Phosphate homeostasis and its role in bone health

Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Clinics Hospital, School of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Pediatric Nephrology (Impact Factor: 2.86). 05/2012; 27(11):2039-48. DOI: 10.1007/s00467-012-2175-z
Source: PubMed


Phosphate is one of the most abundant minerals in the body, and its serum levels are regulated by a complex set of processes occurring in the intestine, skeleton, and kidneys. The currently known main regulators of phosphate homeostasis include parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitriol, and a number of peptides collectively known as the "phosphatonins" of which fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) has been best defined. Maintenance of extracellular and intracellular phosphate levels within a narrow range is important for many biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell signaling, regulation of protein synthesis, skeletal development, and bone integrity. The presence of adequate amounts of phosphate is critical for the process of apoptosis of mature chondrocytes in the growth plate. Without the presence of this mineral in high enough quantities, chondrocytes will not go into apoptosis, and the normal physiological chain of events that includes invasion of blood vessels and the generation of new bone will be blocked, resulting in rickets and delayed growth. In the rest of the skeleton, hypophosphatemia will result in osteomalacia due to an insufficient formation of hydroxyapatite. This review will address phosphate metabolism and its role in bone health.

Download full-text


Available from: Maria Goretti M G Penido
  • Source
    • "Vertebrates depend on dietary phosphorus (P) intake for proper mineralization of their calcium phosphate-based skeleton (Penido & Alo, 2012; Santos et al., 2013). Different from tetrapods, which also depend on dietary calcium intake, bony fishes can obtain calcium from the water via the gills. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To understand the effect of low dietary phosphorus (P) intake on the vertebral column of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, a primary P deficiency was induced in post-smolts. The dietary P provision was reduced by 50% for a period of 10 weeks under controlled conditions. The animal's skeleton was subsequently analysed by radiology, histological examination, histochemical detection of minerals in bones and scales and chemical mineral analysis. This is the first account of how a primary P deficiency affects the skeleton in S. salar at the cellular and at the micro-anatomical level. Animals that received the P-deficient diet displayed known signs of P deficiency including reduced growth and soft, pliable opercula. Bone and scale mineral content decreased by c. 50%. On radiographs, vertebral bodies appear small, undersized and with enlarged intervertebral spaces. Contrary to the X-ray-based diagnosis, the histological examination revealed that vertebral bodies had a regular size and regular internal bone structures; intervertebral spaces were not enlarged. Bone matrix formation was continuous and uninterrupted, albeit without traces of mineralization. Likewise, scale growth continues with regular annuli formation, but new scale matrix remains without minerals. The 10 week long experiment generated a homogeneous osteomalacia of vertebral bodies without apparent induction of skeletal malformations. The experiment shows that bone formation and bone mineralization are, to a large degree, independent processes in the fish examined. Therefore, a deficit in mineralization must not be the only cause of the alterations of the vertebral bone structure observed in farmed S. salar. It is discussed how the observed uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization helps to better diagnose, understand and prevent P deficiency-related malformations in farmed S. salar.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Fish Biology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Control of systemic inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels is crucial for osteoid mineralization. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) mediates actions on phosphate homeostasis mostly by regulating the activity of the type 2 sodium-phosphate cotransporter (Npt2), and this action requires the PDZ protein NHERF1. Osteoblasts express Npt2 and in response to PTH enhance osteogenesis by increasing mineralized matrix. The regulation of Pi transport in osteoblasts is poorly understood. To address this gap we characterized PTH-dependent Pi transport and the role of NHERF1 in primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts. Under proliferating conditions osteoblasts express Npt2a, Npt2b, PTH receptor, and NHERF1. Npt2a mRNA expression was lower in calvarial osteoblasts from NHERF1-null mice. Under basal conditions Pi uptake in osteoblasts from wild-type mice was greater than that of knockout mice. PTH inhibited Pi uptake in proliferating osteoblasts from wild-type mice, but not in cells from knockout mice. In vitro induction of mineralization enhanced osteoblast differentiation and increased osterix and osteocalcin expression. Contrary to the results with proliferating osteoblasts, PTH increased Pi uptake and ATP secretion in differentiated osteoblasts from wild-type mice. PTH had no effect on Pi uptake or ATP release in differentiated osteoblasts from knockout mice. NHERF1 regulation of PTH-sensitive Pi uptake in proliferating osteoblasts is mediated by cAMP/PKA and PLC/PKC, while modulation of Pi uptake in differentiated osteoblasts depends only on cAMP/PKA signaling. The results suggest that NHERF1 cooperates with PTH in differentiated osteoblasts to increase matrix mineralization. We conclude that NHERF1 regulates PTH that differentially affects Na-dependent Pi transport at distinct stages of osteoblast proliferation and maturation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Bone
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The common denominator for all types of rickets is hypophosphatemia, leading to inadequate supply of the mineral to the growing bone. Hypophosphatemia can result from insufficient uptake of the mineral from the gut or its disproportionate losses in the kidney, the latter being caused by either tubular abnormalities per se or the effect on the tubule of circulating factors like fibroblast growth factor-23 and parathyroid hormone (PTH). High serum levels of the latter result in most cases from abnormalities in vitamin D metabolism which lead to decreased calcium absorption in the gut and hypocalcemia, triggering PTH secretion. Rickets is a disorder of the growth plate and hence pediatric by definition. However, it is important to recognize that the effect of hypophosphatemia on other parts of the skeleton results in osteomalacia in both children and adults. This review addresses the etiology, pathophysiologic mechanisms, clinical manifestations and treatment of entities associated with hypophosphatemic rickets due to perturbations in renal tubular function.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Pediatric Nephrology
Show more