HIV testing behaviors of a cohort of HIV-positive racial/ethnic minority YMSM
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, 2100-W Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC, 20037, USA, . AIDS and Behavior
(Impact Factor: 3.49).
05/2012; 16(7):1917-25. DOI: 10.1007/s10461-012-0193-2
The HIV epidemic in the United States has disproportionately affected young racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (YMSM). However, HIV testing rates among young men of color remain low. Within this sample of racial/ethnic minority YMSM (n = 363), the first HIV test was a median of 2 years after men who have sex with men sexual debut. Individuals with less than 1 year between their first negative and first positive HIV test were significantly more likely to identify the reason for their first negative test as being sick (OR = 2.99; 95 % CI 1.23-7.27). This may suggest that these YMSM may have experienced symptoms of acute HIV infection. Of major concern is that many YMSM in our study tested positive for HIV on their first HIV test. Given recommendations for at least annual HIV testing, our findings reveal that medical providers YMSM need to know the importance of regular testing.
Available from: Nathan J Lachowsky
- "Not all testing services are equally accessible or preferred [2,52,53] and future research should investigate barriers that some YMSM may face in accessing testing information and services. Lower odds of testing in our study among younger YMSM, bisexual identified YMSM, and YMSM of Pacific and Asian ethnicities are also of concern, as these communities may already experience disenfranchisement from healthcare systems or may not respond as well to general social marketing campaigns [24,28,45,52]. "
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ABSTRACT: Understanding HIV testing behaviour is vital to developing evidence-based policy and programming that supports optimal HIV care, support, and prevention. This has not been investigated among younger gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM, aged 16-29) in New Zealand.
National HIV sociobehavioural surveillance data from 2006, 2008, and 2011 was pooled to determine the prevalence of recent HIV testing (in the last 12 months) among YMSM. Factors associated with recent testing were determined using manual backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression.
Of 3,352 eligible YMSM, 1,338 (39.9%) reported a recent HIV test. In the final adjusted model, the odds of having a recent HIV test were higher for YMSM who were older, spent more time with other gay men, reported multiple sex partners, had a regular partner for 6-12 months, reported high condom use with casual partners, and disagreed that HIV is a less serious threat nowadays and that an HIV-positive man would disclose before sex. The odds of having a recent HIV test were lower for YMSM who were bisexual, recruited online, reported Pacific Islander or Asian ethnicities, reported no regular partner or one for >3 years, were insertive-only during anal intercourse with a regular partner, and who had less HIV-related knowledge.
A priority for HIV management should be connecting YMSM at risk of infection, but unlikely to test with appropriate testing services. New generations of YMSM require targeted, culturally relevant health promotion that provides accurate understandings about HIV transmission and prevention.
Available from: Gregorio Millett
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ABSTRACT: We did a meta-analysis to assess factors associated with disparities in HIV infection in black men who have sex with men (MSM) in Canada, the UK, and the USA.
We searched Embase, Medline, Google Scholar, and online conference proceedings from Jan 1, 1981, to Dec 31, 2011, for racial comparative studies with quantitative outcomes associated with HIV risk or HIV infection. Key words and Medical Subject Headings (US National Library of Medicine) relevant to race were cross-referenced with citations pertinent to homosexuality in Canada, the UK, and the USA. Data were aggregated across studies for every outcome of interest to estimate overall effect sizes, which were converted into summary ORs for 106,148 black MSM relative to 581,577 other MSM.
We analysed seven studies from Canada, 13 from the UK, and 174 from the USA. In every country, black MSM were as likely to engage similarly in serodiscordant unprotected sex as other MSM. Black MSM in Canada and the USA were less likely than other MSM to have a history of substance use (odds ratio, OR, 0·53, 95% CI 0·38-0·75, for Canada and 0·67, 0·50-0·92, for the USA). Black MSM in the UK (1·86, 1·58-2·18) and the USA (3·00, 2·06-4·40) were more likely to be HIV positive than were other MSM, but HIV-positive black MSM in each country were less likely (22% in the UK and 60% in the USA) to initiate combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) than other HIV-positive MSM. US HIV-positive black MSM were also less likely to have health insurance, have a high CD4 count, adhere to cART, or be virally suppressed than were other US HIV-positive MSM. Notably, despite a two-fold greater odds of having any structural barrier that increases HIV risk (eg, unemployment, low income, previous incarceration, or less education) compared with other US MSM, US black MSM were more likely to report any preventive behaviour against HIV infection (1·39, 1·23-1·57). For outcomes associated with HIV infection, disparities were greatest for US black MSM versus other MSM for structural barriers, sex partner demographics (eg, age, race), and HIV care outcomes, whereas disparities were least for sexual risk outcomes.
Similar racial disparities in HIV and sexually transmitted infections and cART initiation are seen in MSM in the UK and the USA. Elimination of disparities in HIV infection in black MSM cannot be accomplished without addressing structural barriers or differences in HIV clinical care access and outcomes.
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This study sought to evaluate HIV testing locations in New York City in terms of staff communication of confidentiality policies for adolescent clients.
Using the New York State Directory of HIV Counseling and Testing Resources as a sampling frame, this study made telephone contact with 164 public HIV testing locations in New York City and used a semistructured interview to ask questions about confidentiality, parental permission, and parent access to test results.
At 48% of locations, either HIV testing was not offered or we were unable to reach a staff member to ask questions about testing options and confidentiality. At the remaining sites, information provided regarding confidentiality, parental consent, and privacy of test results was correct only 69% to 85% of the time. Additionally, 23% of sites successfully contacted offered testing exclusively between 9:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. weekdays, when most adolescents are in school.
Our findings point to a need for increased training and quality control at the clinical level to ensure that consumers in need of HIV testing are provided with accurate information and accessible services. Furthermore, these results highlight the need for more "patient-centric" sites with enhanced accessibility for potential clients, particularly youth.
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