Hypertension therapy in patients with renal artery stenosis
Service de Néphrologie et d'Hypertension, Département de Médecine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois CHUV, Université de Lausanne. Therapeutische Umschau
05/2012; 69(5):279-81. DOI: 10.1024/0040-5930/a000286
Renovascular hypertension is due to reduced renal parenchymal perfusion. The correct diagnosis can be difficult. It is important to note that the demonstration of renal artery stenosis in a patient with hypertension does not necessarily constitute renovascular hypertension. Often, clinically nonsignificant and asymptomatic renal artery stenosis are found in patients with essential hypertension, or renal failure of other origin. Renovascular disease is a complex disorder with various clinical presentations. In patients with significant renovascular hypertension plasma renin is increased. For this reason the therapy aims to block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Bilateral renal artery stenosis causes renal sodium retention. In this situation a diuretic drug has to be added to the therapy. Endovascular or surgical therapy has to be considered in patients with flash pulmonary edema or fibromuscular dysplasia. The control of cardiovascular risk factors is important.
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ABSTRACT: Renovascular hypertension is caused by narrowing of the arteries supplying the kidneys. There are several methods to treat renal artery stenosis, such as medications, percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty, and atherosclerosis. A boy presented to our hospital with severe hypertension. Computed tomography angiogram revealed severe narrowing of the left renal artery and hypoplastic left kidney. Total renal artery embolizaton was performed to make a complete occlusion of the left renal artery. Follow-up renin and aldosterone levels were gradually decreased. The main advantage of renal artery embolization is that it is minimally invasive compared with extensive surgical procedures. Therefore, renal artery embolization should be considered as an alternative to surgical nephrectomy in pediatric patients with renovascular hypertension.
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