Habitual flavonoid intakes are positively associated with bone mineral density in women

Department of Nutrition, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (Impact Factor: 6.83). 09/2012; 27(9):1872-8. DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.1649
Source: PubMed


Dietary flavonoids exert bone-protective effects in animal models, but there is limited information on the effect of different flavonoid subclasses on bone health in humans. The aim of this observational study was to examine the association between habitual intake of flavonoid subclasses with bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of female twins. A total of 3160 women from the TwinsUK adult twin registry participated in the study. Habitual intakes of flavonoids and subclasses (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, polymers, flavonols, and flavones) were calculated from semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires using an updated and extended U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) database. Bone density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In multivariate analyses, total flavonoid intake was positively associated with higher BMD at the spine but not at the hip. For the subclasses, the magnitude of effect was greatest for anthocyanins, with a 0.034 g/cm(2) (3.4%) and 0.029 g/cm(2) (3.1%) higher BMD at the spine and hip, respectively, for women in the highest intake quintile compared to those in the lowest. Participants in the top quintile of flavone intake had a higher BMD at both sites; 0.021 g/cm(2) (spine) and 0.026 g/cm(2) (hip). At the spine, a greater intake of flavonols and polymers was associated with a higher BMD (0.021 and 0.024 g/cm(2) , respectively), whereas a higher flavanone intake was positively associated with hip BMD (0.008 g/cm(2) ). In conclusion, total flavonoid intake was positively associated with BMD, with effects observed for anthocyanins and flavones at both the hip and spine, supporting a role for flavonoids present in plant-based foods on bone health. .

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Available from: Susan Fairweather-Tait, Oct 14, 2014
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    • "Anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin 3-O-a-arabinoside – Cy-3-ara, cyanidin 3-O-b-galactoside – Cy-3-gal, cyanidin 3-O-b-glucoside – Cy-3-glu, and cyanidin-3- xyloside, and relatively low amounts of pelargonidin-3-galactoside and pelargonidin-3-arabinoside), proanthocyanidins (oligomeric and polymeric catechins), flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol and several quercetin mono-and di-glycosides: quercetin-3-galacto- side, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin-3- vicianoside, and quercetin-3-robinobioside), and hydroxycinnamic acids (chlorogenic acid – CA and neochlorogenic acid) are present in the extract. To our knowledge, the impact of AMP on bone metabolism has not been investigated so far; however, some subclasses of polyphenolic compounds present in chokeberries (anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonols) have been reported to have a favorable impact on bone metabolism [21] [31] [32]. Taking the above into account, including our own finding of decreased Cd concentration in the bone tissue due to AMP administration under moderate exposure to this metal (Table 1), we have hypothesized that consumption of these compounds under exposure to Cd may, at least partly, provide protection from its damaging impact on the skeleton. "
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    ABSTRACT: It was investigated, in a female rat model of low and moderate lifetime human exposure to cadmium (Cd), whether polyphenols from Aronia melanocarpa berries (chokeberry; AMP) may offer protection from this heavy metal-induced disorders in bone metabolism. For this purpose, numerous indices of bone formation (osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, osteoprotegerin) and resorption (carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of type I collagen, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand) in the serum and/or distal femur epiphysis (trabecular bone region), as well as bone mineral status (volumetric bone mineral density of the femur and content of mineral components, including calcium, in the bone tissue at the distal femur epiphysis) were evaluated in female Wistar rats that received a 0.1% aqueous extract of AMP, as the only drinking fluid (prepared from lyophilized extract by Adamed Consumer Healthcare), and/or Cd in diet (1 and 5 mg/kg) for 3, 10, 17, and 24 months. Examination of the phytochemical profile of the aronia extract revealed high content of polyphenols (612.40 ± 3.33 mg/g), including anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Among detected compounds anthocyanins were identified as dominating. The exposure to Cd, dose- and duration-dependently, enhanced resorption and inhibited formation of the bone tissue resulting in its decreased mineralization. The administration of AMP under the exposure to 1 and 5 mg Cd/kg diet provided important protection from this heavy metal-induced disturbances in the bone turnover and changes in the bone mineral status, and the beneficial impact of polyphenols resulted from their independent action and interaction with Cd. These findings suggest that consumption of Aronia melanocarpa polyphenols may play a role in prevention against female skeleton damage due to chronic exposure to Cd and that chokeberry represents the good natural plant candidate for further investigations of its prophylactic use under environmental exposure to this heavy metal
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    • "Last year, an interesting epidemiological report was published in the Journal of Bone Mineral Research. Welch and his colleagues investigated the association between habitual flavonoid intake with bone mineral density in 3,160 women, and concluded that flavonoid intake, especially anthocyanin (median intake: 13.7 mg/day), was beneficial for bone-protective effects in women [24]. Devareddy et al. previously reported that the extracted anthocyanin compound showed a protective property against bone loss in OVX rats [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anthocyanins, one of the flavonoid subtypes, are a large family of water-soluble phytopigments and have a wide range of health-promoting benefits. Recently, an anthocyanin-rich compound from blueberries was reported to possess protective property against bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) animal models. However, the active ingredients in the anthocyanin compound have not been identified. Here we show that delphinidin, one of the major anthocyanidins in berries, is a potent active ingredient in anti-osteoporotic bone resorption through the suppression of osteoclast formation. In vitro examinations revealed that delphinidin treatment markedly inhibited the differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into osteoclasts compared with other anthocyanidins, cyanidin and peonidin. Oral administration of delphinidin significantly prevented bone loss in both RANKL-induced osteoporosis model mice and OVX model mice. We further provide evidence that delphinidin suppressed the activity of NF-κB, c-fos, and Nfatc1, master transcriptional factors for osteoclastogenesis. These results strongly suggest that delphinidin is the most potent inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation and will be an effective agent for preventing bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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