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The 10-20-30 training concept improves performance and health profile in moderately trained runners

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The effect of an alteration from regular endurance to interval (10-20-30) training on the health profile, muscular adaptations, maximum oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), and performance of runners was examined. Eighteen moderately trained individuals (6 females and 12 males; Vo(2max): 52.2 ± 1.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) (means ± SE) were divided into a high-intensity training (10-20-30; 3 women and 7 men) and a control (CON; 3 women and 5 men) group. For a 7-wk intervention period the 10-20-30 replaced all training sessions with 10-20-30 training consisting of low-, moderate-, and high-speed running (<30%, <60%, and >90% of maximal intensity) for 30, 20, and 10 s, respectively, in three or four 5-min intervals interspersed by 2 min of recovery, reducing training volume by 54% (14.0 ± 0.9 vs. 30.4 ± 2.3 km/wk) while CON continued the normal training. After the intervention period Vo(2max) in 10-20-30 was 4% higher, and performance in a 1,500-m and a 5-km run improved (P < 0.05) by 21 and 48 s, respectively. In 10-20-30, systolic blood pressure was reduced (P < 0.05) by 5 ± 2 mmHg, and total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was lowered (P < 0.05) by 0.5 ± 0.2 and 0.4 ± 0.1 mmol/l, respectively. No alterations were observed in CON. Muscle membrane proteins and enzyme activity did not change in either of the groups. The present study shows that interval training with short 10-s near-maximal bouts can improve performance and Vo(2max) despite a ∼50% reduction in training volume. In addition, the 10-20-30 training regime lowers resting systolic blood pressure and blood cholesterol, suggesting a beneficial effect on the health profile of already trained individuals.
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The 10-20-30 training concept improves performance and health
profile in moderately trained runners
T. P. Gunnarsson and J. Bangsbo
Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Section of Integrated Physiology, University of Copenhagen,
Copenhagen, Denmark
Submitted 15 March 2012; accepted in final form 2 May 2012
Gunnarsson TP, Bangsbo J. The 10-20-30 training concept im-
proves performance and health profile in moderately trained runners.
J Appl Physiol 113: 16 –24, 2012. First published May 3, 2012;
doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00334.2012.—The effect of an alteration
from regular endurance to interval (10-20-30) training on the health
profile, muscular adaptations, maximum oxygen uptake (V
˙O
2max
), and
performance of runners was examined. Eighteen moderately trained
individuals (6 females and 12 males; V
˙O
2max
: 52.2 1.5
ml·kg
1
·min
1
) (means SE) were divided into a high-intensity
training (10-20-30; 3 women and 7 men) and a control (CON; 3
women and 5 men) group. For a 7-wk intervention period the
10-20-30 replaced all training sessions with 10-20-30 training con-
sisting of low-, moderate-, and high-speed running (30%, 60%,
and 90% of maximal intensity) for 30, 20, and 10 s, respectively, in
three or four 5-min intervals interspersed by 2 min of recovery,
reducing training volume by 54% (14.0 0.9 vs. 30.4 2.3 km/wk)
while CON continued the normal training. After the intervention
period V
˙O
2max
in 10-20-30 was 4% higher, and performance in a
1,500-m and a 5-km run improved (P0.05) by 21 and 48 s,
respectively. In 10-20-30, systolic blood pressure was reduced (P
0.05) by 5 2 mmHg, and total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
cholesterol was lowered (P0.05) by 0.5 0.2 and 0.4 0.1
mmol/l, respectively. No alterations were observed in CON. Muscle
membrane proteins and enzyme activity did not change in either of the
groups. The present study shows that interval training with short 10-s
near-maximal bouts can improve performance and V
˙O
2max
despite a
50% reduction in training volume. In addition, the 10-20-30 training
regime lowers resting systolic blood pressure and blood cholesterol,
suggesting a beneficial effect on the health profile of already trained
individuals.
high-intensity training; maximal oxygen uptake; blood pressure;
plasma lipid profile; muscular adaptations
IT IS WELL ESTABLISHED that untrained individuals have major
muscle adaptations and increase in maximum oxygen uptake
(V
˙O
2max
) and performance after a period of endurance training
(10, 15, 24, 29, 31, 33, 35, 38, 39). On the other hand, for
already trained individuals it appears necessary to intensify the
training and include exercise bouts at an intensity close to or
slightly above the intensity corresponding to V
˙O
2max
, to obtain
improvements in V
˙O
2max
and performance (11, 18, 25, 45, 48).
Training at maximal and near-maximal exercise intensities
seems also to be effective in creating muscular adaptations,
such as increases in the activity of oxidative enzymes, and
expression of Na
-K
pump subunits and lactate and H
transporters, and endurance performance improvement in un-
trained individuals (5, 8, 33). Even well-trained individuals
improved short-term performance after having carried out
training with 30-s maximal running bouts for a 4-wk period,
despite a 64% reduction in training volume (20). When com-
bining training with 30-s sprints and, on separate days, aerobic
high-intensity training consisting of 4 4 min with a heat rate
of 90 –100% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), long-term per-
formance was also improved although the training volume was
lowered by 25% (4). In these studies the improvements in
performance were associated with a better running economy
and an increased amount of Na
-K
pump subunits 1 and 2.
In accordance, running economy has been shown to be better
after a period of interval (6, 14, 18, 43), plyometric (36, 42, 44,
46), and strength (32) training. Furthermore, studies on well-
trained subjects, who either performed strength training (30) or
increased their training intensity (13, 29), have reported in-
creased Na
-K
pump concentrations as determined by the
[
3
H]ouabain-binding technique. In contrast, Aughey et al. (3)
did not find changes in the abundance of any of the Na
-K
pump isoforms when already trained subjects performed a
period of intensified training. The lack of effect in the latter
study may have been a result of the exercise intensity being
below the one corresponding to V
˙O
2max
. Nevertheless, the
changes in the expression of Na
-K
pump may affect per-
formance, since Nielsen et al. (34) observed that elevated
levels of Na
-K
pump
1
- and
2
-subunits after 8 wk of
knee-extensor training at supramaximal exercise intensities
were associated with a reduced muscle interstitial K
concen-
tration during exercise as well as better performance during
intense exercise (34). In addition, other muscle ion transport
proteins, such as the Na
/H
exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) and
monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1 and MCT4),
facilitating lactate and H
exchange across the muscle mem-
brane, have been shown to be changed with intense training
and may have contributed to the improved short-term perfor-
mance (7, 20 –22, 33). It is, however, unclear whether training
using 10-s near-maximal sprints has the same effect as 30-s
intervals and whether combining aerobic and anaerobic train-
ing (19), i.e., maintaining a relatively high HR during training,
can affect V
˙O
2max
and performance and lead to adaptations in
the trained muscles. Such type of training is performed in the
10-20-30 concept where the participant in a 5-min period is
alternating between low speed for 30 s, moderate speed for 20
s, and high-speed running (90% of maximal speed) for 10 s.
It is clear that physical activity has a significant impact on
the health profile in untrained individuals. Thus a typical
response for a sedentary individuals to a period of endurance
training is a reduction in blood pressure (BP) and lowering of
the blood cholesterol levels (37). However, less is known about
the effect of intense intermittent training. In a recent study
Nybo et al. (35) found in untrained individuals a lowering in
systolic BP after 12 wk of interval training (40 min/wk at an
Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: J. Bangsbo, August
Krogh Bldg., Section of Integrated Physiology, Universitetsparken 13, DK-
2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark (e-mail: jbangsbo@ifi.ku.dk).
J Appl Physiol 113: 16 –24, 2012.
First published May 3, 2012; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00334.2012.
8750-7587/12 Copyright ©2012 the American Physiological Society http://www.jappl.org16
intensity corresponding to 95% of HRmax), but no change in
diastolic BP and resting HR was observed. In contrast all
variables were lowered in a group performing endurance train-
ing for 150 min at 80% of HRmax per week. The blood lipid
profile, expressed as a ratio between total- and high-density
lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, did not change in the interval
group whereas there was a 15% reduction in the endurance
training group. The difference may be related to the shorter
training duration in the interval group. In a study by Kraus et
al. (23), 111 sedentary overweight men and women with mild
to moderate dyslipidemia were randomly assigned to either a
control group or training group for 8 mo. In two of the training
groups (moderate intensity) participants either jogged for 19
(low amount) or 32 (high amount) km/wk at 65– 80% of
V
˙O
2max
, and in a third group participants walked for 19 km/wk
at 40 –55% of V
˙O
2max
(low amount; low intensity). Only the high
amount, moderate-intensity training group lowered the concentra-
tion of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and raised the concentration
of HDL, suggesting that moderate-, but not low-, intensity training
can have beneficial effects on the lipoprotein profile. In a recent
study Williams (49) showed that exercise intensity was inversely
associated with the prevalence of elevated BP and blood choles-
terols independent of cardiorespiratory fitness and amount of
exercise, suggesting that the higher the exercise intensity the
greater the health benefits. However, it is unclear whether training
at near-maximal intensity can affect the health profile of already
trained subjects.
Thus the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis
that 7 wk of 10-20-30 training can improve endurance perfor-
mance, cardiovascular fitness, and health profile as well as
induce muscular adaptations in already trained subjects.
METHODS
Subjects
Eighteen moderately trained subjects (12 men and 6 women) with
an age, height, weight, and V
˙O
2max
of 33.8 1.6 yr, 178.8 2.1 cm,
75.2 3.5 kg, and 52.2 1.5 ml·kg
1
·min
1
, respectively, partici-
pated in the study. The subjects were divided into a group training after
the 10-20-30 concept (10-20-30; n10) (see below) and a control group
(CON; n8). Groups were matched by V
˙O
2max
(52.2 2.4 and 52.3
2.0 ml·kg
1
·min
1
, respectively) and performance in a 5-km run (23.03
1.06 and 23.03 1.25 min, respectively). Furthermore, groups did not
differ in age, weight, and body mass index, and there were 3 female
runners in each group. All participants were fully informed of experi-
mental procedures and any discomforts associated with participating in
the study before signing a written informed consent. This study con-
formed to the code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Decla-
ration of Helsinki) and the Title 45, U.S. Code of Federal Regulations,
Part 46, Protection of Human Subjects, Revised November 13, 2001, and
was approved by the Ethics Committee of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg
communities.
Experimental Design
In a 7-wk intervention period the 10-20-30 training group trained
by the 10-20-30 training concept replacing all regular training ses-
sions with three weekly 10-20-30 training sessions and CON contin-
ued with their regular endurance training (see Training). Four weeks
prior to as well as before and after the intervention period the subjects
underwent a series of tests: 1) a treadmill test to determine V
˙O
2max
and
maximal aerobic speed (MAS), 2) a 1,500-m run, and 3) a 5-km run
(see Testing). In addition, on a separate day before and after the
intervention period, subjects reported to the laboratory after an over-
night fast and had a blood sample taken and BP measured. Further-
more, before, during (week 4), and after the intervention period, a
biopsy from the vastus lateralis muscle was taken.
Training
Prior to the intervention period subjects had two to four weekly training
sessions with a training volume of 27.3 2.8 km lasting 137.5 13.4
min with no difference (P0.05) between 10-20-30 and CON with
regard to weekly training volume (30.4 4.3 and 24.1 3.6 km) or
weekly duration of training (155.9 19.9 and 119.2 16.4 min),
respectively.
The 10-20-30 training concept consisted of a standardized 1.2 km
warm-up at a low intensity followed by 3– 4 5 min running
interspersed by 2 min of rest. Each 5-min running period consisted of
five consecutive 1 min intervals divided into 30, 20, and 10 s at an
intensity corresponding to 30%, 60%, and 90 –100% of maximal
intensity (determined from 5-Hz GPS data), respectively. During the
intervention period 10-20-30 had 3 weekly training sessions with a
volume of 14.0 0.6 km/wk (including warm-up). In the first 4 wk,
10-20-30 conducted three 5-min intervals and, in the remaining 3 wk,
four 5-min intervals per training session. The total high-speed running
amounted to 8.6 0.5 min/wk during the intervention period. In CON
the weekly training volume (24.8 3.4 and 24.1 3.6 km) and time
spent (132.4 16.6 and 119.2 16.4 min) during the intervention
period was the same as before the intervention period.
Testing
Prior to all testing subjects refrained from severe physical activity
for at least 48 h and all testing was at least 3 h after ingestion of a
meal. The subjects performed 1) a 1,500-m run, 2) a 5-km run, and
3) an incremental test to exhaustion on a motorized treadmill (see
below). The subjects were familiarized to all testing protocols on at
least one separate occasion, and all tests were preceded by a thorough
and standardized 15-min warm-up program. Calculation of the indi-
vidual running speed (60% and 75% of MAS) was based on a V
˙O
2max
test performed within the last 2 wk prior to the study.
1,500-m run. The 1,500-m test consisted of 3.75 laps on a 400-m
synthetic track. Subjects were wearing a HR monitor (Polar team
system, Polar, Electro Oy) but did not wear watches during the
1,500-m and thus were not aware of running time. The running time
for the first 400 m (1 lap) was given. Time to complete the 1,500 m
was used as the test result.
5-km run. The 5-km test consisted of 12.5 laps on a 400-m
synthetic track. Subjects were wearing a HR monitor (Polar team
system, Polar, Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) but did not wear
watches during the 5-km run and thus were not aware of running time.
The time for the first 1,000 m (2.5 laps) was given. The time to
complete the 5-km was used as the test result.
Incremental test to exhaustion. The participants reported to the
laboratory 1 h before the V
˙O
2max
test. After 20 min of rest in the
supine position, a muscle biopsy from the vastus lateralis muscle was
collected through an incision made in the skin under local anesthesia
(20 mg/ml lidocaine without norepinephrine) and a catheter (18
gauge, 32 mm) was placed in an antecubital vein. In addition, a HR
monitor (Polar team system, Polar, Electro Oy) was placed on the
subject and HR was recorded in 5-s intervals to determine peak HR.
The treadmill test protocol consisted of 2 6 min running at 60 and
75% of MAS interspersed with 2 min of rest. After the two submaxi-
mal running bouts an incremental test to exhaustion was performed
starting with 3 min at 75% of MAS. Hereafter running speed was
increased by 1 km/h every minute until volitional fatigue. V
˙O
2max
was
measured throughout the protocol with a breath-by-breath gas analyz-
ing system (Oxycon Pro, Viasys Healthcare, Hoechberg, Germany)
that was calibrated before each test. V
˙O
2max
was determined as the
highest value achieved during a 30-s period. Criteria used for achieve-
ment of V
˙O
2max
were a plateau in V
˙O
2
despite an increased running
1710-20-30 Training Improves Performance and Health Profile Gunnarsson TP et al.
J Appl Physiol doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00334.2012 www.jappl.org
speed and a respiratory exchange ratio above 1.15. Blood samples
during the test were collected in heparinized 2-ml syringes before and
immediately after each of the running bouts and at exhaustion as well
as 1, 3, and 5 min in recovery of the incremental test to exhaustion.
Immediately after being taken, the blood sample was stored on ice and
analyzed for blood lactate using an ABL 800 Flex (Radiometer,
Copenhagen, Denmark).
Health Profile
Subjects reported to the laboratory between 6 and 10 A.M. on a
separate day after an overnight fasting. After resting for at least 15
min in the supine position, BP was measured six consecutive times by
an automatic upper arm BP monitor (M7, OMRON, Vernon Hills, IL)
and fasting blood and plasma lipoproteins, hemoglobin, iron, glucose,
myoglobin, creatine kinase, cortisol, insulin, and triglycerides were
determined under standardized conditions.
Muscle Analysis
The muscle sample was immediately frozen in liquid N
2
and stored
at 80°C. The frozen muscle tissue samples were weighed before and
after freeze drying to determine the water content. After freeze drying,
connective tissue, visible fat, and blood were carefully dissected away
in the samples. Dissecting was done under a stereomicroscope with an
ambient temperature of 18°C and a relative humidity below 30%.
Muscle ion transport proteins. A part of the muscle sample taken
at rest (4 –5 mg dry wt) was homogenized on ice in a fresh batch of
buffer (10% glycerol, 20 mM Na-pyrophosphate, 150 mM NaCl, 50
mM HEPES, 1% Nonidet P-40, 20 mM -glycerophosphate, 10 mM
NaF, 2 mM PMSF, 1 mM each of EDTA and EGTA and 10 g/ml
each aprotinin and leupeptin and 3 mM benzamidine) with a Polytron
3100 (Kinematica) for not more than 30 s. After rotation end over end
for 1 h, the samples were centrifuged for 30 min at 17,500 gat 4°C,
and lysates were collected as the supernatant. Protein concentrations
were determined in the lysates using BSA standards (Pierce Re-
agents). The lysates were diluted to appropriate protein concentrations
ina6sample buffer (0.5 M Tris-base, DTT, SDS, glycerol, and
bromphenol blue), and equal amount of total protein (5–15 gin
accordance with the antibody optimization) were loaded for each
sample in different wells on 10% precasted Tris·HCl gels (Bio-Rad
Laboratories, Hercules, CA). For comparisons, samples from the same
subject were always loaded on the same gel. The gel electrophoresis
ran for 80 –100 min with 55 mA and a maximum of 150 V per gel.
Afterward proteins were blotted to a polyvinylidene difluoride mem-
brane using 70 mA and a maximum of 25 V per gel in 2h.The
membranes were incubated overnight with 20 –30 ml of primary
antibody diluted in either 2% nonfat milk [monoclonal Na
-K
pump
1-subunit (100 kDa), 1:500 dilution (C464.6, no. 05–369, Milli-
pore); polyclonal 2-subunit (100 kDa), 1:500 dilution (no. 07–
674, Millipore); and monoclonal 1-subunit (50 kDa), 1:1,000
dilution (MA3–930, Affinity BioReagents)] or 3% BSA [monoclonal
NHE1 (100 kDa), 1:500 dilution; polyclonal MCT1 (43 kDa),
1:1,000 dilution; and polyclonal MCT4 (43 kDa), 1:1,000 dilution
(MAB3140, AB3538P, and AB3316P, Millipore)]. After being
washed briefly in a Tris-buffered saline-Tween, membranes were in-
cubated with secondary antibody for 1 h at room temperature. The
secondary horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antibodies used were
diluted 1:5,000 in 2% nonfat milk or 3% BSA depending on the
primary antibody (P-0447, P-0448, and P-0449, DakoCytomation).
The membrane staining was visualized by incubation with a chemi-
luminescent horseradish peroxidase substrate (Millipore) immediately
before the image was digitalized on a Chemi Doc MP (Bio-Rad
Laboratories). Net band intensities were quantified using Image Lab
(Image Lab v. 4.0, Bio-Rad Laboratories).
Data treatment. Double determinations were made for the muscle
samples, i.e., the biopsies were divided and kept in two parts before
freeze drying, resulting in two results for the same time point. The
mean signal intensity of the two samples was used as the result for the
individual time point. The intensity of the individual time points were
divided with the mean intensity of the pre values within the group, to
show the variation in the pre-biopsies.
Muscle enzymes. A part of the muscle sample (2mgofdry
weight) was homogenized (1:400) in a 0.3 M phosphate BSA buffer
adjusted to pH 7.7 and phosphofructokinase (PFK), hydroxyacyl-CoA
dehydrogenase (HAD), and citrate synthase (CS) muscle enzyme
activity was determined fluorometrically as described by Lowry and
Passonneau. (27).
Statistics
Student’s unpaired t-tests were used before the intervention period
to compare subject characteristics (V
˙O
2max
, 5-km performance, age,
weight, and body mass index) as well as before and during the
intervention to compare group differences in training volume and
time. Changes in performance (5 km and 1,500 m), BP, resting HR,
pulmonary V
˙O
2
, fasting blood, and plasma samples (total cholesterol,
LDL- and HDL-lipoproteins, hemoglobin, iron, glucose, myoglobin,
creatine kinase, cortisol, insulin, and triglycerides) and enzyme activ-
ities were evaluated using a two-way ANOVA for repeated measures,
Fig. 1. Average heart rate during a representative training session for the
10-20-30 (dashed line) and control (CON; solid line) group during the
intervention period (A) and time spent in various heart rate zones during a
training session in the 10-20-30 (filled bars) and CON (open bars) group (B).
HRmax, maximal heart rate. See Training for description of 10-20-30 group.
18 10-20-30 Training Improves Performance and Health Profile Gunnarsson TP et al.
J Appl Physiol doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00334.2012 www.jappl.org
with time as one factor and group as the other factor. When a
significant interaction was detected, data were subsequently analyzed
using a Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test. Changes in blood
lactate during treadmill running before and after the intervention were
evaluated using a two-way ANOVA for repeated measures with
sample time as one factor and time (pre vs. post) as the other factor
within each group. Group differences in blood lactate response within
pre and post were evaluated using a two-way ANOVA with group as
one factor and sample time as the other factor. Changes in muscle
membrane transport proteins were evaluated using a one-way
ANOVA for repeated measures with time (before and after 4 and 7
wk) as the factor. A significance level of P0.05 was chosen. Data
are presented as means standard error of the mean (SE) unless
stated otherwise.
RESULTS
HR Response to Training
Average and peak HR for 10-20-30 and CON were 85 1
vs. 82 2 and 96 1 vs. 87 2% of HRmax, respectively.
The largest difference in the HR response to training in
10-20-30 and CON was time spent above 90% of HRmax,
which amounted to 11.1 and 0 min corresponding to 43 and 0%
of weekly training time, respectively (Fig. 1).
Performance
In 10-20-30, performance improved (P0.01) by 6% in the
1,500-m run (5.79 0.22 vs. 6.16 0.29 min) and 4% in the
5-km run (22.26 0.90 vs. 23.07 1.07 min) during the 7-wk
intervention period whereas performance was not changed in
CON (Fig. 2).
Pulmonary V
˙O
2
In 10-20-30 V
˙O
2max
was 4% higher (P0.05) after the
intervention period (53.8 2.3 vs. 51.6 1.9 ml·kg
1
·min
1
),
whereas no change was observed in CON (Table 1). V
˙O
2
at
running speeds of 9.9 and 12.4 km/h before and after the
intervention period was not different in either of the groups
(Table 1).
Fasting Blood and Plasma Values
After the intervention period total cholesterol (4.3 0.3 vs.
4.8 0.4 mmol/l) and LDL cholesterol (2.7 0.3 vs. 2.3
0.3 mmol/l) was lower (P0.05) in 10-20-30, whereas no
changes were observed in CON (Fig. 3). No changes were
found in blood hemoglobin and plasma iron, glucose, myoglo-
bin, creatine kinase, cortisol, insulin, and triglycerides during
the intervention period in either of the groups (Table 2)
Resting BP and HR
In 10-20-30, systolic BP at rest was lower (P0.05) after
the intervention period (122 3 vs. 127 4 mmHg), whereas
no change was observed in CON (Fig. 4). Diastolic BP was the
same before and after the intervention period in both 10-20-30
(76 3 vs. 75 3 mmHg) and CON (67 4 vs. 65 3
mmHg). Also resting HR was unaltered in 10-20-30 (55 3
vs. 53 3 beats/min) and CON (52 2 vs. 49 3 beats/min).
Muscular Adaptations
The Na
-K
pump subunits 1, 2, and 1 as well as
NHE1, MCT1, and MCT4 were not changed during the inter-
vention period in either of the groups (Fig. 5). Likewise, no
changes were observed in the CS, HAD, or PFK activity during
the intervention period (Table 3).
Fig. 2. Performance during a 5-km (A) and 1,500-m (B) before (Pre) and after
(Post) the 7-wk intervention period for the 10-20-30 and control (CON) group.
*Different (P0.001) from Pre.
Table 1. V
˙O
2max
and V
˙O
2
during two submaximal running
bouts before (Pre) and after (Post) the 7-wk intervention
period for the 10-20-30 and the control group
10-20-30 CON
Pre Post Pre Post
V
˙O
2max
l/min 3.98 0.29 4.16 0.31* 3.84 0.22 3.91 0.23
ml kg
1
min
1
51.6 1.9 53.8 2.3† 52.3 1.6 53.5 1.6
V
˙O
2
,mlkg
1
km
1
9.9 km/h 214 7 214 5 214 8 213 7
12.4 km/h 210 5 213 4 206 7 210 6
Values are means SE. V
˙O
2
, oxygen consumption; V
˙O
2max
, maximal
oxygen consumption; CON, control. See Training for description of 10-20-30
protocol. *Different (P0.05) from Pre. †Different (P0.01) from Pre.
1910-20-30 Training Improves Performance and Health Profile Gunnarsson TP et al.
J Appl Physiol doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00334.2012 www.jappl.org
Blood Lactate Response to Treadmill Running
Before and after the intervention period, blood lactate at rest,
after submaximal running, and after the exhaustive running
was the same for both 10-20-30 and CON (Table 4). Likewise,
no group differences within pre and post were observed.
DISCUSSION
The major findings of the present study were that after 7 wk
of 10-20-30 training, with a 50% reduction in training
volume, V
˙O
2max
was elevated by 4% and performance in a
1,500-m and a 5-km run improved by 21 and 48 s, respectively.
Furthermore, the 10-20-30 training led to a marked reduction
in systolic BP as well as a lowering of total cholesterol and
LDL-cholesterol.
The 7-wk period with 10-20-30 training led to an improve-
ment in the 1,500-m and 5-km run of 6% and 4%, respectively,
despite a 54% reduction in training volume. The major differ-
ence between the 10-20-30 training and the normal training
was the speed during the 10-s intervals (20 km/h), being
much higher than the pace before the intervention period
(10-14 km/h), which was similar to the speed during the 20-s
and higher than the 30-s exercise periods in the 10-20-30
Fig. 3. Total cholesterol (A), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; B), and high-density
lipoprotein (HDL; C) before (Pre) and after (Post) the 7-wk intervention period for
the 10-20-30 and control (CON) group. *Different (P0.01) from Pre.
Table 2. Blood hemoglobin and plasma iron, glucose,
myoglobin, creatine kinase, cortisol, insulin, and
triglycerides after overnight fasting before (Pre) and after
(Post) the 7-wk intervention period for the 10-20-30 and the
control group
10-20-30 CON
Pre Post Pre Post
Hemoglobin, mmol/l 9.0 0.1 8.9 0.2 9.0 0.3 9.0 0.3
Iron, mol/l 19.7 2.1 20.9 3.0 21.7 1.8 21.3 2.2
Glucose, mmol/l 5.1 0.3 5.1 0.2 4.9 0.2 4.7 0.1
Myoglobin, g/l 51 4.6 54 3.2 52 5434
CK, U/l 317 147 140 17 229 49 122 21
Cortisol, nmol/l 467 63 466 59 444 23 463 19
Insulin, pmol/l 35 7334.3 31 3414
Triglycerides, mmol/l 1.4 0.4 1.2 0.2 1.1 0.3 0.9 0.2
Values are means SE. CK, creatine kinase.
Fig. 4. Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) before (Pre) and after (Post) the 7-wk
intervention period for the 10-20-30 and the control (CON) group. *Different
(P0.05) from Pre.
20 10-20-30 Training Improves Performance and Health Profile Gunnarsson TP et al.
J Appl Physiol doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00334.2012 www.jappl.org
training. Iaia et al. (20) found an elevated short-term (0.5–2
min) performance, but no difference in the 10-km time when
endurance-trained subjects for 4 wk replaced their normal
training (45 km/wk) with 30-s intervals at near-maximal
speed (8 –12 intervals per session) and reduced the amount of
training by 64%. In agreement with the present study,
Bangsbo et al. (4) not only found improvement in short-term
performance, but also in performance at a 10-km (37 vs. 36
min) after 6 –9 wk with a reduced training volume of 30%
and adding repeated 30-s near-maximal running intervals as
well as training sessions with four 4-min intervals at an
intensity of 90 –100% of HRmax. Other studies have shown
2– 6% improvements in endurance performance in endurance-
trained subjects when increasing the speed during training, but
the speed has been around the one corresponding to the V
˙O
2max
and the amount of training has not been reduced (25, 26, 45,
47, 48). Taken together it appears that not only the 30-s
near-maximal speed intervals are efficient in improving both
Fig. 5. Muscle Na
-K
pump subunits (1,
2, and 1), Na
/H
exchanger 1 (NHE1),
and monocarboxylate transporters 1 (MCT1)
and 4 (MCT4) expression before (open bars),
after 4 (hatched bars) and 7 (filled bars) wk of
the intervention period for the 10-20-30 (A)
and the control (B) group.
Table 3. Citrate synthase,
-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, and phosphofructokinase activity before (Pre) and after 4 wk
(Mid), and 7 wk (Post) of the 7-wk intervention period for the 10-20-30 and the control group
10-20-30 CON
Pre Mid Post Pre Mid Post
CS, mol g dry wt
1
min
1
34 3364322324312272
HAD, mol g dry wt
1
min
1
18 1191171152161141
PFK, mol g dry wt
1
min
1
193 18 168 17 182 22 241 32 201 6 183 49
Values are means SE. CS, citrate synthase; HAD, -hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase; PFK, phosphofructokinase.
2110-20-30 Training Improves Performance and Health Profile Gunnarsson TP et al.
J Appl Physiol doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00334.2012 www.jappl.org
short- and long-term performance, but also, as demonstrated in
the present study, that training with 10-s speed intervals have
a major impact on performance.
In the present study V
˙O
2max
increased by 4% although the
total volume was reduced by 54%. It may be explained by the
HR being higher during the training than before the interven-
tion despite the short intense intervals (40 vs. 0% of
training time spent above 90% of HRmax; Fig. 1), suggesting
that a high cardiac stress in combination with a reduction
in training volume can elevate V
˙O
2max
. A number of other
studies have observed increase in V
˙O
2max
in trained subjects
when performing intensified training but without a reduction in
training volume (11, 18). In contrast, studies using 30-s near-
maximal speed intervals separated by 3 min of recovery does
not seem to lead to an increase in V
˙O
2max
(4, 20), suggesting
that continuing the running after the high speed in the 10-20-30
training concept highly stimulates the cardiovascular system.
On the other hand, the muscle oxidative system appears not to
have been affected, since the activity of muscle CS and HAD
was unchanged, which is in accordance with the findings in the
study by Bangsbo et al. (4). This is in contrast to observed
increases in oxidative enzymes with repeated short-term max-
imal exercise when performed with untrained individuals
where most types of metabolic stress may lead to oxidative
adaptations (8, 16, 28). The higher V
˙O
2max
may explain the
better 5-km performance after the 10-20-30 intervention pe-
riod. It was not due to a better running economy as it was
unchanged at a speed close to the pace during the 5-km run
(13.3 0.4 km/h). Other studies have found a lower oxygen
uptake during submaximal running after a period with 30-s
near-maximal intervals (4, 20). Apparently, the longer duration
of the intervals is important for the adaptations leading to a
better running economy. Likewise, there was no change in the
lactate response to submaximal exercise, suggesting that this is
not of critical importance for the 5-km performance.
We observed no changes in muscle Na
-K
pump subunits,
NHE1, MCT1, and MCT4. In contrast, the studies using 30-s
intervals for trained subjects have found increases in Na
-K
pump subunits 1, 2, and 1, NHE1, and MCT1 (4, 20). It
may be explained by the lower volume of high-speed running,
since the weekly time in the 10-20-30 training with high-speed
running was 150 –200 s which is approximately two-thirds of
that reported (300 s/wk) in the other studies (4, 20). Another
possibility is that greater metabolic stress and changes in ion
homeostasis may be needed during training to obtain adapta-
tions in the ion transport proteins. During the near-maximal
repeated 30-s exercise intervals, muscle lactate rose to levels
50 mmol/kg dry wt, muscle pH was lowered to 6.98, and
accumulation of potassium in the blood was 6.2 mmol/l,
likely reflecting concentrations above 10 mmol/l in the muscle
interstitium (33). Such changes were probably significant less
during the 10-s speed intervals used in the present study.
An interesting finding in the present study was that the
10-20-30 training period reduced the resting systolic BP in
these already trained subjects. It is well established that a
period of endurance and other types of training, such as soccer
training, lowers systolic BP of untrained subjects (2, 24, 35, 40,
41), but to our knowledge this is the first study to show that
intense training has this effect on systolic BP in trained
subjects. In a recent study by Gosselin et al. (17), no difference
in systolic and diastolic BP was found when comparing 20 min
of normal endurance training (70% of V
˙O
2max
) with four
different high-intensity training protocols. However, the inten-
sities were significantly lower (90% of V
˙O
2max
) than in the
present study (90 –100% of maximal intensity). The underlying
mechanism for the lowered BP is not clear but is likely
multifactorial and involves modulation in the activity of the
autonomic nervous system, neurohumoral and structural adap-
tations, as well as a reduction in systemic vascular resistance
(9, 37). The lack of change in resting HR rate may suggest that
the sympathetic outflow was not changed after the training
period. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism
of the reduction in systolic BP. Nevertheless, the observed
5-mmHg decrease in systolic BP is of clinical relevance as a
decrease of that magnitude is likely to reduce the risk of
cardiovascular death by 10-15% (37).
A significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL-choles-
terol was also observed after the 10-20-30 intervention period.
This finding suggests that the subjects obtained a better health
profile, since high levels of total and LDL-cholesterol are
associated with a higher risk of death and major adverse
cardiovascular events. Thus a reduction in LDL of 1 mmol/l
results in a 25% reduced cardiovascular risk, independent of
baseline LDL levels (12). In accordance with the present study
Randers et al. (41) also found a lowering of blood cholesterol
when using soccer training as an intervention. On the other
hand, in a number of studies the cholesterol levels were not
changed, although the subjects were untrained (2, 24, 35). The
diverging results may be related to differences in the training
intensity. In the study by Krustrup et al. (24) the subjects
performed moderate-speed running as the subjects in CON in
the present study (80% of HRmax). The subjects in the study
by Nybo et al. (35) carried out repeated high-intensity running
(2-min intervals), but at an intensity below the speed eliciting
V
˙O
2max
(V
˙O
2max
95% of HRmax), and significantly lower
than used in the 10-20-30 training (10 s at 95% of maximal
Table 4. Blood lactate at rest and after submaximal and exhaustive treadmill running before (Pre) and after (Post) the 7-wk
intervention period for the 10-20-30 and the control group
Rest
Running Speed
Exhaustion
Recovery
9.9 km/h 12.4 km/h 1 min 3 min 5 min
10-20-30
Pre 1.3 0.2 1.8 0.3 3.2 0.7 10.3 1.1 10.1 1.1 10.2 1.4 9.8 1.2
Post 1.2 0.1 2.0 0.2 3.4 0.5 10.7 0.9 10.1 0.7 10.5 0.6 10.2 0.6
CON
Pre 1.0 0.1 1.6 0.2 3.1 0.4 9.4 0.9 8.9 0.4 10.1 0.7 9.9 0.8
Post 1.4 0.2 2.1 0.3 3.3 0.3 9.3 0.5 9.5 0.5 9.8 0.6 10.0 0.4
Values are means SE.
22 10-20-30 Training Improves Performance and Health Profile Gunnarsson TP et al.
J Appl Physiol doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00334.2012 www.jappl.org
speed). This could indicate that the improvement of the plasma
lipid profile requires training at speeds above V
˙O
2max
. How-
ever, further studies are needed to examine the cause of these
changes in blood cholesterol.
In summary, the present study shows that the 10-20-30
training concept is efficient in increasing performance. Despite
a50% reduction in training volume, V
˙O
2max
and performance
were significantly elevated in moderately trained subjects with-
out changes in running economy, muscle oxidative enzymes,
and ion transport proteins. In addition, the 10-20-30 training
led to reduced resting systolic BP and blood cholesterol,
suggesting a better health profile for already trained subjects.
Perspectives
The 10-20-30 training concept is easy adapted in a busy
daily schedule as it reduces time needed for training (30 min
including warm-up) and positively affects short- and long-term
performance capacity. Furthermore, the present study is the
first to show an improved cardiovascular health profile in
trained subjects, which is in line with a prospective study by
Albert et al. (1) suggesting that habitual vigorous exercise, as
in the present study, diminishes the risk of death. The 10-20-30
concept is easy applicable for a variety of individuals ranging
from the sedentary to the elite runner where the 10-20-30
concept may be used prior to a competition as the marked
reduction in training volume in the present study (50%) led
to significant improvements in performance. Since the 10-
20-30 concept deals with relative speeds and includes both
low-speed running and 2-min rest periods, individuals with
different fitness levels can train 10-20-30 together.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank J. J. Nielsen and M. Thomassen for excellent technical assistance.
GRANTS
This work was supported by the Nordea Foundation (Nordea-fonden,
Copenhagen, Denmark).
DISCLOSURES
No conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise, are declared by the author(s).
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
Author contributions: T.P.G. and J.B. conception and design of research;
T.P.G. and J.B. performed experiments; T.P.G. and J.B. analyzed data; T.P.G.
and J.B. interpreted results of experiments; T.P.G. prepared figures; T.P.G. and
J.B. drafted manuscript; T.P.G. and J.B. approved final version of manuscript.
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... The terms SIT and RST are largely interchangeable in rowing and stimulate a high degree of neuromuscular and metabolic stress (Bishop et al., 2011), with the aerobic contribution increasing as a function of successive sprints (Bogdanis et al., 1996). In trained runners, RST improved 1,500 m time by 21 s (6%) after 7 weeks, despite a reduction in training volume of 50% (Gunnarsson and Bangsbo, 2012). Elite cyclists have shown improvements of 3.5-4.4% in a variety of key performance measures (e.g., 20 min self-paced time trial and peak aerobic power) after completing only nine RST sessions (Ronnestad et al., 2020). ...
... To our knowledge, there are no published investigations that have directly compared the effects of short-term HIIT and SIT training in national-to elite-level rowers. Other sports, including cycling and running Gunnarsson and Bangsbo, 2012;Ronnestad et al., 2020), have been examined for this purpose, and we sought to extend this work to rowing. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two successive training blocks of HIIT and SIT on 2,000 m ergometer rowing performance in national-level rowers. ...
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Purpose: The effects of two different high-intensity training methods on 2,000 m rowing ergometer performance were examined in a feasibility study of 24 national-level rowers aged 18–27 years (17 males, 2,000 m ergometer time trial 6:21.7 ± 0:14.6 (min:s) and seven females, 2,000 m ergometer 7:20.3 ± 0:12.1. Habitual training for all participants was ~12–16 h per week). Methods : 16 high-intensity ergometer sessions were completed across two 3-week periods. Participants were allocated into two groups according to baseline 2,000 m time. High-intensity interval session-sprint-interval session (HIIT-SIT) completed eight HIIT (8 × 2.5 min intervals; 95% of 2,000 m wattage) followed by eight SIT (three sets of 7 × 30 s intervals; maximum effort). SIT-HIIT completed eight SIT sessions followed by eight HIIT sessions. Both a 2,000-m time trial and a progressive incremental test finishing with 4 min “all-out” performance were completed before and after each 3-week phase. Results: Both groups showed similar improvements in 2,000 m time and 4 min “all-out” distance after the first 3 weeks (2,000 m time: HIIT-SIT: −2.0 ± 0.6%, mean ± 90% CL, p = 0.01; SIT-HIIT: −1.5 ± 0.3%, p = 0.01) with no significant difference between groups. HIIT-SIT demonstrated the greatest improvements in submaximal heart rate (HR) during the progressive incremental test with eight sessions of HIIT showing a greater reduction in submaximal HR than eight sessions of SIT. The net improvement of 16 high-intensity sessions on 2,000 m time was −2.5% for HIIT-SIT (−10.6 ± 3.9 s, p = 0.01) and − 2.2% for SIT-HIIT (−9.0 ± 5.7 s, p = 0.01) and for 4 min “all-out” performance was 3.1% for HIIT-SIT (36 ± 25 m, p = 0.01) and 2.8% for SIT-HIIT (33 ± 27 m, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Eight sessions of high-intensity training can improve 2,000 m ergometer rowing performance in national-level rowers, with a further eight sessions producing minimal additional improvement. The method of high-intensity training appears less important than the dose.
... Engagement of a large muscle mass is important for assessment of VO 2max [14], and in running and rowing, a variety of test protocols are used to assess VO 2max [8,9,[15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. In running, VO 2max -testing has been assessed using incremental tests in large heterogeneous populations [21] and in smaller homogenous populations in training intervention studies [15,20], proving a reliable and valid method for assessment of VO 2max in non-specific populations. ...
... Engagement of a large muscle mass is important for assessment of VO 2max [14], and in running and rowing, a variety of test protocols are used to assess VO 2max [8,9,[15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. In running, VO 2max -testing has been assessed using incremental tests in large heterogeneous populations [21] and in smaller homogenous populations in training intervention studies [15,20], proving a reliable and valid method for assessment of VO 2max in non-specific populations. Further, VO 2max can be estimated by the CRT [16], and the CRT estimated VO 2max has been validated against gold-standard VO 2max measurements in both men and women [17][18][19]. ...
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Personnel of the Danish Armed Forces must complete a yearly basic physical fitness test consisting of a Cooper’s 12-min run test (CRT) and four strength-related bodyweight exercises. However, there is no validated alternative to the CRT allowing injured or sailing personnel to conduct the yearly basic physical fitness test. Therefore, the aim of this study was to validate performance in a 6-min rowing ergometer test (6MRT) against CRT performance. Thirty-one individuals (M/F: 20/11, age: 34 ± 12 years) employed at the Danish Armed Forces completed testing on two independent days; (I) the CRT on an outdoor track and (II) a 6MRT with pulmonary measurements of breath-by-breath oxygen uptake. In addition, 5 participants (M/F: 4/1, age: 40 ± 10 years) completed re-testing of the 6MRT. No difference was observed between VO2max estimated from the CRT and measured during the 6MRT. Absolute VO2max correlated strongly (r = 0.95; p < 0.001) to performance in the 6MRT, and moderately (r = 0.80; p < 0.001) to performance in the CRT. Bodyweight (BW) and fat free mass (FFM) correlated stronger to performance in the 6MRT compared to the CRT. 6MRT re-testing yielded similar performance results. The 6MRT is a valid and reliable alternative to the CRT, allowing injured or sailing personnel of the Danish Armed Forces to complete the basic physical fitness test as required, albeit 6MRT performance demands must be made relative to bodyweight.
... The present study was designed as a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. The training intervention consisted of highintensity interval cycling training three times per week for 10 weeks, adhering to the 10-20-30 training principle (Gunnarsson and Bangsbo, 2012). Biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis at rest before and after the training intervention in men with type 2 diabetes. ...
... The intervention consisted of high-intensity interval cycling training three times per week for 10 weeks, adhering to the 10-20-30 training principle (Gunnarsson and Bangsbo, 2012). The 10-20-30 training consists of five consecutive 1-min exercise periods divided into 30, 20, and 10 seconds at low (≈30-100 W), moderate (≈60-180 W), and maximal (≥400 W) intensity (data not included). ...
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The study examined whether men with type 2 diabetes exhibit lower expression of muscle proteins important for exercise capacity, and whether exercise training promotes adaptations in these proteins. In a cross‐sectional and longitudinal study, conducted at the University of Copenhagen. Twelve men with type 2 diabetes (T2D) were compared to eleven nondiabetes counterparts (ND) matched for age and body composition (body fat percentage). T2D underwent 10 weeks of high‐intensity interval exercise training (10‐20‐30 training). T2D had lower expression of SOD1 (−62%; p < 0.001) and ETC complex V (−34%; p = 0.003), along with higher expression of ETC complex IV (+66%; p = 0.007), MFN2 (+62%; p = 0.001), and DRP1 (+30%; p = 0.028) compared to ND. T2D had higher (p < 0.001) expression of Na+/K+ α1 (+98%), α2 (+114%), and NHE1 (+144%) than ND. In T2D, training increased exercise capacity (+9%; p < 0.001) as well as expression of SOD2 (+44%; p = 0.029), ETC complex II (+25%; p = 0.035), III (+52%; p = 0.041), IV (+23%; p = 0.005), and V (+21%; p = 0.035), CS activity (+32%; p = 0.006) as well as Na+/K+ α1 (+24%; p = 0.034), Kir6.2 (+36%; p = 0.029), and MCT1 (+20%; p = 0.007). Men with type 2 diabetes exhibited altered expression of a multitude of skeletal muscle proteins important for exercise capacity. Ten weeks of 10‐20‐30 training upregulated expression of muscle proteins regulating antioxidant defense, mitochondrial function, and ion handling while enhancing exercise capacity in men with type 2 diabetes.
... The intervention lasted 16 weeks: 8 weeks supervised and 8 weeks unsupervised. HIIT was based on the 30-20-10 s concept in which an 8-minute warm up was followed by 5-minute high-intensity blocks where patients trained 30 s in low, 20 s in moderate intensity and 10 s all out 5 times repeatedly, separated by 3-minute breaks (Gunnarsson and Bangsbo, 2012). Primary outcomes were VO 2max and performed workload, and secondary outcomes were the 6-minute walk test, pedometer-recorded changes in activity levels, self-reported levels of activity, fatigue, and pain. ...
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... This intervallic training consisted of 4 sets of 5 min of training with 2 min rest between sets. In each set, the same exercise (pectoral/back, hip flexor/extensor, biceps/triceps, knee flexor/extensor, shoulder and core) was performed for 1 consecutive minute with intervals divided into 30, 20 and 10 s performed at maximum intensity [35], and at low, moderate and high perceived intensity respectively [36]. According to the perceived exertion scale, when participants needed to increase the intensity of the upper hemisphere exercises, they put on resistance gloves or resistance dumbbells, whereas for the lower hemisphere exercises they put on resistance anklets. ...
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Several studies have demonstrated the positive effects of physical exercise programs on physical and mental health throughout life. It is necessary to know the factors that contribute to the well-being of older adults in order to achieve healthy aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between well-being perception and the use of autonomy supportive coaching behaviours across a motivational aquatic resistance interval training program. Thirty-four women over 65 years of age from the province of Alicante, Spain, participated, and were randomly assigned to: motivational aquatic resistance interval training group (MART; age: 69.6 � 5.01 years, height: 1.62 � 7.88 m, weight: 75.3 � 12.8 kg) and control group (CG; age: 67.7 � 3.60 years, height: 1.54 � 5.47 m, weight: 66.9 � 10.2 kg). The MART program was conducted for 14 weeks, with three training sessions/week. The CG did not perform any physical activity during the study. Perception of autonomy support was assessed through the Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Questionnaire (ASCQ), Psychological needs by the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES), Intrinsic motivation to exercise was assessed through Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) and Perception of Physical Activity by the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). In MART, compared to CG, significant differences were observed in BPNS, IMI and IPAQ questionnaires used, except in the ASCQ. The differences were significant in all three cases in BPNS (p < 0.05 in autonomy and competence and p = 0.001 in relationship with others), obtaining better scores after intervention than previously. As for the IMI scale, significant differences were also obtained in both subscales. The level of physical activity also improved significantly, with higher scores on the IPAQ after the intervention than before (p < 0.001). In conclusion, when practitioners perceive greater well-being, satisfaction of their basic psychological needs, greater self-selection, volition, and autonomy instead of pressure, demand and control, the result is better behaviour with greater psychological well-being, adherence and consequent health benefits.
... In each session, the same exercises (pectoral/back, hip flexor/extensor, biceps/triceps, knee flexor/extensor, shoulder and core) were performed for 1 min consecutively, with intervals of 30, 20 and 10 s [20] and at low, moderate and high perceived intensity, respectively [21]. According to the perceived exertion scale, when participants needed to increase the intensity of the upper hemisphere exercises, they put on resistance gloves or resistance dumbbells, whereas for the lower-hemisphere exercises, they put on resistance anklets. ...
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The human population is increasing due to lengthening life expectancy, but the quality of life and health of people is moving in the opposite direction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how aquatic resistance interval training can influence body composition, body image perception and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) in older women participants in a nutrition education program and to study the relation between these variables. Thirty-four participants aged 69 ± 4 years were randomly assigned into two groups: experimental (aquatic resistance interval training plus nutritional intervention) and control (nutritional intervention). The intervention consisted of resistance training in an aquatic environment carried out for 14 weeks (three sessions per week; 60 min each). Body composition, body image perception and adherence to MD diet were evaluated at baseline and 14 weeks. No significant differences were found between groups regarding body image perception and adherence to the MD. There was a significant increase in muscle mass (kg) (p < 0.001) and a significant decrease in fat mass (kg) (p < 0.001) in the intervention group when compared to the control group. The addition of aquatic resistance interval training to a nutritional intervention was not sufficient to change body image perception and adherence to MD but produced improvement in body composition (through an increase in muscle mass and decrease on fat mass) in older women.
... Contractile activities of skeletal muscles appear to be significant for the regulation of MCTs [8]. Protein contents of MCT1 and MCT4 can rise [2,9] or remain unchanged [10,11] by exercise training. However, there are limited and inconsistent data regarding the MCT1and MCT4 mRNA responses to training [12,13]. ...
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... Kas membran proteinleri ve enzim aktivitelerinde her 2 grupta da değişim olmamıştır. 26 Siahkouhian ve ark., fiziksel olarak aktif ve aktif olmayan erkeklerde ortalama güç çıkışı (MPO), maksimal güç çıkışı (PPO), 3.000 m koşu süresi (3.000 m RT), ilk ventilasyon (VT 1 ) ve 2. VT 2 eşiği ve VO2 max üzerinde HIIT etkisini inceledikleri çalışmaya, 12 sağlıklı genç aktif olmayan erkek öğrenci ve 12 futbol oyuncusu gönüllü olarak katılmıştır. Antrenmanlar 3'e ayrılmıştır. ...
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Modern toplumda bir norm hâline gelmiş olan hareketsizlik, birçok hastalık için risk faktörüdür. Fiziksel aktivite ve egzersiz için birçok engel bulunmakta olup, başlıca sebebi zaman eksikliğidir. Yaygın metabolik hastalıkların tedavisi ve yönetiminde rol oynayan egzersiz, sağlıklı yaşamın temel prensiplerinden biridir. Daha kısa egzersiz ve dinlenme süreleriyle uygulanan antrenman birimleri, aerobik fitness gelişimi için gelecek vaat eden bir egzersiz stratejisidir. Sağladığı kardiyovasküler, metabolik ve fiziksel yararları ile evrensel bir antrenman seçeneği olabilir. Bu derlemenin amacı, yüksek şiddetli aralıklı antrenman (HIIT) etkilerini; kardiyovasküler, metabolik ve performans yanıtlarıyla değerlendiren yapılmış araştırmalarla ilgili bir sistematik derleme sunabilmektir. Veri toplama yöntemi olarak, elektronik veri tabanları kullanılarak araştırma yapılmıştır. Tanımlanan çalışmalar, dâhil etme kriterlerini doğrulamak için eleştirel analiz ve önyargı de ve performans yanıtlarında etkili olduğunu gösteren araştırmalar gelecek için yol gösterici olabilecektir.
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Exercise causes major shifts in multiple ions (e.g., K+ , Na+ , H+ , lactate- , Ca2+ , and Cl- ) during muscle activity that contributes to development of muscle fatigue. Sarcolemmal processes can be impaired by the trans-sarcolemmal rundown of ion gradients for K+ , Na+ , and Ca2+ during fatiguing exercise, while changes in gradients for Cl- and Cl- conductance may exert either protective or detrimental effects on fatigue. Myocellular H+ accumulation may also contribute to fatigue development by lowering glycolytic rate and has been shown to act synergistically with inorganic phosphate (Pi) to compromise cross-bridge function. In addition, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release function is severely affected by fatiguing exercise. Skeletal muscle has a multitude of ion transport systems that counter exercise-related ionic shifts of which the Na+ /K+ -ATPase is of major importance. Metabolic perturbations occurring during exercise can exacerbate trans-sarcolemmal ionic shifts, in particular for K+ and Cl- , respectively via metabolic regulation of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP ) and the chloride channel isoform 1 (ClC-1). Ion transport systems are highly adaptable to exercise training resulting in an enhanced ability to counter ionic disturbances to delay fatigue and improve exercise performance. In this article, we discuss (i) the ionic shifts occurring during exercise, (ii) the role of ion transport systems in skeletal muscle for ionic regulation, (iii) how ionic disturbances affect sarcolemmal processes and muscle fatigue, (iv) how metabolic perturbations exacerbate ionic shifts during exercise, and (v) how pharmacological manipulation and exercise training regulate ion transport systems to influence exercise performance in humans. © 2021 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 11:1895-1959, 2021.
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Background: Sprint interventions can be an excellent alternative for promoting positive adaptations to health and performance. Objective : To verify the responses of different intervals between sprints in blood pressure, heart rate variability, lactate, and performance responses in physically active men. Methods: Ten male runners participated in the present study, trained in a street running with at least one year of experience and a maximum of 3 years, with training frequency of at least two times and at most four times weekly sessions, all participants without any kind of restrictions that could harm the interventions performing three sprint sessions (10 x 30m all out). Participants visited the laboratory on four occasions for ten consecutive days, with an interval of 48 hours between each visit. The first visit intends to familiarize participants with all experimental procedures. The remaining three visits were used to carry out the experimental protocols. At each visit, resting values of the blood pressure (BP), heart rate variability (HRV), and lactate variables were collected. After rest collections, each participant completed the following experimental conditions: a) 10 sprints series (all-out) of 30 meters with 20 seconds of recovery (S 20 ), b) 10 sprints series(all-out) of 30 meters with 30 seconds of recovery (S 30 ) and c) 10 sprints series(all-out) of 30 meters with 40 seconds of recovery (S 40 ). After each protocol, the lactate values were collected 2 minutes and 30 seconds after the end of the sprints; BP was collected 60 minutes after the intervention (Post-10, Post-20, Post-30, Post-40, and Post- 50). After the blood pressure (BP) data was determined, the mean arterial pressure (MBP) was calculated using the formula MBP = SBP + (DBP X 2) / 3. The HRV was collected between 50 and 60 minutes after the end of the sprints session. Results: The study observed significant differences in the lactate variable for the comparison in the post and pre moments for all experimental conditions (S 20, S 30, and S 40 ) (p<0.001). Besides, significant differences were observed in effort perception for S 20 and S 30 from the sixth sprint (p<0.05). At S 40, the significant discrepancies in effort perception started from the fifth sprint (p <0.05). No other significant differences were observed for BP (systolic, diastolic and mean) for all post-pre periods. Still in BP, in a post (intra) analysis, the conditions S 20 and S 40 demonstrated greater capacity for recovery of BP, suggesting a possible greater parasympathetic capacity. For HRV and sprint performance, no difference was found (p <0.05). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that different recovery intervals did not reflect significant differences in hemodynamic, autonomic, lactate responses, and active individuals' performance submitted to sprint sessions. This study applied a protocol (10 x 30 m all out) with different recovery times (20, 30, and 40 seconds), and which, given this experiment, can serve as a training strategy (for health or performance) at different levels of conditioning physical.
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three different high-intensity interval training (HIT) regimens on endurance performance in highly trained endurance athletes. Methods: Before, and after 2 and 4 wk of training, 38 cyclists and triathletes (mean +/- SD; age = 25 +/- 6 yr; mass = 75 +/- 7 kg; (V)over dot O-2peak = 64.5 +/- 5.2 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) performed: 1) a progressive cycle test to measure peak oxygen consumption ((V)over dotO(2peak)) and peak aerobic power output (PPO), 2) a time to exhaustion test (T-max) at their (V)over dotO(2peak) power output (P-max), as well as 3) a 40-kin time-trial (TT40). Subjects were matched and assigned to one of four training groups (G(1), N = 8, 8 X 60% T-max P-max, 1:2 work:recovery ratio; G(2), N = 9, 8 X 60% T-max at P-max, recovery at 65% HRmax; G(3), N = 10, 12 X 30 s at 175% PPO, 4.5-min recovery; G(CON), N = 11). In addition to G(1) G(2), and G(3) performing HIT twice per week, all athletes maintained their regular low-intensity training throughout the experimental period. Results: All HIT groups improved TT40 performance (+4.4 to +5.8%) and PPO (+3.0 to +6.2%) significantly more than G(CON) (-0.9 to + 1.1 %; P < 0.05). Furthermore, G(1) (+5.4%) and G(2) (+8.1%) improved their (V)over dot O-2peak significantly more than G(CON) (+ 1.0%; P < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study has shown that when HIT incorporates P-max as the interval intensity and 60% of T-max as the interval duration, already highly trained cyclists can significantly improve their 40-km time trial performance. Moreover, the present data confirm prior research, in that repeated supramaximal HIT can significantly improve 40-km time trial performance.
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Purpose: Between inefficient training and overtraining, an appropriate training stimulus (in terms of intensity and duration) has to be determined in accordance with individual capacities. Interval training at the minimal velocity associated with VO 2max (vVO 2max ) allows an athlete to run for as long as possible at VO 2max . Nevertheless, we don't know the influence of a defined increase in training volume at vVO 2max on aerobic performance, noradrenaline, and heart rate. Methods: Eight subjects performed 4 wk of normal training (NT) with one session per week at vVO 2max , i.e., five repetitions run at 50% of the time limit at vVO 2max , with recovery of the same duration at 60% vVO 2max , They then performed 4 wk of overload training (OT) with three interval training sessions at vVO 2max . Results: Normal training significantly improved their velocity associated with VO 2max (20.5 ± 0.7 vs 21.1 ± 0.8 km.h - 1 , P = 0.02). As a result of improved running economy (50.6 ± 3.5 vs 47.5 ± 2.4 mL.min -1 .kg -1 . P = 0.02), VO 2max was not significantly different (71.6 ± 4.8 vs 72.7 ± 4.8 mL.min -1 .kg -1 ). Time to exhaustion at vVO 2max ). was not significantly different (301 ± 56 vs 283 ± 41 s) as was performance (i.e., distance limit run at vVO 2max : 2052.2 ± 331 vs 1986.2 ± 252.9 m). Heart rate at 14 km.h - decreased significantly after NT (162 ± 16 vs 155 ± 18 bpm. P < 0.01). Lactate threshold remained the same after normal training (84.1 ± 4.8% vVO 2max ). Overload training changed neither the performance nor the factors concerning performance. However, the submaximal heart rate measured at 14 kmh -1 decreased after overload training (155 ± 18 vs 150 ± 15 bpm). The maximal heart rate was not significantly different after NT and OT (199 ± 9.5, 198 ± 11, 194 ± 10.4, P = 0.1 Resting plasma norepinephrine (veinous blood sample measured by high pressure liquid chromatography), was unchanged (2.6 vs 2.4 nm.L - 1 , P = 0.8). However, plasma norepinephrine measured at the end of the vVO 2max test increased significantly (11. 1 vs 26.0 nm.L - 1 , P = 0.002). Conclusion: Performance and aerobic factors associated with the performance were not altered by the 4 wk of intensive training at vVO 2max despite the increase of plasma noradrenaline.
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This study examined the effects of sustained high-intensity interval training (HIT) on the athletic performances and fuel utilisation of eight male endurance-trained cyclists. Before HIT, each subject undertook three baseline peak power output tests and two simulated 40-km time-trial cycling performance (TT40) tests, of which the variabilities were 1.5 (1.3)% and 1.0 (0.5)%, respectively [mean (SD)]. Over 6 weeks, the cyclists then replaced 15 (2)% of their 300 (66) km · week−1 endurance training with 12 HIT sessions, each consisting of six to nine 5-min rides at 80% of , separated by a 1-min recovery. HIT increased from 404 (40) to 424 (53) W (P < 0.01) and improved TT40 speeds from 42.0 (3.6) to 43.0 (4.2) km · h−1 (P < 0.05). Faster TT40 performances were due to increases in both the absolute work rates from 291 (43) to 327 (51) W (P < 0.05) and the relative work rates from 72.6 (5.3)% of pre-HIT to 78.1 (2.8)% of post-HIT (P < 0.05). HIT decreased carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation, plasma lactate concentration and ventilation when the cyclists rode at the same absolute work rates of 60, 70 and 80% of pre-HIT (P < 0.05), but not when they exercised at the same relative (% post-HIT ) work rates. Thus, the ability of the cyclists to sustain higher percentages of in TT40 performances after HIT was not due to lower rates of CHO oxidation. Higher relative work rates in the TT40 rides following HIT increased the estimated rates of CHO oxidation from ≈ 4.3 to ≈ 5.1 g · min−1.
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To investigate the effects of simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training on physical performance characteristics, 10 experimental (E) and 8 control (C) endurance athletes trained for 9 wk. The total training volume was kept the same in both groups, but 32% of training in E and 3% in C was replaced by explosive-type strength training. A 5-km time trial (5K), running economy (RE), maximal 20-m speed ( V 20 m ), and 5-jump (5J) tests were measured on a track. Maximal anaerobic (MART) and aerobic treadmill running tests were used to determine maximal velocity in the MART ( V MART ) and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙o 2 max ). The 5K time, RE, and V MART improved ( P < 0.05) in E, but no changes were observed in C. V 20 m and 5J increased in E ( P < 0.01) and decreased in C ( P < 0.05).V˙o 2 max increased in C ( P < 0.05), but no changes were observed in E. In the pooled data, the changes in the 5K velocity during 9 wk of training correlated ( P< 0.05) with the changes in RE [O 2 uptake ( r = −0.54)] and V MART ( r = 0.55). In conclusion, the present simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance training improved the 5K time in well-trained endurance athletes without changes in theirV˙o 2 max . This improvement was due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved V MART and running economy.
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Metabolic response of different high-intensity aerobic interval exercise protocols. J Strength Cond Res 26(10): 2866-2871, 2012-Although high-intensity sprint interval training (SIT) employing the Wingate protocol results in significant physiological adaptations, it is conducted at supramaximal intensity and is potentially unsafe for sedentary middle-aged adults. We therefore evaluated the metabolic and cardiovascular response in healthy young individuals performing 4 high-intensity (̃90% VO2max) aerobic interval training (HIT) protocols with similar total work output but different workto- rest ratio. Eight young physically active subjects participated in 5 different bouts of exercise over a 3-week period. Protocol 1 consisted of 20-minute continuous exercise at approximately 70% of VO2max, whereas protocols 2-5 were interval based with a work-active rest duration (in seconds) of 30/30, 60/30, 90/30, and 60/60, respectively. Each interval protocol resulted in approximately 10 minutes of exercise at a workload corresponding to approximately 90% VO2max, but differed in the total rest duration. The 90/30 HIT protocol resulted in the highest VO2, HR, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate, whereas the 30/30 protocol resulted in the lowest of these parameters. The total caloric energy expenditure was lowest in the 90/30 and 60/30 protocols (;150 kcal), whereas the other 3 protocols did not differ (;195 kcal) from one another. The immediate postexercise blood pressure response was similar across all the protocols. These finding indicate that HIT performed at approximately 90% of VO2max is no more physiologically taxing than is steady-state exercise conducted at 70% VO 2max, but the response during HIT is influenced by the work-to-rest ratio. This interval protocol may be used as an alternative approach to steady-state exercise training but with less time commitment.
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This study examined the effect of 12 weeks of small-sided street soccer (2.2 ± 0.7 sessions/week) and fitness center training (0.5 ± 0.2 sessions/week) on physical fitness and cardiovascular health profile for homeless men. Exercise capacity, maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), body composition (DXA scans), blood pressure (BP), and blood lipid profile were determined before and after the intervention period for 22 soccer-group subjects (SG) and 10 waiting list controls (CO). In addition, time-motion analyses, HR measurements, and pedometer recordings were performed during street soccer training and daily-life activities. During a 60 min 4 versus 4 street soccer session 182 ± 62 intense running bouts were performed; mean HR was 82 ± 4% HR(max) and HR was >90% HR(max) for 21 ± 12% (±SD) of total time. On a day without training the participants performed 10,733 ± 4,341 steps and HR was >80% HR(max) for 2.4 ± 4.3 min. In SG, VO(2max) was elevated (p < 0.05) from 36.7 ± 7.6 to 40.6 ± 8.6 ml/min/kg after 12 weeks and incremental cycle test performance was improved (p < 0.05) by 81 s (95% CI: 47-128 s). After 12 weeks, fat percentage (19.4 ± 8.5 to 17.5 ± 8.6%) and LDL cholesterol (3.2 ± 1.1 to 2.8 ± 0.8 mmol L(-1)) were lowered (p < 0.05) in SG. The observed changes in SG were different (p < 0.05) from CO and no intra-group changes occurred for CO (p > 0.05). BP was unaltered after 12 weeks (p > 0.05), but diastolic BP was lowered for all SG subjects with pre-values >75 mmHg (83 ± 6 to 76 ± 6 mmHg, n = 8, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the exercise intensity is high during street soccer and regular street soccer training can be used as an effective activity to promote physical fitness and cardiovascular health status for homeless men.
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Our laboratory recently showed that six sessions of sprint interval training (SIT) over 2 wk increased muscle oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity (Burgomaster KA, Hughes SC, Heigenhauser GJF, Bradwell SN, and Gibala MJ. J Appl Physiol 98: 1895-1900, 2005). The present study tested the hypothesis that short-term SIT would reduce skeletal muscle glycogenolysis and lactate accumulation during exercise and increase the capacity for pyruvate oxidation via pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). Eight men [peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak)=3.8+/-0.2 l/min] performed six sessions of SIT (4-7x30-s "all-out" cycling with 4 min of recovery) over 2 wk. Before and after SIT, biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and after each stage of a two-stage cycling test that consisted of 10 min at approximately 60% followed by 10 min at approximately 90% of VO2 peak. Subjects also performed a 250-kJ time trial (TT) before and after SIT to assess changes in cycling performance. SIT increased muscle glycogen content by approximately 50% (main effect, P=0.04) and the maximal activity of citrate synthase (posttraining: 7.8+/-0.4 vs. pretraining: 7.0+/-0.4 mol.kg protein -1.h-1; P=0.04), but the maximal activity of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase was unchanged (posttraining: 5.1+/-0.7 vs. pretraining: 4.9+/-0.6 mol.kg protein -1.h-1; P=0.76). The active form of PDH was higher after training (main effect, P=0.04), and net muscle glycogenolysis (posttraining: 100+/-16 vs. pretraining: 139+/-11 mmol/kg dry wt; P=0.03) and lactate accumulation (posttraining: 55+/-2 vs. pretraining: 63+/-1 mmol/kg dry wt; P=0.03) during exercise were reduced. TT performance improved by 9.6% after training (posttraining: 15.5+/-0.5 vs. pretraining: 17.2+/-1.0 min; P=0.006), and a control group (n=8, VO2 peak=3.9+/-0.2 l/min) showed no change in performance when tested 2 wk apart without SIT (posttraining: 18.8+/-1.2 vs. pretraining: 18.9+/-1.2 min; P=0.74). We conclude that short-term SIT improved cycling TT performance and resulted in a closer matching of glycogenolytic flux and pyruvate oxidation during submaximal exercise.
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The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain the oxidative capacity and improve intense short-duration/repeated high-intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports. When combined with a basic volume of training including some aerobic high-intensity sessions, speed endurance training is also useful in enhancing performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle substrate levels, glycolytic and oxidative enzymes activity, and membrane transport proteins involved in pH regulation. Instead they appear to be related to a reduced energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and a higher expression of muscle Na(+) ,K(+) pump α-subunits, which via a higher Na(+) ,K(+) pump activity during exercise may delay fatigue development during intense exercise. In conclusion, athletes from disciplines involving periods of intense exercise can benefit from the inclusion of speed endurance sessions in their training programs.