Article

Analysis of Tissues Following Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Therapy in Humans Indicates Limited Long-Term Engraftment and No Ectopic Tissue Formation

Division of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine
Stem Cells (Impact Factor: 6.52). 07/2012; 30(7):1575-8. DOI: 10.1002/stem.1118
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are explored as a novel treatment for a variety of medical conditions. Their fate after infusion is unclear, and long-term safety regarding malignant transformation and ectopic tissue formation has not been addressed in patients. We examined autopsy material from 18 patients who had received human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched MSCs, and 108 tissue samples from 15 patients were examined by PCR. No signs of ectopic tissue formation or malignant tumors of MSC-donor origin were found on macroscopic or histological examination. MSC donor DNA was detected in one or several tissues including lungs, lymph nodes, and intestine in eight patients at levels from 1/100 to <1/1,000. Detection of MSC donor DNA was negatively correlated with time from infusion to sample collection, as DNA was detected from nine of 13 MSC infusions given within 50 days before sampling but from only two of eight infusions given earlier. There was no correlation between MSC engraftment and treatment response. We conclude that MSCs appear to mediate their function through a "hit and run" mechanism. The lack of sustained engraftment limits the long-term risks of MSC therapy.

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    • "This promising result in a heterologous small animal model of POP repair surgery has led to the development of an autologous large animal, ovine preclinical model of POP using ovine eMSCs (Ulrich et al., 2014b). This animal model is required to determine whether the mechanism of action of locally delivered eMSCs is due to paracrine release of factors promoting wound repair or whether they differentiate and incorporate into the dermis and smooth muscles of the vaginal wall (Atala, 2009;von Bahr et al., 2012). In vitro, TGFb1 and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) induced differentiation of SUSD2 + eMSCs seeded on the polyamide/gelatin meshes into SUSD2 2 smooth muscle cells expressing SM22a and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, intermediate and late smooth muscle cell differentiation markers (Su et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The existence of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium was postulated many years ago, but the first functional evidence was only published in 2004. The identification of rare epithelial and stromal populations of clonogenic cells in human endometrium has opened an active area of research on endometrial stem/progenitor cells in the subsequent 10 years. Methods: The published literature was searched using the PubMed database with the search terms 'endometrial stem cells and menstrual blood stem cells' until December 2014. Results: Endometrial epithelial stem/progenitor cells have been identified as clonogenic cells in human and as label-retaining or CD44(+) cells in mouse endometrium, but their characterization has been modest. In contrast, endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been well characterized and show similar properties to bone marrow MSCs. Specific markers for their enrichment have been identified, CD146(+)PDGFRβ(+) (platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta) and SUSD2(+) (sushi domain containing-2), which detected their perivascular location and likely pericyte identity in endometrial basalis and functionalis vessels. Transcriptomics and secretomics of SUSD2(+) cells confirm their perivascular phenotype. Stromal fibroblasts cultured from endometrial tissue or menstrual blood also have some MSC characteristics and demonstrate broad multilineage differentiation potential for mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineages, indicating their plasticity. Side population (SP) cells are a mixed population, although predominantly vascular cells, which exhibit adult stem cell properties, including tissue reconstitution. There is some evidence that bone marrow cells contribute a small population of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. The discovery of specific markers for endometrial stem/progenitor cells has enabled the examination of their role in endometrial proliferative disorders, including endometriosis, adenomyosis and Asherman's syndrome. Endometrial MSCs (eMSCs) and menstrual blood stromal fibroblasts are an attractive source of MSCs for regenerative medicine because of their relative ease of acquisition with minimal morbidity. Their homologous and non-homologous use as autologous and allogeneic cells for therapeutic purposes is currently being assessed in preclinical animal models of pelvic organ prolapse and phase I/II clinical trials for cardiac failure. eMSCs and stromal fibroblasts also exhibit non-stem cell-associated immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, further emphasizing their desirable properties for cell-based therapies. Conclusions: Much has been learnt about endometrial stem/progenitor cells in the 10 years since their discovery, although several unresolved issues remain. These include rationalizing the terminology and diagnostic characteristics used for distinguishing perivascular stem/progenitor cells from stromal fibroblasts, which also have considerable differentiation potential. The hierarchical relationship between clonogenic epithelial progenitor cells, endometrial and decidual SP cells, CD146(+)PDGFR-β(+) and SUSD2(+) cells and menstrual blood stromal fibroblasts still needs to be resolved. Developing more genetic animal models for investigating the role of endometrial stem/progenitor cells in endometrial disorders is required, as well as elucidating which bone marrow cells contribute to endometrial tissue. Deep sequencing and epigenetic profiling of enriched populations of endometrial stem/progenitor cells and their differentiated progeny at the population and single-cell level will shed new light on the regulation and function of endometrial stem/progenitor cells.
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    • "Despite this, some hints come from a graft-versus-host disease study showing that just a few passages can make a significant difference. Human MSCs from passages 1e2 compared with passages 3e4 showed a decrease in patient survival and response, whereas no in vitro differences were found [32]. Despite this uncertainty in the application of hMSCs, there is still a need to rigorously characterize the cellular product during the development of an expansion process to ensure the process itself is not having a detrimental impact on the product characteristics while yield is increased. "
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