Article

Respiratory Health Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter: The Role of Particle Size, Composition, and Oxidative Potential—The RAPTES Project

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, Netherlands.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.98). 05/2012; 120(8):1183-9. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1104389
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Specific characteristics of particulate matter (PM) responsible for associations with respiratory health observed in epidemiological studies are not well established. High correlations among, and differential measurement errors of, individual components contribute to this uncertainty.
Objectives: We investigated which characteristics of PM have the most consistent associations with acute changes in respiratory function in healthy volunteers.
Methods: We used a semiexperimental design to accurately assess exposure. We increased exposure contrast and reduced correlations among PM characteristics by exposing volunteers at five different locations: an underground train station, two traffic sites, a farm, and an urban background site. Each of the 31 participants was exposed for 5 hr while exercising intermittently, three to seven times at different locations during March–October 2009. We measured PM10, PM2.5, particle number concentrations (PNC), absorbance, elemental/organic carbon, trace metals, secondary inorganic components, endotoxin content, gaseous pollutants, and PM oxidative potential. Lung function [FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec), FVC (forced vital capacity), FEF25–75 (forced expiratory flow at 25–75% of vital capacity), and PEF (peak expiratory flow)] and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) were measured before and at three time points after exposure. Data were analyzed with mixed linear regression.
Results: An interquartile increase in PNC (33,000 particles/cm3) was associated with an 11% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5, 17%] and 12% (95% CI: 6, 17%) FENO increase over baseline immediately and at 2 hr postexposure, respectively. A 7% (95% CI: 0.5, 14%) increase persisted until the following morning. These associations were robust and insensitive to adjustment for other pollutants. Similarly consistent associations were seen between FVC and FEV1 with PNC, NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), and NOx (nitrogen oxides).
Conclusions: Changes in PNC, NO2, and NOx were associated with evidence of acute airway inflammation (i.e., FENO) and impaired lung function. PM mass concentration and PM10 oxidative potential were not predictive of the observed acute responses.

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    • "Also, biologically relevant exposure metrics are under consideration. Many studies have shown that mass concentration is only a rough indicator for the biologically effective dose and some health effects are more closely related to particle number or surface area concentrations (Pekkanen et al., 1997; Peters et al., 1997; Oberdörster, 2000; Brunekreef and Forsberg, 2005; Maynard and Kuempel, 2005; Borm et al., 2006; Delfino et al., 2009; Atkinson et al., 2010; Strak et al., 2012; Saber et al., 2013; Simkó et al., 2014). Thus, guidance on the action values based on the number concentration has recently been suggested for exposure management in certain countries (e.g. "
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Annals of Occupational Hygiene
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    • "Also, biologically relevant exposure metrics are under consideration. Many studies have shown that mass concentration is only a rough indicator for the biologically effective dose and some health effects are more closely related to particle number or surface area concentrations (Pekkanen et al., 1997; Peters et al., 1997; Oberdörster, 2000; Brunekreef and Forsberg, 2005; Maynard and Kuempel, 2005; Borm et al., 2006; Delfino et al., 2009; Atkinson et al., 2010; Strak et al., 2012; Saber et al., 2013; Simkó et al., 2014). Thus, guidance on the action values based on the number concentration has recently been suggested for exposure management in certain countries (e.g. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The paint and coatings industry is known to have significant particulate matter (PM) emissions to the atmosphere. However, exposure levels are not studied in detail especially when considering submicro-metre (PM 1) and ultrafine particles (particle diameter below 100 nm). The evidence is increasing that pulmonary exposures to these size fractions are potentially very harmful. This study investigates particle emissions during powder handling and paint mixing in two paint factories at two mixing stations in each factory. In each case measurements were made simultaneously at the mixing station (near-field; NF), as well as at 5–15 m distance into the workroom far-field (FF), and in the workers breathing zone. Particle concentrations (5 nm to 30 µm) were measured using high time-resolution particle instruments and gravimetrically using PM 1 cyclone filter samplers. The PM 1 filters were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The NF particle and dust concentration levels were linked to pouring powder and were used to characterize the emissions and efficiencies of localized controls. NF particle number concentrations were 1000–40 000 cm −3
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    • "Respirable particulate matter of relatively larger sizes (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) and associated trace metals are known to be hazardous to human health. This is mostly due to their potential of generating Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and oxidative stress causing DNA damage and cytotoxicity (WHO, 2006; Roberts et al., 2010; Meister et al., 2012; Strak et al., 2012; Deshmukh et al., 2013; Valavanidis et al., 2013). There is a limited amount of information in literature on mass concentrations, physico–chemical analyses and the hazard ana‐ lyses of the superfine and ultrafine particulate matter of urban ambient air (Stone et al., 2007; Park et al., 2008; Lu et al., 2011; Deshmukh et al., 2013; Kumar et al., 2013). "
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