processed Shilajit was found to be positive for
benzopyrones and fulvic acid contents, which
are considered as its active principles.
Purified Shilajit, used in present study
contains 6.61% (w/w) fulvic acid (Table 1).
Supplementation of 2 gms Shilajit for 45 days
to normal healthy subjects did not produce
any significant change in blood pressure,
pulse rate and body weight. Similarly no
change in hemoglobin level and cell counts
could be appreciated. Effect of processed
Shilajit on biochemical parameters is
summarized in Table 2, which shows that it
has no significant (p>0.05) effect on blood
sugar, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total protein,
Pages 114 - 119
3
albumin, SGOT, SGPT and Alkaline
Phosphatase level. It has to be borne in mind
that the study was conducted in normal
conditions in normal subjects and most of the
drugs do not affect biochemical parameters in
normal conditions. But an important
observation emerges from this study that
Shilajit does not adversely affect liver and
kidney functions, which is evident from
SGOT, SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase, Urea,
Creatine and Uric acid levels. However at the
same time there was a significant reduction in
serum TG, Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and
VLDL Cholesterol levels and significant
improvement in HDL Cholesterol level.
Decrease in serum TG and Cholesterol level
(p<0.01) with simultaneous increase in HDL
suggests its hypolipidemic and cardio
protective activity. Further more its effects on
serum SOD; Vitamin E and Vitamin C have
also been examined. SOD is one of the
important antioxidant enzymes, which
removes the super oxide radical in the front
line of defense against oxidative stress, while
vitamin C and E are important nutrient
antioxidants, which prevent lipid per
oxidation. Shilajit significantly increased
SOD, Vitamin E and Vitamin C levels of
blood (p<0.01). Increase in antioxidant level
suggests its sparing effect on antioxidants and
strengthens the protective system to prevent
damages caused by reactive oxygen species
and also against the oxidative stress.
Antioxidant activity of Shilajit could be
attributed to its fulvic acid contents. Fulvic
acid plays as a bi-directional super
antioxidant i.e. as electron donors and
acceptors, depending upon the need for
balance in the situation. If it encounters free
radicals with unpaired positive electron it
supplies an equal and opposite negative
charge to neutralize it, likewise, if free
radicals carry a negative charge, the fulvic
acid molecule can supply positive unpaired
electron to nullify that charge. Ghosal and
Bhattacharya (1996) has also, observed in an
in vitro study that processed Shilajit provides
a significant oxidative defense by scavenging
singlet oxygen (8). Result of the study
suggests that Shilajit has hypolipidemic and
antioxidant action. However that extracts
mechanism of action is not yet fully
understood and further study is needed to
examine its effects in particular diseases,
which alter these biochemical parameters.
Bibliography:
1. Chopra R.N., Chopra I.C., Handa, K.L and Kapoor, L.D Indigenous drugs of India : Dhar &
Sons Pvt. Ltd., Calcutta 2nd Edition (1973).
2. Nadkarni, Indian Materica Media, 2:23-32, 1993.
3. Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Stana Chowkambha Orientalia, E:25-26, 1996.
4. Pandit Vishwanath, Bhavapraksha Nighnathu, Monthil Banarasidas Publication, 370, 1998.
5. Goshal S., Phytother. Res., 2(4), 187, 1988.
6. Bhattacharya S.K., Sen A.P. and Goshal S. Phytother. Res., 8, 1-4, 1994.
7. Goshal S., Mukharjee B and Bhattacharya S.K. Ind J. Indg. Med., 17(1), 1-11, 1995.
Pages 114 - 119
4
8. Goshal S. and Bhattacharya S.K. Indian Journal of chemistry vol. 35 B, 127-132, 1996.
9. Damodar Joshi, Rasamitram, Ed. 1.257-262, 1998.
10. Rasatantra Sara and Siddha Prayoga Samgraha Publication Krishnan Gopal Kaleda, Ajmer,
part 1. Ed. 9th, 63-64, 1961.
11. Natelson S: Serum ascorbic acid estimation using dinitro phenyl hydrazine. In Techniques
of Clinical Chemistry, Springfield, Charles C Thomas 162, 1971.
12. Baker, H and Frand O, in Clinical vitaminology, methods and interpretation, Interscience
publisher. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York. P. 172, 1968.
13. Goshal S, Pure and Appl Chem (IUPAC), 62, 1285, 1990.
14. Goshal S, Traditional medicine, edited by B. Mukharjee (Oxford – IBH, New Delhi), 308,
1993.
Pages 114 - 119
5
TABLE 1
Analysis of Drug (Shilajit)
Dabur Research Foundation Analytical Report – No _ 050622
TEST Description SAMPLE
(PURIFIED)
Dark brown powder
Positive
Identification
Test for Benzopyrones
Test for Fulvic acids Positive
PH. 10% w/v Aq. Dispersion 6.37
Moisture content (KF) (%w/w) 9.50
Water soluble extractive value (%w/w) 92.13
Total ash content (%w/w) 15.35
Acid insoluble ash content (%w/w) 1.25
Assay as crude Fulvic Acid (%w/w) 6.61
Table 2
Effect of Shilajit on blood chemistry (Values are Mean ± SD)
Group 1
(Placebo)
n = 10
(without supplementation)
Group 2
n = 20
(Supplementation of
Shilajit)
S.
NO PARAMETER
Before After Before After
01
02
03
04
05
06
SUGAR (mg/dl)
UREA (mg/dl)
CREATININE (mg/dl)
URIC ACID (mg/dl)
TOTAL PROTEIN (g/dl)
ALBUMIN (g/dl)
76.3 ± 8.28
24.0 ± 3.68
1.0 ± 0.118
4.67 ± 1.06
7.09 ± 0.27
3.97 ± 0.24
76.1 ± 7.85
22.8 ± 5.05
0.97 ± 0.11
4.55 ± 1.11
6.99 ± 0.30
3.90 ± 0.18
79.3 ± 8.00
26.5 ± 6.00
0.99 ± 0.13
4.6 ± 0.65
7.05 ± 0.35
3.95 ± 0.201
75.8 ± 7.18
24.1 ± 5.70
0.96 ± 0.22
4.3 ± 0.65
7.1 ± 0.237
4.00± 0.087
Pages 114 - 119
6
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
A/G RATIO
SGOT (U/L)
SGPT (U/L)
ALK. PHOSPHATASE (U/L)
TRIGLYCERIDES (mg/dl)
CHOLESTEROL (mg/dl)
HDL (mg/dl)
LDL (mg/dl)
VLDL (mg/dl)
SOD (U/L)
VIT C (mg/dl)
VIT E (mg/dl)
1.26 ± 0.06
29.4 ± 6.03
19.7 ± 2.10
154.9±32.7
114.1±40.19
142.9±13.92
41.57 ± 1.38
78.55 ± 7.37
22.83 ± 7.99
186.5±37.07
0.71 ± 0.08
0.98 ± 0.09
1.22 ± 0.10
28.4 ± 5.64
20.4 ± 2.57
153.4 ± 34.7
115.6±40.76
142.3±12.78
41.4 ± 2.24
77.77 ± 6.25
23.13 ± 8.15
188.9±35.79
0.75 ± 0.09
1.03 ± 0.11
1.21 ± 0.083
32.2 ± 6.12
20.8 ± 3.02
160.1 ± 22.9
116.9 ± 24.6
145.3±15.33
41.2 ± 2.30
81.8 ± 8.11
23.30 ± 4.92
160.5±13.2
0.72 ± 0.09
0.95 ± 0.11
1.25± 0.102
28.7 ± 7.81
19.3 ± 2.49
151.6±26.32
92.7±39.12*
125.1±17.17*
43.6 ± 1.99*
63.30 ± 7.36 *
18.50 ± 7.82*
200.7±2.81*
0.99 ± 0.09*
1.28 ± 0.13 *
Statistical comparison was done before and after values: *p<0.01; rest not signature p>0.05.
Pages 114 - 119
  • ... In holistic medicine, Ayurveda, Shilajit is used for NAFLD care. Shilajit (mineral pitch) has a dark-brown color and has been used for over 3000 years as a remedy, for rejuvenation [11]. Shilajit is a juicy liquid that drains out of high-altitude rocks during summer. ...
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    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the main common cause of chronic liver disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Shilajit, a medicine of Ayurveda, on the liver damage caused by NAFLD. Materials and methods Forty male Wistar rats, after being established as fatty liver models by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD, 12 weeks), were divided randomly into five groups as follows: control (standard diet), vehicle (HFD + distilled water), high-dose Shilajit (HFD + 250 mg/kg Shilajit), low-dose Shilajit (HFD + 150 mg/kg Shilajit) and pioglitazone (HFD + 10 mg/kg pioglitazone). The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose and liver glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, liver weight, and histopathological manifestation outcomes were measured after the 2-week intervention. Results Shilajit treatment significantly reduced the values of AST and ALT, TG, TC, LDL, glucose, liver weight, and steatosis, and instead, increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared with the vehicle group (p < 0.05). Further, Shilajit treatment improved the adverse effects of HFD-induced histopathological changes in the liver as compared with the vehicle group (p < 0.001). MDA level and GPx activity increased but SOD activity decreased in the vehicle group compared with the control group (p < 0.05), while treatment with Shilajit restored the antioxidant/oxidant balance toward a significant increase in the antioxidant system in the Shilajit group (p < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that Shilajit improved the histopathological NAFLD changes in the liver and indicated the potential applicability of Shilajit as a potent agent for NAFLD treatment.
  • ... Furthermore, basic skin function tests demonstrated no adverse effect of shilajit on skin health in middle-aged women. Our findings are consistent with previous findings that have demonstrated the safety of shilajit (40,41). ...
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    Objective: Shilajit is a pale-brown to blackish-brown organic mineral substance available from Himalayan rocks. We demonstrated that in type I obese humans, shilajit supplementation significantly upregulated extracellular matrix (ECM)–related genes in the skeletal muscle. Such an effect was highly synergistic with exercise. The present study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT02762032) aimed to evaluate the effects of shilajit supplementation on skin gene expression profile and microperfusion in healthy adult females. Methods: The study design comprised six total study visits including a baseline visit (V1) and a final 14-week visit (V6) following oral shilajit supplementation (125 or 250 mg bid). A skin biopsy of the left inner upper arm of each subject was collected at visit 2 and visit 6 for gene expression profiling using Affymetrix Clariom™ D Assay. Skin perfusion was determined by MATLAB processing of dermascopic images. Transcriptome data were normalized and subjected to statistical analysis. The differentially regulated genes were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA®). The expression of the differentially regulated genes identified by IPA® were verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Supplementation with shilajit for 14 weeks was not associated with any reported adverse effect within this period. At a higher dose (250 mg bid), shilajit improved skin perfusion when compared to baseline or the placebo. Pathway analysis identified shilajit-inducible genes relevant to endothelial cell migration, growth of blood vessels, and ECM which were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Conclusions: This work provides maiden evidence demonstrating that oral shilajit supplementation in adult healthy women induced genes relevant to endothelial cell migration and growth of blood vessels. Shilajit supplementation improved skin microperfusion.
  • ... In our study, improvement of blood antioxidants (SOD and GPx) and decreased MDA level may be due to the active metabolites of individual herbs such as Withania somnifera (Sitoindosides VII-X and Withaferin A), Shilajit (Dibenzo Alpha Pyrones, Humic acid and Fulvic acid), Tribulus terrestris (Protodioscin) (Ghosal 1990;Bhattacharya et al., 1997;Gauthaman et al., 2002;Sharma et al., 2003) [6, 2, 5, ] and Turnera diffusa (Apigenin) (Kumar et al., 2006;Kumar et al., 2008) [9,8] . This was the first pilot study conducted on the blood oxidative stress markers to evaluate the effect of herbal supplementation on blood oxidative stress markers in subfertile buffalo bulls. ...
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    The present study was conducted to minimize the oxidative stress in subfertile buffalo bulls by oral supplementation of herbal mixture. The study was conducted in three phases of 60 days each. Three subfertile buffalo bulls were supplemented with herbal mixture containing Panax ginseng roots, Shilajit, Withania somnifera roots, Tribulus terrestris fruits, Turnera diffusa leaves; Ptychopetalum olacoides bark each @ 400 mg/100 kg body weight and Pausinystalia yohimbe bark @ 300 mg/100 kg body weight of bulls. Blood samples were collected once in a week during all the three phases. Lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated in blood samples. Herbal supplementation significantly (P<0.05) reduced the lipid peroxidation in supplementation (401.18 ± 20.06 μmole/gm Hb) and post-supplementation (259.69 ± 11.35 μmole/gm Hb) phases. The activity of SOD increased during supplementation (982.50 ± 111.63 U/gm Hb/min) and post-supplementation (1632.71 ± 140.57 U/gm Hb/min) phases. GPx activity was significantly (P<0.05) increased only during supplementation phase (35.17±6.06 U/gm Hb/min). In conclusion, the supplementation of herbs reduces the oxidative stress in subfertile buffalo bulls.
  • ... Some discrete information are available regarding the individual use of herbs in small animals and humans (Kopalli et al., 2015;Biswas et al., 2009;Ambiye et al., 2013;Adaay et al., 2012;Ferrini et al., 2015;Kumar et al., 2008;Neha et al., 2017). In our study, the improvement in semen quality and antioxidant activity might be due to the antioxidant function of active metabolites like Ginsenosides of Panax ginseng (Leung et al., 2013), humic acid, fulvic acid and Dibenzo Alpha Pyrones of Shilajit ( Sharma et al., 2003;Ghosal, 1990), sitoindosides VII-X and withaferin A of Withania somnifera ( Bhattacharya et al., 1997), ...
  • ... The enhancement of semen quality and reduction in lipid peroxidation (MDA) during treatment and post-treatment phases may be due to the antioxidant and adaptogenic nature of bioactive components of supplemented herbs. Ginsenosides [33,37,13] , sitoindosides VII-X and withaferin A of Withania somnifera Kulkarni et al., 2008) [5,19] , Ptychopetalum olacoides (Antunes et al., 2001) [3] and yohimbine of Pausinystalia yohimbe (Neha et al., 2017) [28] reduced the lipid peroxidation by elevation of free radicals scavenging enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) levels as reported in the rat, mice and rabbits in chronic disease conditions Dhuley, 1998) [4,10] . Improvement in semen quality may be due to the improved androgen level in the body due to Tribulus terrestris's active component protodioscin as reported in the primates (Gauthaman et al., 2002;Gauthaman et al., 2003) [14,15] . ...
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    The present experiment was conducted to study the impact of herbal treatment on post thaw semen quality and lipid peroxidation level in subfertile buffalo bulls. Three Murrah subfertile buffalo bulls maintained at bull station, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU), Ludhiana, India (Latitude/Longitude, 30.55°N, 75.54° E) with the history of poor semen quality (pre-freeze individual motility < 60%, post-thaw individual motility < 40%, Viability : < 70% and Abnormality: > 20%) were orally supplemented with herbal mixture (Panax ginseng roots, Shilajit, Withania somnifera roots, Tribulus terrestris fruits, Turnera diffusa leaves, Ptychopetalum olacoides bark of each 400 mg/100 kg body weight and 300 mg/100 kg body weight of Pausinystalia yohimbe bark) daily for 60 days of treatment phase. Two semen ejaculates per week per bull were collected during pre-treatment, treatment and post-treatment phases of 60 days each and extended with Tris egg yolk extender. The freezing of extended semen was carried out in a biofreezer (i.e. 4 °C to -15 °C @-30 °C/min, -15 °C to -140 °C @-50 °C/min). Further, the post thaw semen was assessed in terms of individual motility, viability, total sperm abnormalities, mitochondrial membrane activity (TMRM fluorescent dye), intact acrosome and plasma membrane integrity. Further, the lipid peroxidation level was assessed in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA). During the treatment and post-treatment phase, individual motility, viability, total sperm abnormalities, mitochondrial membrane activity and intact acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were significantly (P<0.05) higher. Moreover, lipid peroxidation was significantly (P<0.05) lower during treatment phase and it remained similar (P>0.05) during the post-treatment phase in contrast to pre-treatment phase.
  • ... Objective 10 X Phase Image Pixels -1.48 pixels/unit Camera frequency (FPS) 160 Frame rate (FPS) 60 Frames acquired (FPS) 60 Detection of motility parameters Non progressive limit (µm/sec) 0-10 Slow progressive limit -(µm/sec) 10-25 Rapid progressive limit -(µm/sec) >=25 Improvement of sperm motion traits may be due the complex interactions or synergetic or adaptogenic or antioxidant effects of bioactive components like Ginsenosides of Panax ginseng (Leung et al., 2013), humic acid, fulvic acid and Dibenzo Alpha Pyrones of Shilajit (Sharma et al., 2003;Ghosal, 1990), sitoindosides VII-X and with a ferin A of Withania somnifera (Bhattacharya et al., 1997), protodioscin of Tribulus terrestris (Gauthaman et al., 2002), Apigenin of Turnera diffusa (Kumar et al., 2006), Ptychopetalum olacoides (Antunes et al., 2001) and yohimbine of Pausinystalia yohimbe (Neha et al., 2017). ...
  • ... Variations in color of shilajit are generally due to differences in the content of minerals such as iron, copper, and silver (Ghosal, 2006;Agarwal et al., 2007). The physiological and pharmacological effects of shilajit are attributed to the DBPs, DBP chromoproteins (DBPs conjugated to proteins), fulvic acid, and various polymeric forms of fulvic acid (Ghosal, 2006;Sharma et al., 2003;Schepetkin et al., 2003;Raju, 2012). Some individuals believed that the primary effects of shilajit were due to the ability of fulvic acid constituents to chelate the minerals associated with the product and facilitate cellular penetration (Agarwal et al., 2007;Carrasco-Gallardo et al., 2012). ...
    Chapter
    Shilajit (mumie, moomiyo, mummiyo, mumijo, salajeet) is a resinous phyto-mineral exudate found in sedimentary rocks that has been used for many years for a wide variety of illnesses and health benefits. In recent years, a growing number of studies have been published involving humans, animal, and in vitro systems in support of its uses and health-related effects. Animal and human studies support its use as a “revitalizer,” promoting physical and mental energy, enhancing physical performance, and relieving fatigue in association with enhanced ATP production. Various published research studies indicate that shilajit exhibits adaptogenic, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, and neurological properties. Studies also show that shilajit enhances spermatogenesis. Based on animal and human studies, the safety of shilajit is well documented. Shilajit is standardized to fulvic acids, and key constituents in shilajit responsible for its effects appear to be fulvic acids comprising oxygenated dibenzo-a-pyrones (DBPs) and their derivatives. The current literature regarding the efficacy and safety of shilajit is reviewed.
  • ... Herbo-mineral drug like Prabhakar vati along with lekhana basti possesses potent antianginal and cardio protective activities 11 and it can be used effectively in the management to slow down the progress of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis leading to various coronary artery diseases especially stable angina 12 Supplementation of Shilajit significantly reduces serum triglycerides level, cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and VLDL cholesterol levels and significant improvement in HDL cholesterol level 13 Commiphora mukul decreased the total cholesterol level, LDL, triglycerides and the total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol ratio 14 Curcuma longa is useful in endothelial inflammation and also helps to keep interleukins and TNF under control. Draksharishta is useful in keeping the oxidation of LDL under control 15 the herb Gymnema sylvestre possesses cardio protective activity 16 ...
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  • ... Supplementation of Shilajit significantly reduces serum triglycerides level, cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and VLDL cholesterol levels and significant improvement in HDL cholesterol level [9]. Commiphora mukul decreased the total cholesterol level, LDL, triglycerides and the total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol ratio [10], Curcuma longa is useful in endothelial inflammation and also helps to keep interleukins and TNF under control. ...
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    The author believes that a coordinated effort must be undertaken with collaboration of Ayurvedic and herbal preparations, which are affordable, low cost and free from side effects and available at home along with the recently evolved therapies of modern cardiology, like spinal cord stimulation, enhanced external counter pulsations, gene therapy and Trans-myocardial laser. The role of fiber rich and low fat diet cannot be underemphasized. The emotional component of the disease can be best managed by Yoga and meditation. All these together would converge in perfect synchrony to serve as a holistic approach to the management of refractory angina and will greatly improve the quality of the life of the patients.
  • ... In our study, improvement of blood antioxidants (SOD and GPx) and decreased MDA level may be due to the active metabolites of individual herbs such as Withania somnifera (Sitoindosides VII-X and Withaferin A), Shilajit (Dibenzo Alpha Pyrones, Humic acid and Fulvic acid), Tribulus terrestris (Protodioscin) (Ghosal 1990;Bhattacharya et al., 1997;Gauthaman et al., 2002;Sharma et al., 2003) [6, 2, 5, ] and Turnera diffusa (Apigenin) (Kumar et al., 2006;Kumar et al., 2008) [9,8] . This was the first pilot study conducted on the blood oxidative stress markers to evaluate the effect of herbal supplementation on blood oxidative stress markers in subfertile buffalo bulls. ...
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