Profile of stress and toxicity gene expression in human hepatic cells treated with Efavirenz

ArticleinAntiviral research 94(3):232-41 · April 2012with31 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.04.003 · Source: PubMed
Hepatic toxicity and metabolic disorders are major adverse effects elicited during the pharmacological treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Efavirenz (EFV), the most widely used non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), has been associated with these events, with recent studies implicating it in stress responses involving mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in human hepatic cells. To expand these findings, we analyzed the influence of EFV on the expression profile of selected stress and toxicity genes in these cells. Significant up-regulation was observed with Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1), which indicated metabolic stress. Several genes directly related to oxidative stress and damage exhibited increased expression, including Methalothionein 2A (MT2A), Heat shock 70kDa protein 6 (HSPA6), Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) and DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3). In addition, Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) was enhanced, whereas mRNA levels of the inflammatory genes Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) and Serpin peptidase inhibitor (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 1 (SERPINE1) decreased and increased, respectively. This profile of gene expression supports previous data demonstrating altered mitochondrial function and presence of oxidative stress/damage in EFV-treated hepatic cells, and may be of relevance in the search for molecular targets with therapeutic potential to be employed in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the hepatic toxicity associated with HIV therapy.
    • "Furthermore, in previously published cloning experiments the suspected reverse transcriptase of cancer cells ORF2 was not inhibited by NNRTIs, which argues against this theory [37, 38]. Another research group studied EFV's liver toxicity and found that EFV causes oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, which leads to apoptosis in liver cells111213. As cancer cells consume more energy and contain more mitochondria than normal tissue, mitochondrial toxicity of EFV might also be an important step in the mechanism [39]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer prevention and therapy in HIV-1-infected patients will play an important role in future. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) Efavirenz and Nevirapine are cytotoxic against cancer cells in vitro. As other NNRTIs have not been studied so far, all clinically used NNRTIs were tested and the in vitro toxic concentrations were compared to drug levels in patients to predict possible anti-cancer effects in vivo. Cytotoxicity was studied by Annexin-V-APC/7AAD staining and flow cytometry in the pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and Panc-1 and confirmed by colony formation assays. The 50% effective cytotoxic concentrations (EC50) were calculated and compared to the blood levels in our patients and published data. The in vitro EC50 of the different drugs in the BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells were: Efavirenz 31.5μmol/l (= 9944ng/ml), Nevirapine 239μmol/l (= 63786ng/ml), Etravirine 89.0μmol/l (= 38740ng/ml), Lersivirine 543μmol/l (= 168523ng/ml), Delavirdine 171μmol/l (= 78072ng/ml), Rilpivirine 24.4μmol/l (= 8941ng/ml). As Efavirenz and Rilpivirine had the highest cytotoxic potential and Nevirapine is frequently used in HIV-1 positive patients, the results of these three drugs were further studied in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells and confirmed with colony formation assays. 205 patient blood levels of Efavirenz, 127 of Rilpivirine and 31 of Nevirapine were analyzed. The mean blood level of Efavirenz was 3587ng/ml (range 162-15363ng/ml), of Rilpivirine 144ng/ml (range 0-572ng/ml) and of Nevirapine 4955ng/ml (range 1856-8697ng/ml). Blood levels from our patients and from published data had comparable Efavirenz levels to the in vitro toxic EC50 in about 1 to 5% of all patients. All studied NNRTIs were toxic against cancer cells. A low percentage of patients taking Efavirenz reached in vitro cytotoxic blood levels. It can be speculated that in HIV-1 positive patients having high Efavirenz blood levels pancreatic cancer incidence might be reduced. Efavirenz might be a new option in the treatment of cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
    • "Brain oligomeric [53] and Aβ1-40,42 [54] have been correlated with cognitive impairment. Since the EFV containing regimen may promote mitochondrial dysfunction [23], [24], [27], [34], [55] which could result in increased BACE-1 activity, we investigated the effect of a commonly used EFV containing cART regimen [29]–[31] for its ability to upregulate Aβ production via activation of BACE-1 and amyloidogenic APP processing and also for its ability to reduce microglial phagocytosis of Aβ1-40,42. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efavirenz (EFV) is among the most commonly used antiretroviral drugs globally, causes neurological symptoms that interfere with adherence and reduce tolerability, and may have central nervous system (CNS) effects that contribute in part to HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Thus we evaluated a commonly used EFV containing regimen: EFV/zidovudine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC) in murine N2a cells transfected with the human "Swedish" mutant form of amyloid precursor protein (SweAPP N2a cells) to assess for promotion of amyloid-beta (Aβ) production. Treatment with EFV or the EFV containing regimen generated significantly increased soluble amyloid beta (Aβ), and promoted increased β-secretase-1 (BACE-1) expression while 3TC, AZT, or, vehicle control did not significantly alter these endpoints. Further, EFV or the EFV containing regimen promoted significantly more mitochondrial stress in SweAPP N2a cells as compared to 3TC, AZT, or vehicle control. We next tested the EFV containing regimen in Aβ - producing Tg2576 mice combined or singly using clinically relevant doses. EFV or the EFV containing regimen promoted significantly more BACE-1 expression and soluble Aβ generation while 3TC, AZT, or vehicle control did not. Finally, microglial Aβ phagocytosis was significantly reduced by EFV or the EFV containing regimen but not by AZT, 3TC, or vehicle control alone. These data suggest the majority of Aβ promoting effects of this cART regimen are dependent upon EFV as it promotes both increased production, and decreased clearance of Aβ peptide.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
    • "The authors also showed that moderate concentrations of EFV lead to autophagy, while higher concentrations led to a blockage of the autophagic flux promoting severe cellular damage. On the other hand, Sucerquia et al. (2012), showed that EFV increased the expression of genes related to oxidative stress and damage in human hepatic cells, including methalothionein 2A, heat shock 70 kDa protein 6, growth differentiation factor 15, and DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3. This suggests that the oxidative stress/damage in EFV-treated hepatic cells may be of relevance in the search of molecular targets for the hepatic toxicity associated with HIV therapy. In contrast to this evidence, results from our study suggest that neither the acute or chronic treatment with EFV or NVP in therapeutic doses (unassociated with any other antiretroviral drugs) induced any significant DNA damage in the liver cells of mice. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the effects of two non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) on the DNA damage in vivo, nevirapine (NVP; 3.3mg/kg), efavirenz (EFV; 10mg/kg) or saline were administered orally. Acute effects were analyzed 24h after the administration of a single NNRTI dose, and subchronic effects 24h after the last dose. Peripheral blood, brain, heart and liver samples were subjected to genotoxicity analyses and polychromatic erythrocytes from the bone marrow to micronucleus test. The micronucleus test did not reveal any significant differences between animals from the acute or subchronic groups. Comet assay showed that acute and subchronic NNRTI treatment did not cause any significant DNA damage in heart, liver or peripheral blood cells. However, increased damage indexes and frequencies were observed in the brain of mice, subchronically treated with EFV. This result suggests for the first time that this drug might induce genotoxicity in the brain.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014
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