CRF22_01A1 is Involved in the Emergence of New HIV-1 Recombinants in Cameroon
Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 8800 RockvillePike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Impact Factor: 4.56). 04/2012; 60(4):344-50. DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318258c7e3
Cameroon is a West African country where high genetic diversity of HIV-1 has been reported. The predominant CRF02_AG is involved in the emergence of more complex intersubtype recombinants. In this study, we sequenced the full-length genome of a novel unique recombinant form of HIV-1, 02CAMLT04 isolated in blood donors in urban Cameroon. Phylogenetic tree and bootscan analysis showed that 02CAMLT04 was complex and seemed to be a secondary recombinant derived from CRF02_AG and CRF22_01A1. The genomic composition of 02CAMLT04 strain showed that it is composed of 3 segments; 24% of the genome is classified as CRF02_AG, spanning most of the envelope gene. The remaining 76% of the genome is classified as CRF22_01A1. In addition, the sequence analysis of 13 full-length sequences from HIV-1-positive specimens received from Cameroon between 2002 and 2010 indicated that 5 specimens are pure CRF22_01A1 viruses, and 6 others have homology with CRF22_01A1 sequences in either gag, pol, or env region, whereas 6% of strains contain portions of CRF22_01A1. Further study demonstrated that CRF22_01A1 is a primary prevalence strain co-circulating in Cameroon and is involved in complex intersubtype recombination events with subtypes (D or F), subsubtypes (A1 or F2), and CRFs (CRF01_AE or CRF02_AG). Our studies show that novel recombinants between CRF22_01A1 and other clades and recombinant forms may be emerging in Cameroon that could contribute to the future global diversity of HIV-1 in this region and worldwide.
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ABSTRACT: In West/West Central Africa, CRF02_AG is the most prevalent HIV-1 strain and circulates in the milieu of rare subtypes, circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), and unique recombinant forms (URFs). The molecular complexity of HIV-1 epidemics in this region and the need to extensively sample large populations, such as in the case of vaccine trials, pose seemingly conflicting requirements between full-genome sequencing and high-throughput low-resolution assays. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a multiregion hybridization assay (MHAcrf02) for the efficient genotyping of CRF02_AG in West/West Central Africa. Subtype A, G, and CRF02_AG-specific fluorescent probes were designed flanking five recombination breakpoints in CRF02_AG and were used in real-time PCRs. A panel representing West/West Central African HIV-1 genetic diversity was evaluated by MHAcrf02. The sample set, previously characterized by full-genome sequencing, included CRF02_AG and CRF02_AG-containing recombinants (n = 28), other subtypes, CRFs, and URFs (n = 34). DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, cocultures, and plasmids was used as template. When the patterns of probe reactivity were evaluated. CRF02_AG was identified with a 100% specificity and sensitivity. In conclusion, MHAcrf02 will permit more efficient characterization of HIV-1 in West/West Central Africa, where CRF02_AG is an important strain. Together with other regional genotyping assays MHAcrf02 will contribute to the development of a global picture of HIV-1 diversity and geographic distribution, providing a strong foundation for intervention, including vaccine development.
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ABSTRACT: The significant diversity among HIV-1 variants poses serious challenges for vaccine development and for developing sensitive assays for screening, surveillance, diagnosis and clinical management. Recognizing a need to develop a panel of HIV representing the current genetic and geographic diversity NIH/NIAID contracted the External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL) to isolate, characterize and establish panels of HIV-1 strains representing global diverse subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), and to make them available to the research community. HIV-positive plasma specimens and previously established isolates were collected through a variety of collaborations with a preference for samples from acutely/recently infected persons diagnosed since 2009. Source specimens were cultured to high-titer/high-volume using well-characterized cryopreserved PBMCs from healthy donors. Panel samples were stored as neat culture supernatant or diluted into defibrinated plasma. Characterization for the final expanded virus stocks included viral load, p24 antigen, infectivity (TCID), sterility, coreceptor usage, and near full-length genome sequencing. Viruses are made available to approved, interested laboratories using an online ordering application. The current EQAPOL Viral Diversity panel includes over 101 viral specimens representing 6 subtypes (A, B, C, D, F, and G), 2 sub-subtypes (F1 and F2), 7 CRFs (01, 02, 04, 14, 22, 24, and 47), 19 URFs and 3 group O viruses from 22 countries. The EQAPOL Viral Diversity panel is an invaluable collection of well-characterized reagents that are available to the scientific community, including researchers, epidemiologists, and commercial manufacturers of diagnostics and pharmaceuticals to support HIV research and diagnostic and vaccine development.
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that is classified in the genus Lentivirus. Lentiviruses are uniquely distinguished from other retroviruses by having a long latency period between infection and the manifestation of symptoms, a characteristic that confers the genus its Latin etymology (lentus being the adjective for “slow”) . Moreover, lentiviruses are transmitted between hosts without the need for an intermediate vector, infect a broad range of mammalian hosts, and have a worldwide distribution. There are presently seven recognized major lentivirus lineages reflecting the known mammalian host range (lagomorph, equine, small ruminant, bovine, feline, prosimian, and simian [2, 3]). The virus genomes representing these lineages share a common genomic structure comprising three major genes (gag, pol, and env) and two regulatory genes (tat and rev); however, there are also a number of accessory genes that vary in number, type and relative location (Fig. 23.1).
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