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Skin Care with Herbal Exfoliants

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  • Anna University ,BIT campus,Tiruchirappalli
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Skin Care with Herbal Exfoliants

Abstract

Exfoliation is the process of removal of removing the old, dead skin cells that cling to the skin’s outermost surface. The two types of exfoliation are mechanical and chemical. People’s opportunities for seeking dermatological assistance for a myriad of conditions, including acne, rosacea, striae, photodamage, and skin cancers have increased in recent years. Chronological aging is a process of intrinsic or normal aging of the skin. Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light leads to photodamage of the skin, which is the leading cause of extrinsic aging, or alteration of the skin due to environmental exposure. Management options for photodamaged skin include alpha-hydroxy acids, antioxidants, antiandrogens, moisturizers and exfoliants. Many treatments are available to reverse the damage, but their efficacy remains to be proven and they may also produce unwanted side effects. Herbal Exfoliant is a cleansing formula and treatment mask that detoxifies the skin and stimulates its metabolism. It enhances absorption and retention of moisturizing agents and restores the skin’s own natural moisture factor. Skin exfoliation improves the quality and tone of skin by assisting in the removal of dead skin cells from the surface. Herbal Exfoliant produces soft, supple, re-energized skin and prevents premature skin aging.
Received: 23 February, 2010. Accepted: 20 October, 2010. Research Note
Functional Plant Science and Biotechnology ©2011 Global Science Books
Skin Care with Herbal Exfoliants
Nilani Packianathan1* Ruckmani Kandasamy2
1 Department of Pharmacognosy, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS University, Ootacamund, Nilgiris, Tamilnadu, India
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Anna University Tiruchirapalli, Tamilnadu, India
Corresponding author: * p.nilani@js scpooty.org
ABSTRACT
Exfoliation is the process of removal of removing the old, dead skin cells that cling to the skin’s outermost surface. The two types of
exfoliation are mechanical and chemical. People’s opportunities for seeking dermatological assistance for a myriad of conditions,
including acne, rosacea, striae, photodamage, and skin cancers have increased in recent years. Chronological aging is a process of intrinsic
or normal aging of the skin. Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light leads to photodamage of the skin, which is the leading cause of
extrinsic aging, or alteration of the skin due to environmental exposure. Management options for photodamaged skin include alpha-
hydroxy acids, antioxidants, antiandrogens, moisturizers and exfoliants. Many treatments are available to reverse the damage, but their
efficacy remains to be proven and they may also produce unwanted side effects. Herbal Exfoliant is a cleansing formula and treatment
mask that detoxifies the skin and stimulates its metabolism. It enhances absorption and retention of moisturizing agents and restores the
skin’s own natural moisture factor. Skin exfoliation improves the quality and tone of skin by assisting in the removal of dead skin cells
from the surface. Herbal Exfoliant produces soft, supple, re-energized skin and prevents premature skin aging.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Keywords: antioxidant, desquamation, keratinocytes, melanocytes
INTRODUCTION
Human skin undergoes modification throughout the course
of life because of physiological and external stimuli. Both
the Intrinsic (chronological) and extrinsic (environmental)
overlap during a person’s lifetime and both are responsible
for dysfunction of the skin’s natural self-protection mecha-
nism and repair capability. Intrinsic aging involves genetic
components, while photoaging or environmental aging is
caused by exposure to unfavorable skin conditions during a
person’s lifetime. To maintain health and beauty as you age,
the skin requires supportive care. Herbal exfoliants (HEs)
alleviate age–related changes and neutralize environmental
attacks by removing dead skin cells from the epidermis,
exposing newly formed skin cells on the surface and stimu-
lating cell growth in the subepidermal layer. This shedding
of the outer dead cell layer also helps to unclog skin pores
and keeps skin clean (Dumas et al. 2008).
As new skin cells are generated, the external layer of
skin cells becomes dense and rigid and loses moisture. This
layer eventually detaches from the skin cells beneath allow-
ing newly formed cells to surface in a process called des-
quamation. Desquamation also eliminates damaged and
contaminated cells that carry body toxins, pollutants and
microorganisms from the environment. These dead skin
cells can take a long time to exfoliate naturally and this
leads to clogging of the skin pores, which in turn causes
skin congestion. The rate at which natural exfoliation takes
place depends on internal factors such as health, age, and
the amount of moisture in the skin, as well as on external
factors such as protective covering, temperature, and wea-
ther conditions (Panda 2001). HEs can help to remove these
dead cells.
SKIN TYPES BENEFITTING FROM EXFOLIATION
Aged and mature skin
In aged skin with a thin epidermis and atrophied dermis, the
fatty tissues of the hypodermis may also decrease. The
texture of the dermal tissue changes as the collagenous
fibers progressively organize in large bundles. Blood cir-
culation decreases in the skin’s microvessels, and sweat
production decreases due to a reduction in the number of
active sweat glands. Sebum production is lower and pig-
mentation changes occurs leading to age spots. In aging
skin the natural sloughing of older cells from the skin
becomes more difficult, causing a dull, thick skin with less
tone. Exfoliation with a formulation containing skin nut-
rients and moisturizers is especially effective on prema-
turely-aged and mature skin, as it stimulates natural cell
renewal (Ostacolo et al. 2007).
Acneic skin
Acneic skin produces five times more dead skin cells than
occur in other skin conditions and exfoliation can have
great benefits for acneic skin. Hydroxy acids are effective
in preventing dead skin cells from clogging hair follicles
and contributing to acne.
Hyperpigmentation
Hyperpigmentation is a darkening of skin color caused by
either an increase in melanin or melanocytes, or from depo-
sition of a colored substance in the skin. Exfoliation helps
to shed these pigmented cells more quickly and lighten age
spots. Special ingredients in the exfoliant allow it to effec-
tively penetrate a hyper-pigmented area at its source (Asha-
wat et al. 2008).
Dehydration
In dehydrated skin, the lack of moisture leads to fractures in
the cellular barrier, leaving skin tight and stretched. Over-
moisturization leads to a dull, uneven skin tone. By apply-
ing an exfoliant, the dying skin cells are effectively re-
moved and moisturizing and hydrating ingredients can pen-
etrate deeper into skin to help ease dry skin conditions (Sahl
et al. 1994).
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Functional Plant Science and Biotechnology 5 (Special Issue 1), 94-97 ©2011 Global Science Books
Photodamage
Exposure of the epidermis and dermis to UV radiation from
sunlight causes photodamage. UV radiation can induce
acute and chronic changes in the DNA, protein and lipid
building blocks. Acute effects include sunburn, photo
toxicity, photo-allergy, cutaneous degeneration and actinic
elastosis. Photodamaged skin appears thicker (actinic kera-
tosis) and less elastic due to hypertrophy of elastic tissues
and alterations in collagen fibers (Hawk 2001). Exfoliation
may help people with sun-damaged skin containing poten-
tially abnormal cells to eliminate these cells before they
become dangerous, and this may help prevent skin cancer.
Mechanism
Human skin is comprised of three layers, the epidermis, the
dermis, and the subcutaneous layer. Skin varies in com-
position and thickness throughout the body. The process of
exfoliation and skin cell renewal takes place in the epider-
mis, the outer layer, which is 0.5-1.0 mm thick. Skin con-
tains about 70% water, 25% protein and 2% lipids, with the
remaining 3% consisting of trace minerals, nucleic acids,
glycosoaminoglycans, proteoglycans and various other che-
micals.
The cells of the uppermost layer of the epidermis, the
stratum corneum or ‘horny layer’ comprise a protective
layer of continually shedding dead cells known as keratino-
cytes, (the primary type of epidermal cells), hardened pro-
teins known as keratins (protect against harmful substances),
and lipids. Fibroblasts are connective tissue cells found in
the dermis layer of the skin. These cells synthesize col-
lagen, elastin and other structural molecules, and their pro-
per functioning is crucial to overall skin health. After about
fifty divisions, fibroblasts undergo cellular senescence in
which they lose the ability to divide and their metabolic
activity decreases. They tend to enlarge and accumulate
lipofuscin, the pigment responsible for age spots (Hawk
2001).
The middle layer of the epidermis contains vital living
keratinocytes, or squamous cells, which do the main work
of protecting the body. The inner layer of the epidermis, the
basal layer, consists of basal cells, which continually divide
to form new keratinocytes. As they differentiate, they mig-
rate into the middle layer to perform their protective func-
tions. As they mature, keratinocytes lose water, flatten out
and move upward, eventually reaching the stratum corneum
where they are then shed, to be replaced by new cells
moving upward from the middle layer (Tadokoro et al.
2008).
Epidermal cells adhere to each other on the tops, sides
and bases of the cells via calcium-dependent desmosomes.
As the cells move upward from the deeper layers of the epi-
dermis to the outermost layers of the stratum corneum, the
desmosome attachments become weaker.
This weakening is accelerated by enzymes, found only
in skin and hair follicles that break the bonds of the desmo-
somes and free the cells to slough off (Hawk 2001).
While the exact mechanism is unknown, it is believed
that cells are programmed when they are young and resi-
ding in the lower layers of the epidermis. Each cell has an
internal clock that ensures that it is linked to other cells for
a certain period of time. When the clock runs down, cell
cohesion decreases and the cells slough off. Although the
mechanism controlling the activation process is not well
understood, the enzyme responsible for weakening the
bonds between cells is inactive in the skin until activated by
another enzyme. The complex process known as keratiniza-
tion commences with the birth of a new daughter cell in the
basal cell layer (stratum germinativum) and its progression
upward until it is shed as a stratum corneum corneocyte.
This normally takes about four weeks; however, it can take
as much as seventy-five days depending on age and the
condition of the skin. As expected, younger skin is more
efficient than aged skin at this process of desquamation,
which stimulates the growth of new cells at a deeper level
(Nina et al. 2009).
As we age, the glue-like intercellular cement holding
the cells together becomes denser, causing a build up in the
layers of cells; cell sloughing becomes more difficult resul-
ting in a skin that appears dull, thick and with less tone.
This may be exacerbated by environmental factors like ex-
posure to sunlight, hormonal influences (androgens, estro-
gens, and epidermal growth factor) and deficiencies in vari-
ous vitamins like A and D. With all of these influences af-
fecting the desquamation process, it is apparent why exfo-
liation is so important to the skin. Removing this buildup of
dead, damaged skin cells stimulates the regeneration of new
cells improving the skin’s appearance, feel and texture (Sahl
1994).
EXFOLIATION METHODS
Manual/mechanical skin exfoliation
Manual skin exfoliation refers to any type of topical skin
exfoliation that is applied to the skin manually with fingers
or applicator. It is suitable for normal skin. Mechanical ex-
foliation involves physically scrubbing the skin with a mild
abrasive such as micro-fiber cloths, adhesive exfoliation
sheets, micro-bead facial scrubs, crepe paper, crushed apri-
cot kernels or almond shells, sugar or salt crystals, or
pumice, or using abrasive sponges and brushes. Mechanical
friction with abrasives exfoliates the outer corneocytes that
comprise the stratum corneum layer and results will vary
depending on the amount of friction and the nature of the
abrasive used (Chattopadhyay 1998). As a mechanical pro-
cess, gentle exfoliation can be achieved with micro-bead
face scrubs that will remove the top layer of skin. A more
extreme level of exfoliation is provided by dermabrasion
which entails the use of a laser to remove upper layers of
skin. Prior to the advent of laser technology, micro-sanders
were used (under anesthesia) to aggressively abrade the
skin surface.
Chemical/herbal exfoliation
This type of exfoliation includes use of creams, lotions and
gels. Chemical exfoliants include scrubs containing salicy-
lic acid, glycolic acid, fruit enzymes, citric acid, or malic
acid which may be applied in high concentrations by a der-
matologist, or in lower concentrations in over-the-counter
products (Ostacolo et al. 2007).
Chemical exfoliation may involve the use of products
that contain alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) or beta hydroxy
acids (BHAs) or enzymes that act to loosen the glue-like
substance that holds the cells together allowing them to
slough off. This type of exfoliation is recommended for
people treating acne.
While the precise mechanism of action of hydroxy acids
is still open to debate, there is a general consensus that ex-
foliating the outermost layers of the stratum corneum (the
stratum disjunctum) results in improved skin texture, and a
reduction in fine lines and hyperpigmentation.
It is thought that AHAs primarily affect the skin by nor-
malizing cell turnover in the epidermis. This stimulates the
formation of normal healthy skin, sloughing off of dead
cells from the stratum corneum, a decreased formation of
dry scales on the skins surface and stimulation of the cell
cycle. While this is plausible, there are some researchers
who believe the mechanism of action for AHAs cannot be
tied solely to stimulation of the skin as measured by tradi-
tional cell renewal techniques. Studies on cell cohesion and
skin pH changes indicate that keratin bonds may be affected
and that low pH levels associated with active AHA solu-
tions may dissolve the desmosome protein linkages causing
a burst in skin exfoliation. It is often said that AHAs affect
the skin from the inside out because of the suggestion that
they influence coenocytes cohesion in the lower layers of
the stratum corneum. The result is a thinner stratum cor-
95
Skin care with herbal exfoliant. Nilani and Ruckmani
neum that is more flexible and compact, reflects more light
and overall gives the skin a more youthful appearance.
In recent years, retinol (vitamin A) has been included in
exfoliation formulas because the skin can convert retinol to
retinoic acid, a potent skin exfoliant and antiaging agent.
Retinol has been shown to reduce the visible signs of both
photoaging and normal chronological aging when used on a
daily basis (Banerjee et al. 2005).
Enzyme exfoliation
This type of exfoliation includes use of products such as
cleansers, pads, masks and powders. Plant enzymes are dif-
ferent from AHAs or BHAs because they work by dis-
solving the top layer of dead skin cells. The main plant en-
zymes used in skin exfoliation are papain from papaya,
bromelain from pineapple and an enzyme from pumpkin.
Enzymes exfoliators can be used as an alternative to acid
exfoliators and work well for people with sensitive skin
who cannot tolerate acid. They should also be used by per-
sons of darker skin tones and are generally recommended
for acne treatment. Papain and bromelain are proteolytic
enzymes that stimulate exfoliation by digesting intercorneo-
cyte cohesion and softening of the skin. Unlike AHAs their
activity is not pH dependent but is activated by water and
limited in the amount of exfoliation that can be achieved
(Ostacolo et al. 2007).
Recent studies on another enzyme, a protease from the
microorganism Bacillus subtilis, have demonstrated that an
enzyme extract is a beneficial keratolytic agent that helps
eliminate desquamating corneocytes when applied topically
(Singh et al. 2001).
HERBAL EXFOLIATION
In India many HEs have been used traditionally for genera-
tions. They have stood the test of time and are safe to use.
Luffa aegyptiaca (luffa)
This HE contains finely ground fibers and walnut shell
powder. It gently exfoliates dull lifeless skin cells without
being harsh or abrasive and allows new, healthy skin to ap-
pear (Wang et al. 2002).
Ahnfeltia concinna (algae) extract
This extract is isolated from phytoplankton and sea algae
(Mathieson et al. 1984) and is one of the ingredients in an
HE preparation that provides the skin with an easily ab-
sorbed source of nutrients and moisturizers.
Grapefruit seed extract
This extract together with essential oils boosts the immune
system and creates a purifying environment for the skin.
This helps oily, overactive skin to normalize itself (Sachs
1997).
Apricot shell (Prunus armeniaca seed powder)
Finely ground pieces of the apricot seed shell are used as a
gentle exfoliant in scrubs. The scrub combines the mois-
turizing benefits of the apricot extract with the exfoliating
properties of finely ground apricot seeds. This advanced
formula face and body scrub helps to exfoliate dead skin
cells and leave the skin feeling fresh and smooth (Lauri et
al. 1998).
Lemon oil (Citrus peel oil)
This is obtained from the peel of the fruit, and contains
citroflavonoids that affect vascular permeability and im-
prove circulation and tone of capillaries and veins. It is an
essential oil with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pro-
perties that contains vitamin C and is also used as a natural
fragrance (Homnava et al. 1990).
Cucumber extract (Cucumis sativus fruit extract)
The juice of the fruit acts as a moisturizer, soothing and
tightening the skin, and also has anti-inflammatory proper-
ties. It nourishes and softens the skin and when used in a
scrub, helps to remove impurities, dead skin cells and dirt
by gently unclogging pores. Thus, helps the skin stay fresh,
healthy, clean, hydrated and blemish-free (Homnava et al.
1990).
Papaya extract (Carica papaya fruit extract)
One of the active enzymes in papaya, papain, has antimicro-
bial as well as exfoliant properties. Papaya extract exfoli-
ates the skin, but can also help reduce edema and promote
wound healing (Stahl et al. 2005).
Mung dal (Phaseolus mungo seed)
This traditional exfoliant is used widely in herbal cosmetol-
ogy, since it helps to remove dead skin cells, retain a
smooth skin texture and maintain healthy glowing skin
(Swami et al. 2004).
Pineapple extract (Ananas comosus fruit extract)
The extract of pineapple will promote skin elasticity while
removing damaged and dead cells from the skin. It also
helps to improve moisture and hydration of the skin and
produces a clear complexion. A variety of ingredients, in-
cluding enzymes such as bromelain found in pineapple are
responsible for this action. Bromelain also has anti-inflam-
matory properties (Bakhru 1994).
Rosehip seed powder (Rosa canina)
Finely and smoothly ground powder of rosehip seeds forms
a natural exfoliating medium. This powder provides gentle
removal of dead skin cells without causing injury to the
skin (Lauri et al. 1998).
Cranberry (Cotoneaster apiculatus)
The tocotrienols contained in cranberry are very nourishing
to skin and have a moisturizing effect. They have antioxi-
dant properties and help protect the skin from stress caused
by sunlight. The omega oils contained in cranberry help to
moisturize and strengthen the skin, while at the same time
reducing inflammation. Apart from nourishing the skin,
cranberry also helps to improve moisture retention and in-
crease skin smoothness and skin elasticity (Stahl et al.
2005).
Green tea (Camellia sinensis)
Extensive research has shown that this botanical extract not
only has amazing antioxidant and cell protective qualities,
but also protects the collagen by inhibiting collagenase. It is
easily absorbed by the skin and protects the DNA and cells
in general, which helps the skin fight inflammation that
may cause premature aging. It has excellent astringent qua-
lities and promotes the elasticity and firmness of the skin. It
protects the cells in the skin from premature cell death, due
to radiation or excessive free radicals (Kong et al. 2003).
Tree tomato (Cymphomandra betaceae)
This edible red fruit is widely used as a skin colorant by
native tribes. The rich content of flavonoids and pectin of
this fruit has an antioxidant and cleansing action, which en-
hances the texture, smoothness and glossy appearance of
the skin (Rodriguez et al. 1983).
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Functional Plant Science and Biotechnology 5 (Special Issue 1), 94-97 ©2011 Global Science Books
DOs AND DON’Ts IN HERBAL EXFOLIATION
Before using any exfoliating products, they should be tested
on the skin to see if the type of exfoliation suits the indi-
vidual skin type. Rubbing any exfoliating products on the
face should be avoided. It loosens the facial skin and can
cause wrinkles. Dabbing is a safer way to apply and rinse
exfoliating products. Hot water should not be used directly
on the face. It can harm the skin and dries it out too quickly.
Lukewarm or cool water is recommended for rinsing the
face. The skin should be exfoliated in the evening. Exfolia-
tion of skin gives better results during summer than winter.
Exfoliating the area around the eyes should be avoided
since the skin is very thin and sensitive in this area. After
exfoliation a good moisturizer containing nutrients, vita-
mins and antioxidants should be used to supply the required
supplements to the skin lost in exfoliation.
Advantages of HEs
Exfoliation removes the outer layer to reveal the newer skin
beneath. This shedding of the outer layer unclogs pores,
keeps skin clean and helps reduce acne breakouts. There are
several reasons that exfoliation is good for the skin. Regular
exfoliation gives the skin a more radiant look and a
smoother feel. Over time, it can help to reduce the appear-
ance of fine lines and will contribute to the skin’s firmness
and tone. It increases the blood circulation in the skin, helps
to remove toxins, rids skin of dry, rough patches, and can
even help to break down and lessen the appearance of cel-
lulite. It also enhances the effects of daily moisturizing by
allowing the moisturizer to penetrate the skin more deeply
(Lauri et al. 1998).
HEs are beneficial in the following ways: Improves the
texture of the skin; Makes the skin healthy; Makes the skin
look more radiant; Reduces appearance of wrinkles and fine
lines; Prevents acne; Prevents aging of the skin; Promotes
collagen building; Clean clogged pores; Improve skin's
thickness; Reduces brown spots; Improve skin cell renewal;
Removes the dead skin layer and allows the active ingre-
dients in skin care products to reach the inner layers of the
skin to vitalize them; They are biodegradable.
CONCLUSION
The key to healthy skin is daily exfoliation and hydration.
The environment clogs the skin pores with dirt and toxins
and our internal body excretion mechanism also tries to get
rid of its toxic components of metabolism through the same
pores. This leads to build up of dead skin cells. Daily exfo-
liation with a gentle, creamy herbal scrub accelerates new
cell generation while decreasing the surface buildup of dead
skin cells. Every day the skin is exposed to harmful rays
from sunlight and attack by free-radicals. These daily as-
saults may intensify melanin formation and damage cells,
hence accelerating the process of skin darkening and aging.
The most serious form of skin cancer is caused by excessive
exposure to the sun (ultraviolet radiation) and herbal exfoli-
ation may help to prevent skin cancer. Skin cells that are
damaged are at greater risk of becoming abnormal and can-
cerous. Sun damage can also cause other skin problems to
develop such as premature skin aging and actinic keratoses.
Herbal skin exfoliant enriched with herbal extracts penet-
rate deep into the skin to nourish it and make it blemish-free
by shielding the skin from damage by environmental pol-
lution and preventing photo-damage such as discoloration
and hyper-pigmentation. Herbal skin exfoliation is an im-
portant part of general skin maintenance. It smoothes and
chemically balances the skin, unclogs pores and stimulates
fresh cell growth, reducing blemishes, discoloration and
wrinkles which helps the skin stays healthy clean, hydrated
and blemish-free. Apart from removing dead skin cells, a
gentle exfoliation of the skin will also positively help to
create a smoother and finer skin texture, as well as reduce
pore size when used over an extended period.
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... Papain, bromelain, proteases extracted from pumpkin, proteases of Bacillus subtilis, trypsin, subtilisin, and keratinases are examples of the proteolytic enzymes that have been already evaluated as exfoliants. [3][4][5][6] It does not surprise the application of enzymes on the skin to act as exfoliating agents since the endogenous enzymes have a major importance in removing skin from the body in the desquamation process. 7 Although several commercial products contain enzymes as exfoliating agents 4 and this kind of application is not new, according to our knowledge, no study has reviewed this topic before. ...
... Enzymatic exfoliation can be used as an alternative to chemical exfoliation for people with sensitive skin, as well as for all skin types and tones (dark racial-ethnic group of people, skin phototypes IV to VI Fitzpatrick, have concerns regarding chemical exfoliation complications 8 ), and to the treatment of diseases. 3 The use of enzymes assists in the slight dilation of pore openings of the skin, thus facilitating the extraction of the clogged pores, comedones, and other impactions. ...
Article
Background Proteolytic enzymes are biological catalysts that can compose cosmetic formulations: These enzymes are capable of mimicking the desquamation process of the skin, acting as exfoliants. Although enzymatic exfoliation is not new and commercial products were easily found, there is a lack of scientific literature about this topic. Methods A search was carried out until 2021 in different scientific databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo, PubMed, etc.). In vitro and in vivo studies that evaluated the application of enzymes aiming to exfoliate the skin or with a similar cosmetic or dermatological application were selected. Results Only 11 articles were found, and, among them, few studies applied enzymes as exfoliants in clinical trials. Nevertheless, the results demonstrate that the enzymes can exfoliate the skin and improve some desired characteristics of the organ. Papain, bromelain, keratinases, and microbial proteases are some enzymes already applied as exfoliants. The study of pH, temperature, and stabilization of the enzymes in cosmetic formulations were also demonstrated to be important aspects to be evaluated, principally in preventing loss of enzyme activity and possible allergens/irritations on the skin. Conclusion This literature review showed the main aspects that should be evaluated before considering producing or applying proteolytic enzymes in exfoliation products/procedures. The use of enzymatic exfoliation has potential in the cosmetic industry. Hence, further robust in vivo studies are needed before the enzymatic exfoliation can be recommended with safety as a treatment modality in the current conditions.
... Exfoliation is the process of removing impurities and keratinised cells from the skin's surface, and thinning and making the stratum corneum uniform, to facilitate the penetration/permeation of cosmetically active ingredients, resulting in healthier-looking skin with an improved aesthetic appearance (10). An exfoliation can have different depths: superficial, which reaches from the stratum corneum to the papillary dermis (60 µm); medium, which reaches from the papillary dermis to the reticular dermis (450 µm); and deep, which reaches from the mid-reticular dermis to 600 µm (11,12). ...
... Mechanical exfoliation involves the physical scrubbing of the skin with a mild abrasive, such as micro-fi-bres, adhesive exfoliation sheets, micro-bead facial scrubs, crushed apricot kernels or almond shells, sugar or salt crystals, or using abrasive sponges, brushes, cloths and crepe paper (10). ...
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Exfoliation is a procedure that helps in skin cell renewal, as it consists of removing non-vital cells from the skin's surface. In addition to eliminating impurities and facilitating the penetration of cosmetically active ingredients, removing this layer restores the skin to its natural appearance, improving its texture and uniformity, and resulting in an improved skin appearance. Such cosmetic products are also referred to as enzymocosmetics. The main plant proteolytic enzymes used in skin exfoliation are papain from papaya, bromelain from pineapple and ficain from fig tree. This review aims to present the most common enzymes used in cosmetic products and to present an enzy-matic peel procedure.
... Exfoliating is the process of removing the old, dead skin cells that cling to the skin's outermost surface. Mechanical skin exfoliation can be achieved with microdermabrasion or small exfoliating particles, including ground seed particles, pulverized shells, or other vegetal materials [26]. Examples of plant sources described in the literature as suitable exfoliating agents are finely ground fibers and wall nutshell powder of luffa (Luffa aegyptiaca), seed powder of apricot shell (Prunus armeniaca), rosehip seed powder (Rosa canina) [26], mango seed powder [27], grape pomace [9], coffee grounds [28], and jojoba meal [29]. ...
... Mechanical skin exfoliation can be achieved with microdermabrasion or small exfoliating particles, including ground seed particles, pulverized shells, or other vegetal materials [26]. Examples of plant sources described in the literature as suitable exfoliating agents are finely ground fibers and wall nutshell powder of luffa (Luffa aegyptiaca), seed powder of apricot shell (Prunus armeniaca), rosehip seed powder (Rosa canina) [26], mango seed powder [27], grape pomace [9], coffee grounds [28], and jojoba meal [29]. ...
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Many personal cleansing products contain microplastics threatening coastal habitats, deep sea, as well as freshwater lakes. Non-pollutant biomasses with natural abrasiveness are potential substitutes for scrub-type cosmetics. This study sought to explore the potential of applying crabwood seed bagasse from Amazonia as an exfoliating agent of skincare soaps. The raw feedstock was characterized by chemical composition and particle size distribution. The morphologies of the crabwood particles and commercial exfoliating agents were compared. Thermal pretreatments were carried out in an attempt to make the particles inert. It was verified that crabwood particles contain above 50% of non-structural organic components in their mass. The high heterogeneity of particle size allowed selecting portions with dimensions comparable to commercial products, between 0.3 and 0.4 mm. The rough surface of crabwood particles was similar to those of other natural plant exfoliating agents suitable for intense skin exfoliation. Thermal pretreatments only partially volatilized non-structural components. The release of oil traces, which contains mainly palmitic and oleic acids, led the pH of the water to an unacceptable level (≤ 5.0), discouraging the direct application of crabwood bagasse in the skin. Nevertheless, when added to non-ionic surfactant based-soaps, pH remains adequate for skincare (≈ 6.0). The smaller particles (average diameter of 0.3 mm) submitted to the most drastic thermal pretreatment, 140 °C for 48 h of exposure, resulted in liquid skincare soaps with better properties. The crabwood particles’ potential to be added as an exfoliating agent in skincare soaps was confirmed. Graphic Abstract
... Cosmetics is a daily necessity that is regularly used for treatment purposes and beauty. Cosmetics production can be performed either in modern or traditional methods using materials from plants, leaves, fruits, roots, stems, seeds or spices [1]. Healthy skin means the skin that does not suffer from disease, both diseases that affect the skin directly or disease in the body that indirectly affects the health of the skin. ...
... Various traditional herbal preparations on the market include, for example, yam, strawberry, green tea, aloe vera scrubs and many others. Traditional scrubs have many benefits, safe for the skin, and does not cause adverse side effects [1,5]. ...
... clay or fine seed dust) or obtained by chemical synthesis (fine particles of polystyrene or polyethylene). The solid particles have sizes in between 100-1000 µm, and in solid-state they remove the surface layer of the skin by mechanical abrasion leaving a fresh and smooth surface [8]. While synthetic particles can be tailored for specific size distributions, in the case of naturally occurring granular particles, they do not have uniform sizes or shapes, and they are generally available in small particle sizes between 250 and 600 µm [9]. ...
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Ground seeds from three species of the genus Passiflora, P. ligularis, P. edulis Sims fo edulis, and P. mollissima, were obtained by extraction, drying, grinding, and sieving, and their physicochemical properties (morphology, hardness, and proximal analysis) were compared to those of commercial exfoliant seeds from passion fruit. Particle sizes between 0.5 and 1 mm were obtained, and their properties were similar to the commercial product except for the extractable material content that was higher. Subsequently, prototypes of an exfoliating cosmetic product were developed by using the ground seeds as the main active ingredient. Rheology characterization of samples enables to verify that the particles have minor effects on emulsion properties and that the emulsion is stable even after thermal treatment. In particular, the pH of the emulsion decreased when using the obtained ground seeds. This is consistent with the extraction and solvation of organic acids into the emulsion, in particular, alpha-hydroxy acids, which are present in high concentrations in Passiflora species. This indicates that the prepared emulsions could have a synergic chemical and physical exfoliating activity and could be used in cosmetic products.
... The skin biochemical parameters demonstrated a positive improvement of skin firmness and elasticity, especially after 56 days of supplementation. The effects substantiate the claimed activity on skin and collagen of the product components, already reported in the literature [37,57,84]. ...
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Aim: The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of a nutraceutical ingredient, SelectSIEVE ® Rainbow, based on botanical extracts, in ameliorating cellulite-derived skin imperfections and microcirculation. The nutritional supplement contained a mixture of Oryza sativa (L.), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr, and Actinidia chinensis Planch; all ingredients were botanicals that can be used in food supplements. Results: In vitro studies showed the high capacity of the supplement to have an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic effect, accompanied by an interesting proteolytic activity. The randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, carried out on 60 women during an 8-week treatment period, confirmed the in vitro study results. SelectSIEVE ® Rainbow showed a whole-body shaping activity, with a reduction of the waist, hip, and tight circumference of 0.8, 0.65 and 0.72 cm, respectively. It also showed a reduction of subcutaneous fat mass of 1.24 mm and body weight, with an average of 0.7 kg and positive peaks of −2.9 kg. Skin health and appearance were also improved: +5.4% skin elasticity, +5.5% skin tonicity and +5.7% skin draining. Finally, the dermatological evaluation of the cellulite score and microcirculation showed an improvement in 57% and 60% of the subjects enrolled in the studies. Conclusions: This first study provides interesting inputs on the effectiveness of the nutraceutical complex standardized in polyphenols, anthocyanins and proteolytic enzymes to counteract cellulite blemishes and improve local microcirculation. The positive response encourages deeper studies and further investigation.
... Herbal exfoliates alleviate age-related changes and neutralize environmental attack by removing skin cells on the surface and stimulating cell growth in the sub-epidermal layer (8) . As grow older, rate of cell turnover slows down dramatically. ...
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The main objective of present study was to prepare a herbo-mineral facial scrub. Majorly facial skin comes in direct contact of dirt, pollution, dust particles and having large number of dead cells. In order to remove the dead cells and make the skin healthy, cleaned and nourished, some facial preparations required. The prepared scrub contains various natural ingredients which are safer for use and having fewer side effects and also they possess antiseptic, anti-infective, antioxidant, anti-aging and humectant properties. The scrub was prepared by using simple mixing method using various ingredients such as poppy seeds, neem extract, tulsi extract, aloe vera gel, almond oil, mixed in carbopol 934, rest of ingredients such as glycerin, triethanolamine, preservatives and perfuming agent were also added to this preparation with homogeneous mixing. The formulated scrub was evaluated for various parameters such as physical appearance, color, texture, odor, pH, viscosity, irritability, washability, homogeneity, extrudability, spreadability and found fruitful results for all the parameter tested. Thus the prepared formulation can be used effectively as it shows good scrubbing properties and it can be used to make a healthy, clean and glowing skin. Keywords: Facial scrub, antiseptic, anti-aging, herbal, poppy seeds etc.
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Endothelial dysfunction is associated with major causes of morbidity and mortality, as well as numerous age-related conditions. The possibility of preserving or even rejuvenating endothelial function offers a potent means of preventing/treating some of the most fearful aspects of aging such as loss of mental, cardiovascular, and sexual function. Endothelial precursor cells (EPC) provide a continual source of replenishment for damaged or senescent blood vessels. In this review we discuss the biological relevance of circulating EPC in a variety of pathologies in order to build the case that these cells act as an endogenous mechanism of regeneration. Factors controlling EPC mobilization, migration, and function, as well as therapeutic interventions based on mobilization of EPC will be reviewed. We conclude by discussing several clinically-relevant approaches to EPC mobilization and provide preliminary data on a food supplement, Stem-Kine, which enhanced EPC mobilization in human subjects.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between natural fresh (Aloe vera gel) and marketed aloe vera gel as sun protective agent. The in-vitro Sun Protective Factor of natural fresh gel from plant leaf and randomly selected marketed pure aloe vera gel is determined according to spectrophotometric method of Mansur et al. The results indicate that there was no more good correlation between the in-vitro SPFs values.
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Bori, a popular pulse based culinary item in the Indian sub-continent, is generally prepared from aerated paste (batter) of soaked black gram (Phaseolus mungo). Black gram batter was prepared with varied water contents (61.89–62.11%, 63.98–64.99%, 68.19–66.11%, 69.14–69.93%, 71.59–72.42% w/w) and air incorporation (14.06–14.23%, 15.03–15.14%, 16.11–16.19%, 17.07–17.16% and 18.07–18.17% v/v). The rheology of the batter was assessed at 22±2 °C using a co-axial rotational Brookfield Viscometer using a cylindrical spindle. The Herschel–Bulkley model adequately fitted the data (r2⩾0.976: p⩽0.05). Flow behaviour indices varied in the range from 0.321 to 0.485, which increased with the increase in air incorporation and water content in the batter. The Consistency index varied in the range from 80.28 to 18.54 Pasn, and decreased with increase in water content or increasing level of air incorporation in the batter. Density of the batter decreased (903–818 kg/m3) as the level of air incorporation or water addition to the batter increased. The spreadability of the batter was tested on a galvanized iron sheet by measuring the radial growth rate. This was directly proportional to the water content but inversely related to the air incorporation in the batter. The radial growth decreased linearly with increase in apparent viscosity of the batter (r2⩾0.810: p
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The provitamin A content (α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin) was determined in 33 different specialty fruits that are primarily of tropical origin and common to the U.S. market. After saponification, carotenoids were extracted with hexane and quantitated by reverse-phase HPLC using a Zorbax ODS column and an isocratic solvent system of acetonitrile, methylene chloride + 0.001% triethylamine, and methanol (350:150:1). Recoveries, determined by standard addition before saponification, were in the range of 70–100% for the three carotenoids. Proximate analysis was also conducted. Variation in carotenoid content was noted at different sampling times and for different cultivars of some of the specialty fruit. Provitamin A activity reported as retinol equivalents varied from nondetectable levels in fruit such as atemoya to relatively high levels in tamarillo (208 ± 63 RE/ 100 g) and purple passion fruit (196 ± 13 RE/ 100 g). Since the fruits included in the study represent an expanding market, they could provide significant levels of vitamin A activity to U.S. consumers. This study provides information necessary to judge their contribution of vitamin A activity to the U.S. diet.
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The extent of changes with aging depends largely on how much the skin is exposed to sunlight and also on the genetic disposition of the individual. There are thus two main processes, extrinsic aging because of environmental stress, and intrinsic genetically programmed aging [1]. Hence, the processes of aging depends on a person's ethnic origin and the part of the world in which they live.Methods The present study investigates the influence of age and exposure to sunlight on the facial skin of 31 healthy Japanese women, aged 20–78 years old, living in Osaka city. Skin samples were obtained during plastic surgery from the face, from areas exposed to varying intensities of sunlight (forehead, cheek, nose, upper eyelid). Samples were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections (5–7 μm) were cut and stained with hematoxylin–phloxyn–safran, orcein or Masson's trichrome. Others were immunostained for p63, β1-integrin, type IV collagen CD1a and AQP3. Statistical analysis of quantitative and qualitative parameters were performed by analysis of variance (anova) with linear regressions, and the chi-squared test.Results and discussionEpidermis and dermal-epidermal junction: histological organizationWe confirmed that the whole living epidermis becomes thinner with increasing age, with an average decrease of about 5 μm per decade. This thinning is mainly because of a significant reduction in the number of keratinocyte layers. The thinning of the epidermis and the reduction of the keratinocytes layers in Japanese skin do not seem to be reflected in the thickness of the stratum corneum, which appears to remain constant whatever the age in the sample studied.The epidermal papillary structures also became flatter with age, associated with an increase in the thickness of the dermal–epidermal junction (DEJ). Thus, in addition to the loss of epidermal cells, the epidermis and dermis become less overlapped, so reducing the surface area for exchange between the two compartments. The DEJ also become thicker as Japanese ages and the expression of type IV collagen, the main constituent of the lamina densa and anchoring plaques is reduced in the most photoexposed skin areas. This accounts for the major changes in the function and molecular structure of DEJ components, as in aged Caucasian skin [2].Keratinocyte growth and differentiation –β1-integrin and p63There is no doubt that the rate of cell turnover decreases in the flat aged epidermis, as indicated by the smaller number of proliferative cells [3, 4]. This study focused on two key regulatory proteins. One was p63, that is involved in maintaining the proliferative potential of basal keratinocytes and blocking their calcium-induced differentiation [5]. The other was β1-integrin, an adhesion protein present in basal keratinocytes and linked to their clonogenic potential [6].We found p63-positive cells in the basal layer of the epidermis and in the suprabasal layers (Fig. 1a), in agreement with others [7]. The used pan anti-p63 antibody suggest that other isoforms of the protein in addition to the major ΔNp63α mainly expressed in the basal cells, could take part to other functions like differentiation in the suprabasal layers [5]. The great interindividual variation in the staining intensity for p63 in the samples studied made it impossible to detect significant changes in the number of p63-positive cells with age. Only an increase of p63 was observed in photoexposed areas compared to others within this case, a possible relation to the epidermal thickening.Figure 1. Immunostaining of Japanese facial skin showing AQP3 expression at the plasma membrane of keratinocytes throughout the living epidermis (a) and the age-related change in AQP3 (b).Download figure to PowerPointβ1-integrin was detected only in the basal keratinocytes, and the staining intensity varied from one segment of the basal layer to another. We evaluated the length of immune-labeled epidermis and the intensity of labeling in each fragment, using an arbitrary colorimetric scale (0–5). We observed a significant decrease in the intermediate intensities (equal to 2 only) with age in the zone least exposed to sunlight. This is consistent with the loss of adhesive properties of freshly isolated epidermal cells in aged skin [2] and the existence of different pools of basal keratinocytes [6]. It suggests that the effect of aging could affect particularly on the transit amplifying cells containing intermediate quantities of β1-integrin.Osmotic and water homeostasis – aquaporin-3In addition to the stratum corneum (SC) that limits transepidermal water loss, the osmotic equilibrium inside the epidermis and hydration is controlled by the aquaglyceroporins 3 (AQP3) [8, 9]. Immunostaining for AQP-3 confirmed the presence of the protein in the plasma membranes of keratinocytes throughout the epidermis, together with AQP-3 cytoplasmic expression of the basal layer cells (Fig. 1a). There was no immunostaining in the SC (Fig. 1a) to retain water in the epidermis via the tight junction proteins [10], so maintaining the water-lipid barrier within the SC. The immunostaining for AQP3 decreased significantly with the skin age (Fig. 1b), but there was no significant difference between areas exposed to sunlight and those not exposed. This suggests that there is an overall reduction in the natural hydration potential as Japanese facial epidermis ages.The immune system – epidermal CD1a-positive cellsEpidermal dendritic cells, mainly Langerhans cells, control the skin immune system. These cells are CD1a positive (CD1a+). Immunostaining showed a major population of highly dendritic cells throughout the epidermis of all the Japanese skin samples. It also showed that the areas most exposed to sunlight (cheeks, forehead and nose) had significantly more CD1a+ cells than less exposed areas (upper eyelid) (Fig. 2a). This confirms previous findings on the wrinkling of area of Caucasian facial skin after chronic exposure to UV light [11]. The number of CD1a+ cells in less exposed areas of skin increased significantly with donor age (Fig. 2b). This shows that chronological aging and exposure to sunlight give rise to an epidermis which cellular immune homeostasis is perturbed.Figure 2. Immunostaining for CD1a in Japanese facial skin: numbers of CD1a-positive (CD1a+) epidermal cells per mm of dermal–epidermal junction (DEJ) in skin exposed to sunlight and skin from protected areas (a), and sun-protected area of facial skin from subjects of different ages (b).Download figure to PowerPoint
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The carotenoid pigments of the fruit of the Tree Tomato Cyphomandra betacea were identified and quantified. β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, ζ-carotene, 5,6-monoepoxy-β-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin were detected in both the pulp and the peel. The quantitative patterns of the pulp and the peel were similar, with cryptoxanthin and β-carotene predominating. The high average vitamin A value (2475 IU/100 g edible portion) is due to the principal carotenoids that have provitamin A activity.
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