Expression and prognostic value of ING3 in human primary hepatocellular carcinoma
The tumor-suppressor ING3 has been shown to be involved in tumor transcriptional regulation, apoptosis and the cell cycle. Some studies have demonstrated that ING3 is dysregulated in several types of cancers. However, the expression and function of ING3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate ING3 expression in hepatic tumors and its clinical relevance in hepatic cancer. The expression of ING3 protein was examined in 120 dissected HCC tissues and 47 liver tissues adjacent to the tumor by immunohistochemical assays and confirmed by Western blot analysis in 20 paired frozen tumor and non-tumor liver tissues. The relationship between ING3 staining and clinico-pathological characteristics of HCC was further analyzed. The mRNA expression of ING3 in the dissected tissues was also analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and realtime PCR. Both mRNA and protein concentrations of ING3 were found to be downregulated in the majority of HCC tumors in comparison with matched non-tumor hepatic tissues. Analysis of the relationship between ING3 staining and clinico-pathological characteristics of HCC showed that the low expression of ING3 protein is correlated with more aggressive behavior of the tumor. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that patients with a low expression of ING3 have a significantly increased risk of shortened survival time. In addition, multivariate analysis suggested that the level of ING3 expression may be an independent prognostic factor. Our findings indicate that ING3 may be an important marker for human hepatocellular carcinoma progression and prognosis, as well as a potential therapeutic target.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the INhibitor of Growth (ING) family of proteins act as readers of the epigenetic code through specific recognition of the trimethylated form of lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4Me3) by their plant homeodomains. The founding member of the family, ING1, was initially identified as a tumor suppressor with altered regulation in a variety of cancer types. While alterations in ING1 and ING4 levels have been reported in a variety of cancer types, little is known regarding ING3 protein levels in normal or transformed cells due to a lack of reliable immunological tools. In this study we present the characterization of a new monoclonal antibody we have developed against ING3 that specifically recognizes human and mouse ING3. The antibody works in western blots, immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. Using this antibody we show that ING3 is most highly expressed in small intestine, bone marrow and epidermis, tissues in which cells undergo rapid proliferation and renewal. Consistent with this observation, we show that ING3 is expressed at significantly higher levels in proliferating versus quiescent epithelial cells. These data suggest that ING3 levels may serve as a surrogate for growth rate, and suggest possible roles for ING3 in growth and self renewal and related diseases such as cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.0Comments 0Citations
- "...oma (Wang et al., 2007), ameloblastoma (Borkosky et al., 2010 ), hepatocellular carcinoma (Yang et al., 2012; Lu et al., 2012) and colorectal cancer (Gou et al., 2014). To date, other than one northern blot an..."ING3 is the most evolutionarily conserved of this family (He et al., 2005), and was first described as a p53-dependent cell cycle and apoptosis regulator in RKO human colorectal cancer cells (Nagashima et al., 2003). Subsequently many studies have reported ING3 to be down-regulated in different types of cancer including head and neck carcinoma (Gunduz et al., 2002Gunduz et al., , 2008), melanoma (Wang et al., 2007), ameloblastoma (Borkosky et al., 2010 ), hepatocellular carcinoma (Yang et al., 2012; Lu et al., 2012) and colorectal cancer (Gou et al., 2014). To date, other than one northern blot analysis of ING3 RNA levels in human tissues (Nagashima et al., 2003 ), ING3 expression in human normal tissues has not been reported and neither protein levels nor localization have been addressed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ING genes (ING1-5) were identified has tumor suppressor genes. ING proteins are characterised as Type II TSGs since they are involved in the control of cell proliferation, apoptosis and senescence. They may also function as Type I TSGs since they are also involved in DNA replication and repair. Most studies have reported that they are frequently lost in human tumors and epigenetic mechanisms or misregulation of their transcription may be involved. Recently, studies have described that this loss may be caused by micro-RNA inhibition. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on ING functions, their involvement in tumor suppression and, in order to give a full assessment of the current knowledge, we review all the studies that have examined ING status in human cancers.0Comments 12Citations
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibitor of growth protein 3 (ING3), a new member of ING family, is involved in the regulation of various processes. In this study, a full-length cDNA of ING3 (named as RpING3) was cloned from the gill of Ruditapes philippinarum by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method for the first time. The cDNA obtained was 1442 bp exclusive of poly (A) residues with a 1248 bp open reading frame encoding 415 amino acids. The RpING3 protein has a calculated molecular weight of 46.59 kDa and isoelectric point of 6.62. Two conserved motif and some functional sites were found. Tissue distribution analysis of the RpING3 mRNA revealed that the RpING3 expression level was much higher in gill and digestive gland while lower in mantle, foot and adductor muscle. The temporal expression of RpING3 in digestive gland after lead exposure was recorded by quantitative real-time PCR. The result showed that RpING3 was rapidly up-regulated at 6 h post-exposure and reached tenfold of the control group. These results suggest that RpING3 dependent signaling pathway is present in Manila clam and RpING3 may play important roles in protecting cells from heavy metal damage in R. philippinarum.0Comments 1Citation