Monitoring bone strontium levels of an osteoporotic subject due to self-administration of strontium citrate with a novel diagnostic tool, in vivo XRF: A case study

Article (PDF Available)inBone 51(1):93-7 · April 2012with79 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2012.04.008 · Source: PubMed
A previously developed in vivo X-ray fluorescence (IVXRF) I-125 based system was used to measure bone strontium levels non-invasively in an osteoporotic female volunteer. The volunteer was recruited in December 2008, as part of the Ryerson and McMaster University Strontium in Bone Research Study and measured at twice weekly, weekly and monthly intervals. Thirty minute measurements were taken at the finger and ankle bone sites, representing primarily cortical and trabecular bone, respectively and the strontium K-alpha X-ray peak at 14.16 keV was used in the analysis. Since the volunteer had no prior history of strontium based medications or supplementation, baseline natural strontium levels were obtained followed by a 24h measurement of first intake of strontium citrate supplements (680 mg Sr/day). While the baseline levels of 0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.39 ± 0.10 for the finger and ankle, respectively, were on par with those previously reported in Caucasians among twenty-two healthy non-supplementing strontium individuals by our group, an increase began to be seen after 24 hrs of 0.62 ± 0.14 and 0.45 ± 0.12 for the finger and ankle, respectively. By 120 h, the increase was statistically significant at 0.68 ± 0.07 and 0.93 ± 0.05, respectively. Further increases occurred within an interval of 90-180 days, with the most recent, after 800 days, at the finger and ankle being 7 and 15 times higher than the initial baseline reading. The intriguing results show bone strontium incorporation and retention follow a pattern, suggesting strontium levels, at least in the ankle, do not plateau within two to three years and will continue to increase over time, as an individual takes strontium supplements. The ability of this IVXRF system to monitor and measure bone strontium levels over time provides a useful diagnostic tool to help gain insight into strontium bone kinetics.


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Available from: David Robert Chettle, Jul 08, 2014
    • "Normalization of the Sr signal to the coherent I-125 peak at 35.5 keV was also performed to correct for experimental conditions. Further details of the IVXRF system including measurement technique and subsequent analysis of the individuals recruited as part of the Ryerson and McMaster University Sr in Bone Research Study were previously published by our group and are available in the literature (Zamburlini et al 2007, Moise et al 2012, Moise et al 2014). Modeling of the variation of the bone Sr IVXRF data with time was performed with Origin Pro 9.1. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An in-house custom I-125 excited in vivo x-ray fluorescence (IVXRF) system was used to perform bone strontium (Sr) measurements in individuals suffering from osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. These individuals, who were self-administering with Sr supplements of their choice, were measured frequently, ranging from weekly to biweekly to monthly, over four years, as part of the Ryerson and McMaster Sr in Bone Research Study. Based on these data collected, data from eight subjects were used to perform kinetic modeling of Sr in human bone. Power and exponential models were used to model the data based on one and two compartmental systems. Model parameters included: mean normalized baseline bone Sr signal, half-life and bone Sr uptake. A one compartmental exponential model applied to finger and ankle bone measurements gave half-lives of (508 ± 331) d and (232 ± 183) d, respectively, but did not show statistically significant differences (p = 0.087 96). However, the values fall within literature estimates. When a two compartmental model was applied to finger bone measurements, half-lives of (300 ± 163) d and (2201 ± 1662) d were observed. Ankle bone data gave half-lives of (156 ± 117) d and (1681 ± 744) d. A two sample t-test, assuming unequal variances, showed these half-lives to be statistically different in both the finger and ankle bone measurements (p = 0.0147 and p = 0.00711, respectively). Common kinetic parameters amongst the different subjects could not be unambiguously identified due to the wide scatter of data, leading to an inconclusive kinetic model. The wide distribution of data is suggested to be physiological since technical and positioning factors were eliminated as possible causes. This outcome indicates the need for a more controlled study and further understanding of the physiological mechanism of Sr absorption.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016
    • "This work could not be done without you, thank you.Fig. 7. Updated finger bone Sr measurements for volunteer S10, since publication of her results in 2012 [15]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten female volunteers were recruited as part of the Ryerson and McMaster University Strontium (Sr) in Bone Research Study to have their bone Sr levels measured as they self-supplemented with Sr supplements of their choice. Of the ten volunteers, nine were suffering from osteopenia and/or osteoporosis. Non-invasive bone Sr measurements were performed using an in vivo x-ray fluorescence (IVXRF) I-125 based system. Thirty minute measurements were taken at the finger and ankle, representing primarily cortical and trabecular bone, respectively. For analysis, the 14.2keV Sr K-alpha peak normalized to the Coherent peak at 35.5keV was used. Baseline readings, representing natural bone Sr levels were acquired since all volunteers had no previous intake of Sr based supplements or medications. Once Sr supplements were started, a 24hr reading was taken, followed by frequent measurements ranging from weekly, biweekly to monthly. The longest volunteer participation was 1535 days. The mean baseline Sr signal observed for the group was 0.42±0.13 and 0.39±0.07 for the finger and ankle, respectively. After 24hrs, the mean Sr signal rose to 1.43±1.12 and 1.17±0.51, for the finger and ankle, respectively, representing a statistically significant increase (p=0.0043 & p=0.000613). Bone Sr levels continued to increase throughout the length of the study. However the Sr signal varied widely between the individuals such that after three years, the highest Sr signal observed was 28.15±0.86 for the finger and 26.47±1.22 for the ankle in one volunteer compared to 3.15±0.15 and 4.46±0.36, for the finger and ankle, respectively in another. Furthermore, while it was previously reported by our group, that finger bone Sr levels may plateau within two years, these results suggest otherwise, indicating that bone Sr levels will continue to rise at both bone sites even after 4 years of Sr intake.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
    • "However, the growth of the rats was relatively linear over the 8‐week study. The difference in strontium accumulation between the first 4 weeks and the latter 4 weeks suggests that the accumulation might be asymptotic as demonstrated by measures in humans [38]. The non-invasive nature of the XRF system enables us to follow bone strontium content and measure the rate of strontium accumulation in each animal longitudinally under different strontium doses. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strontium ranelate is an approved pharmacotherapy for osteoporosis in Europe and Australia, but not in Canada or the United States. Strontium citrate, an alternative strontium salt, however, is available for purchase over-the-counter as a nutritional supplement. The effects of strontium citrate on bone are largely unknown. The study's objectives were 1) to quantify bone strontium accumulation in female Sprague Dawley rats administered strontium citrate (N=7) and compare these levels to rats administered strontium ranelate (N=6) and vehicle (N=6) over 8weeks, and 2) to verify an in vivo X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) system for measurement of bone strontium in the rat. Daily doses of strontium citrate and strontium ranelate were determined with the intention to achieve equivalent amounts of elemental strontium. However, post-hoc analyses of each strontium compound conducted using energy dispersive spectrometry microanalysis revealed a higher elemental strontium concentration in strontium citrate than strontium ranelate. Bone strontium levels were measured at baseline and 8weeks follow-up using a unique in vivo XRF technique previously used in humans. XRF measurements were validated against ex vivo measurements of bone strontium using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Weight gain in rats in all three groups was equivalent over the study duration. A two-way ANOVA was conducted to compare bone strontium levels amongst the three groups. Bone strontium levels in rats administered strontium citrate were significantly greater (p<0.05) than rats administered strontium ranelate and vehicle. ANCOVA analyses were performed with Sr dose as a covariate to account for differences in strontium dosing. The ANCOVA revealed differences in bone strontium levels between the strontium groups were not significant, but that bone strontium levels were still very significantly greater than vehicle.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012
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