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Effect of honey intake on serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein levels in albino rats and potential benefits on risks of coronary heart disease

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Abstract

The beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly in the treatment of wounds and gastrointestinal tract disorders. However there is paucity of reports on its effect on the plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) including cholesterol levels despite common consumption of honey worldwide including, Nigeria. The effect of the widely consumed unrefined Nigeria honey on plasma HDL, VLDL, LDL, TG, cholesterol and cardiovascular risk predictive index (CVPI) was studied using 20 adult male albino rats to ascertain its scientific and clinical relevance. The rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups, the control and honey-fed (test) groups, ten in each group. The rats weighed between 190-200gm at the start of the study. The control group was fed on normal rat (Pfizer-Nigeria) while the test group was fed on normal rat feed and honey (1ml of honey was added to 10ml of drinking water given once every day) for 22 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized with thiopentone sodium and blood collected by cardiac puncture. Serum TG, HDL, VLDL, LDL and total cholesterol in the control and the test groups were determined. The results showed significant increase in the level of plasma TG, HDL, and VLDL in the test group when compared with the control group. In contrast, there were significant decreases in the levels of plasma LDL and total cholesterol in the test when compared with the control group. Computed values of CVPI showed significant increase in the test values compared to that of the control. It is concluded that consumption of unrefined Nigeria honey significantly improved lipid profile and computed cardiovascular disease predictive index in male albino rats.

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... In terms of honey, several in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trial studies have revealed honey positively affects risk factors for heart problem by improving the plasma lipid profile [22], suppressing oxidation [20], attenuating elevation of cardiac damage markers (CK-MB, AST, ALT) [23], increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx) [24], and increasing LDL resistance to oxidation [25] caused by oxidative stress in heart diseases. In this review, a systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify and discuss all available current evidence that reports the association of honey and cardiovascular diseases to guide the future utilization of honey as a cardioprotective agent. ...
... In terms of honey used, it varied from one study to another. In terms of country of origin, six studies obtained their honey from Iran [29][30][31][32][33][34], three from Malaysia [35][36][37], two from Nigeria [22,38], and one each from Bangladesh [23], United Arab Emirates [39], Egypt [24], France [25], Indonesia [40], Turkey [41], ...
... In terms of honey used, it varied from one study to another. In terms of country of origin, six studies obtained their honey from Iran [29][30][31][32][33][34], three from Malaysia [35][36][37], two from Nigeria [22,38], and one each from Bangladesh [23], United Arab Emirates [39], Egypt [24], France [25], Indonesia [40], Turkey [41], and Yemen [42]. One study compared honey from different countries, namely, America, Australia, Germany, and Pakistan [20]. ...
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Cardiovascular disease is a major public health burden worldwide. Myocardial infarction is the most common form of cardiovascular disease resulting from low blood supply to the heart. It can lead to further complications such as cardiac arrhythmia, toxic metabolite accumulation, and permanently infarcted areas. Honey is one of the most prized medicinal remedies used since ancient times. There is evidence that indicates honey can function as a cardioprotective agent in cardiovascular diseases. The present review compiles and discusses the available evidence on the effect of honey on cardiovascular diseases. Three electronic databases, namely, PubMed, Scopus, and MEDLINE via EBSCOhost, were searched between January 1959 and March 2020 to identify reports on the cardioprotective effect of honey. Based on the pre-set eligibility criteria, 25 qualified articles were selected and discussed in this review. Honey investigated in the studies included varieties according to their geological origin. Honey protects the heart via lipid metabolism improvement, antioxidative activity, blood pressure modulation, heartbeat restoration, myocardial infarct area reduction, antiaging properties, and cell apoptosis attenuation. This review establishes honey as a potential candidate to be explored further as a natural and dietary alternative to the management of cardiovascular disease.
... The doses of all the dietary treatments were within the ranges of previous experimental trials in rats [Al- Waili, 2003;Al-Waili and Boni, 2003;Al-Waili and Haq, 2004;Al-Waili et al, 2006;Busserolles et al, 2002a;Ajibola et al, 2007;Kilicoglu et al, 2008;Chepulis et al, 2009;Prakash et al, 2008;Alagwu et al, 2009Alagwu et al, , 2011. This allowed for proper comparison with previous studies, and ensured that the experimental rats were not exposed to nutritionally deficient diets. ...
... properties [White and Doner, 1980;Alagwu et al, 2011]. Dietary fibre has been shown to aid digestion and confer gastroprotection amidst other metabolic and health benefits [Anderson et al, 2009]. ...
... In the opinion of some workers, soluble or viscous fibres appear to exert primary effects on serum cholesterol especially LDL by binding bile acids in the small intestine and increasing their excretion in the faeces [Kirby et al, 1981]. The above proposed mechanisms have been supported by some workers in a recent study that honey decreases the blood cholesterol levels through increase in bile cholesterol excretion [Alagwu et al, 2009[Alagwu et al, , 2011. Further investigation by other workers shows that fermentation of fibres in the caecum yields short-chain fatty acids, and this may contribute to hypocholesterolaemia by attenuating cholesterol synthesis [Wright et al, 1990]. ...
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The excessive consumption of refined sugars mainly fructose is linked to metabolic dysfunction. The early introduction of refined sugars in the diets of children has resulted in an increased incidence of childhood metabolic dysfunction. There are conflicting reports on the gender susceptibility to developing metabolic dysfunction. Natural honey (NH) has been shown to have health benefits when included in the diet. The neonate is sensitive to dietary manipulations which can have long lasting effects. The short and long term effects of inclusion of NH in the diets of neonates were investigated in rat models. This was with a view to determine whether NH can substitute refined sugars such as cane syrup (GS), without adverse effects, and whether there were any gender differences in response to the dietary modification. In the long term study, 59 suckling Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed with either NHor GS-supplemented diets from age 7 (neonate) to 91 (adulthood) days. For the short term study to investigate the effects of NH in neonates, 69 SD pups were gavaged with NH or GS twice daily at 12-hour intervals and allowed to nurse freely in between from age 7 to 20 days. The rats in all groups were weighed daily during the period when they were gavaged and then twice weekly thereafter to assess body weight gain (BWG) over the study periods. The adult rats were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 13 weeks of age before termination. The rats’ growth was determined through their BWG and linear growth was assessed by measurements on the bones (femur and tibia) weight, length and density. Blood was collected for the assessment of clinical biochemistry and plasma markers of general health including the circulating metabolic substrates (glucose, triglycerides (TGs), free fatty acids (FFAs)); hormones (insulin, leptin); liver and renal functions were also obtained. Morphometric measurements (weight, lengths and histology) were also done on the abdominal viscera. Hepatic storage of metabolic substrates (glycogen and lipids) was determined. The analysis of the proximate composition of the NH and GS as well as the diets was performed with the Student’s t-test. A repeated measures two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferonni’s post hoc test was used to analyse the BWG and OGTT, while the other parameters were analysed by one-way ANOVA with Neuman-Keul’s post hoc test, and level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The matched diets were found to be isonitrogenous and isocalorific. Following the long term study, the NH fed rats showed tolerance to an oral glucose load. GS increased fasting blood glucose (FBG), TGs (p < 0.05), FFAs (p < 0.0001), visceral fat weight (p < 0.0001), and caused hypercholesterolemia, hyperinsulinemia, hepatomegaly and fatty liver in the males. NH increased intestinal villi growth and preserved the liver integrity in both males and females. Although, the GS-fed female rats did not suffer multiple risks of metabolic syndrome (MetS), there were high FBG concentration and hypercholesterolemia induced at low dose and metabolic dyslipidemia shown as high TG levels at high dose. These findings were contrary to the notion about the females having a lower susceptibility to developing metabolic syndrome than males. Some traditional rites include the feeding of honey to infants at birth, and there is evidence of the dietary inclusion of sugars in infant formulations. The need to evaluate the safety of honey consumption vis-à-vis refined sugars in children becomes imperative. Thus, after inducing metabolic syndrome in the rats through 12-week GS feeding, the effects of both diets on neonates were studied. In the neonates, there was no difference in all the parameters measured except the higher circulating non fasting FFAs (p < 0.0001) and hepatic storage of lipids (p < 0.001) in GS-fed than the NH-fed pups. Metabolic syndrome did not develop within the short term. NH was thus found to be a healthy source of dietary sugars, improved glycaemic control and metabolic profiles. The study underscored the differential effects of dietary treatments in male and female rodents. This pointed to the advantages of gender based comparative studies in biomedical research. The study confirmed the nutraceutical value of NH, and advocated for its consumption as a healthy substitute to refined sugars. The consumption of refined sugars by infants should be discouraged, and females should also be cautious in excessive sugar intake, as they can also be susceptible to the metabolic adverse health effects of artificial sweeteners.
... a Anova test K1: standard feed control group, K2: high fat feed control group, P1: high fat feeds for 7 days followed by high-fat feed plus honey for the next 7 days, P2: high-fat feeds for 7 days followed by regular feed plus honey for the next 7 days; a Anova test; b Kruskall Wallis test Table 2. Mean total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL levels by treatment groups after 7 days of treatment condition can lead to atherosclerosis, resulting in complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. (12,13) Uncontrolled hypercholesterolemia can develop into cardiovascular disease. Hypercholesterolemia is strongly associated with high total cholesterol and LDL levels in the blood. ...
... In addition, Alagwu et al. (13) suggest that the administration of pure Nigerian honey can reduce levels of blood LDL and total cholesterol in rats. However, Alagwu's research showed elevated levels of triglycerides and VLDL in the blood. ...
... Chepulis and Starkey (23) found that although there was an increase in HDLcholesterol in honey-fed rats compared with rats fed sucrose or a sugar free diet, but there were no other differences in lipid profiles. Nemoseck et al., (13) Alagwu et al. (17) and Majid et al. (20) also suggest that the supplementation of honey will increase the excretion of cholesterol through bile acids thereby lowering blood cholesterol levels. In addition to antioxidants, honey also contains niacin. ...
Article
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Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, including Indonesia. One of the risk factors for CHD is hypercholesterolemia. One of the natural products that has been developed for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia is honey. Honey contains fructooligosaccharides, various vitamins, minerals, and enzymes which are supposedly able to lower blood cholesterol levels. This research aimed to study the influence of honey on the levels of blood total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in Wistar rats. Methods This study was of experimental post test control group design. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were randomly divided into 4 groups. K1 was the negative control group (with normal diet), K2 was the positive control group (with high-fat diet), P1 was fed a high-fat diet for 7 days, followed by high-fat diet plus honey for the next 7 days. P2 was fed a high-fat diet for 7 days, followed by regular diet plus honey for the next 7 days. After completion of this treatment, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL levels were measured by the cholesterol oxidase phenol+aminophenazone (CHOD-PAP) method using enzymatic spectrophotometry principles. Results There were significant differences in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL levels between all groups after day 15 (p<0.05). Conclusion Honey supplementation was able to reduce the blood levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. Honey supplementation accompanied by non-cholesterol feeds could more effectively lower total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL serum levels in Wistar rats.
... For our interest, most experiments with a 30% SS have used this concentration to develop an animal model of MetS and DM [9,10,34,35]; but none of these have been interested in associating the amount of ingested solution with the physiological effects. In this sense, our objective was not to evaluate the acceptance, since many previous reports have demonstrated that rats voluntary consumeSS, GFS and HS in different concentrations [32,34,[36][37][38]; instead the interest was for the multiple effects derived from the consumption of different sweet isoenergetic, high concentrated solutions. Thus, this study sought to determine the feeding pattern of intake, biochemical, anthropometric and histological effects of the exposure to different 30% carbohydrate solutions. ...
... Metabolic effects related to honey have reported an improvement of HDL-C and glucose concentration [15,16,37]. In albino rats exposed to honey (1 mL of honey in 10 mL water) along 22 weeks, Alagwu et al. [37] reported a higher HDL-C, VLDL and triglycerides concentration, and lower TC and low density lipoprotein (LDL) than control group. ...
... Metabolic effects related to honey have reported an improvement of HDL-C and glucose concentration [15,16,37]. In albino rats exposed to honey (1 mL of honey in 10 mL water) along 22 weeks, Alagwu et al. [37] reported a higher HDL-C, VLDL and triglycerides concentration, and lower TC and low density lipoprotein (LDL) than control group. In rats exposed to 10% honey diet ad libitum for 6 weeks, Chepulis [15] observed lower HbA1c, TC, HDL-C, triglycerides and higher LDL concentration, compared to sucrose group. ...
Article
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Background/objectives: The exposure to sucrose in rats has mimic abnormalities attributed to metabolic syndrome (MetS). The effects of honey bee and "free" glucose and fructose, have not been explored in this context. The aim was to expose Wistar rodents to sucrose solution (SS), honey solution (HS) and fructose/glucose solution (GFS) at 30% to assess their effects. Subjects/methods: HS (n = 10), SS (n = 10) and GFS (n = 10) groups were formed. Solutions were ad libitum along 14-weeks. Results: Between solutions consumptions, honey was significantly 42% higher (P = 0.000), while similar consumption was observed among GFS and SS. The feeding pattern of HS consumption was irregular along experiment; while the food intake pattern showed the similar trend among groups along time. Non statistical differences were obtained in any biochemical and anthropometric measure, however, a higher concentration of leptin (721 ± 507 pg/mL), lower concentration of total cholesterol (TC; 48.87 ± 2.41 mg/100 mL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL; 16.47 ± 6.55 mg/100 mL) and triglycerides (82.37 ± 32.77 mg/100 mL) was obtained in SS group. For anthropometric values, HS showed less total adipose tissue (AT; average 26 vs. 31-33 g) and adiposity index (average 6.11 vs. 7.6). Due to sugar-sweetened beverages consumption increases the risk for the development of chronic diseases; correlations between fluid intake and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed. A moderate correlation was obtained in groups with the weight of total AT and solution intake; for the weight gain in GFS group and for triglycerides in HS and GFS. The highest hepatic tissue damage was observed in SS group with multiple intracytoplasmic vacuoles, atypia changes, moderate pleomorphism and hepatocellular necrosis. Conclusions: In spite of the significantly higher consumption of HS, biochemical, anthropometrical and histological effects were not remarkably different in comparision to other sweeteners.
... However, excessive intake of honey might have no cardio-protective benefits (table 3.6). [18], however speculated that honey increases bile cholesterol excretion and lowers plasma cholesterol. [19], suggest that antioxidants in honey, in addition to their role in lowering blood cholesterol and low density lipoprotein The result obtained also with respect to honey agrees with the report of [20], who that the consumption of 40 grams of honey was shown to improve lipid profiles in obese adult subjects. ...
... In addition, studies on healthy young subjects with similar dose and duration (70 grams daily for 4 weeks) also showed a decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL compared with the control group. In addition, [18], suggest that the administration of pure honey can reduce levels of blood LDL and TC in rats. However, [18] research showed elevated levels of TG and VLDL in the blood. ...
... In addition, [18], suggest that the administration of pure honey can reduce levels of blood LDL and TC in rats. However, [18] research showed elevated levels of TG and VLDL in the blood. ...
Article
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Abstract: The study compared the effect of natural honey and refined sugar on Total cholesterol (TC), Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Triglyceride (TG), Atherogenic index (Total Cholesterol/HDL) and Coronary risk index (LDL/HDL) on wister rats. 28 wister rats with body weight average of 200g were divided into seven groups of four each. Group 1 was used as control, three groups were treated with natural honey using low dose, moderate dose and high dose of 0.04g/ml, 0.09g/ml and 0.13g/ml respectively and three groups treated with refined sugar using low dose, moderate dose and high dose of 0.02g/ml, 0.03g/ml and 0.04g/ml respectively. The administration was done orally by gavaging method and after 4 weeks, blood samples were collected for analysis of TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC/HDL and LDL/HDL. Results showed significant decreases in TC, TG and HDL-C in rats treated with low dose of refined sugar and HDL-C level in rats treated with moderate dose of refined sugar while significant increases were seen in LDL-C and TC/HDL ratio in rats treated with high dose of refined sugar. In rats treated with natural honey, significantly reduced levels of TC and TG and significantly increased levels of HDL-C were seen in low and moderate doses of honey. However, when moderate doses of refined sugar and honey were compared, significant reduced level of TC/HDL was observed in rats treated with honey. In conclusion, consumption of low and moderate doses of natural honey was shown to reduce cardiovascular risk indicated by decreased TC, TG and increased HDL-C while low, moderate and high dose of refined sugar showed decreased TC, TG, HDL-C and increases in LDL-C and TC/HDL-C levels indicating increased cardiovascular risk.
... Therefore; appropriate preventive measures are valuable in decreasing heart attacks (Guyton and Hall, 2011). The values obtained in this present study (cholesterol, VLDL) were different from those of Alagwu (2008) and Alagwu et al. (2011).While these researchers reported increase in level of VLDL and decrease in level of cholesterol in the test, the present study did not observe any significant differences in the values of cholesterol and VLDL in both the control and test groups. It .may ...
... It .may be because the present work was an acute experiment while those of Alagwu (2008) and Alagwu et al. (2011), were chronic experiments. The mechanism by which honey increases HDL and lowers LDL in the body has not been fully elucidated. ...
Article
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Honey is widely consumed in Nigeria. Its main uses include wound healing, baking, and as an addition to various beverages. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect, of honey on lipid profile and some hematological parameters of adult albino rats. Sixteen adult albino rats were randomly divided into two groups. Group A {8 rats) served as control and received rat chow and water only. Group B (8 rats) received 1ml of honey per rat per day for three weeks. Thereafter, the animals were anaesthetized with chloroform. Blood samples were collected for analysis via cardiac puncture. The results showed that honey increased HDL and decreased LDL in group B. Increase in triglycerides in group B was not significant. It had no effect on cholesterol and VLDL in group B. Honey had no effect on PCV, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils. In group B, changes in lymphocytes and neutrophils were not significant. It increased total WBC. If applied to human, moderate intake of honey may help prevent the risk of atherosclerosis.
... Lipoproteins are divided into high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), thus cholesterol (C) is classified accordingly into HDL-C (good cholesterol), LDL-C and VLDL (bad cholesterols) [106]. Clover honey Rat blood serum ↓ Weight gain and adiposity, ↓ TGs but ↑ non-HDL-C levels [108] Native honey Rat blood samples ↓ glucose and lipids no deteriorated effects on hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia [109] Local honey Rat blood serum ↑ Plasma TG, HDL-C and VLDL-C but ↓ plasma LDL-C and TC [110] Tualang honey Rat heart tissue ↑ Antioxidant enzyme levels in heart tissue and ↓ lipoprotein oxidation (LPO) [111] Tualang honey Rat blood serum, kidneys ↓ TC and TG compared to the control at 7 days; ↓ Serum creatinine level than no honey group after 48 h; No structural effect histologically in the HCD-fed rats [112] Gelam, Acacia honey Rat blood serum, internal organs ↓ Excess weight gain and adiposity index; ↓ plasma glucose, TGs, TG and obesity at similar levels to orlistat drug group [113] Malícia honey Rat blood serum, liver ↓ Food consumption, ↑ glucose tolerance and SOD activity; ↓ TC, LDL and AST levels; ↑ beneficial bacteria and organic acids; ...
... However, honey did not result in significant differences in serum HDL-C and TC [108]. In another study, honey significantly increased TG, HDL and VLDL levels and decreased plasma LDL and TC levels compared to the control group [110]. The findings are consistent with results from a recent study comparing the ameliorating effects of honey on hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia in diabetic rats fed with honey for 3 weeks. ...
Article
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Honey, a natural sweetener has been used universally as a complete food and in complementary medicine since early antiquity. Honey contains over 180 substances, including sugars mainly fructose and glucose, water and a plethora of minor constituents such as vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. The chemical composition of honey varies depending on floral origin, environment and geographical conditions. The sugar components dominate honey composition and they are accountable for sensory and physicochemical properties in food industry. Although present in small quantities, non-sugar components are the major contributors to the health benefits of honey. Our review summarizes and discusses composition of honey, its protective effects and possible action modes on risk factors of atherosclerosis.
... 112 In Nigeria, a recent study showed that consumption of unrefined Nigerian honey significantly improved lipid profiles and the computed CVD predictive index in male albino rats. 113 The authors found that a single dose of glucose or artificial honey (consisting of 40 g fructose + 35 g glucose in 250 mL water) increased cholesterol and triacylglycerol; this effect was not observed with natural honey collected in the U.A.E. 53 In this regard, daily consumption of 75 g honey for 15 days decreased total cholesterol (8%), LDL-C (11%), and CRP (75%) in normal and hyperlipidemic subjects. ...
... 52 However, in the United States, a study conducted in rats showed that there were no significant differences in CRP in rats fed honey or diets of equal energy densities. 113 It has been shown that antioxidants and vitamin E reduce the concentration of CRP. 135,136 An increased intake of foods rich in polyphenolic compounds is inversely associated with CRP concentrations. ...
Article
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Abstract Diabetes mellitus, hypercholesteremia, hypertension (HTN), and obesity are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Various medications are currently in use for management of these comorbidities. Undesirable side effects are unavoidable and the ultimate and ideal goal is hardly achieved. Honey and other bee products are widely used in traditional medicine for management of many diseases. Others and the authors have found potent biological activities of these products. Honey is now reintroduced in modern medicine as part of wound and burn management. Honey has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. More studies are exploring other aspects of honey activity such as its effect on blood sugar, body weight, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, nitric oxide, proinflammatory prostaglandins, and homocysteine. Growing evidence and scientific data support the use of honey in patients with diabetes, HTN, dyslipidemia, obesity, and CVD. This review discusses clinical and preclinical studies on potential influence of honey on diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factors, and emphasizes the importance of conducting more clinical and controlled studies.
... Cholesterol is useful for the normal function of all animal cells and is a basic component of their cell membranes. However, too low cholesterol was reported to be detrimental to the body (Alagwu et al. 2011;Samarghandian et al. 2011). Alagwu et al. (2011) reported hypocholesteremic action in albino rats fed with honey where total cholesterol was significantly lower compared to controls. ...
... However, too low cholesterol was reported to be detrimental to the body (Alagwu et al. 2011;Samarghandian et al. 2011). Alagwu et al. (2011) reported hypocholesteremic action in albino rats fed with honey where total cholesterol was significantly lower compared to controls. Hypocholesterolemia has also been reported to be associated with depression and suicide attempt in adults of the Mexican population. ...
Article
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Monosodium glutamate (MSG) at high concentration has been reported to alter the physiological and biochemical states of animals and humans. Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a polypore mushroom reported to possess many medicinal attributes such as anticholesterolemia and the control of hormonal disorders. The present study investigated the effect of water extract of G. lucidum in the changes of haematology, oestradiol, cholesterol and protein levels of Wistar rats induced by MSG. Haematological analysis was determined from plasma, while oestrogen, serum total protein and cholesterol levels were determined from the serum of the rats. Results showed that MSG significantly raised the level of oestrogen (62.5 ± 0.28 pg/mL) in the rats which was significantly reduced in the rats fed with MSG for 30 days before treating them with the extracts of G. lucidum (30.85 ± 12.94 pg/mL–44.15 ± 0.92 pg/mL) and in rats fed concurrently with MSG and G. lucidum. The cholesterol level was significantly reduced in the rats treated with MSG and G. lucidum (200 mg/kg) concurrently compared to rats fed with MSG alone. The white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) levels were within normal in rats fed with both MSG and G. lucidum as in the control group while the rats fed with MSG only had low WBC, neutrophil (NEU) and RBC. This could imply that G. lucidum ameliorates the effect of MSG on serum oestrogen, serum cholesterol, WBCs, NEU, platelets and lymphocytes.
... compared to DN rats with no treatment (Table 2). This anti-lipidemic effect of honey is similar to the report of Erejuwa et al and Alagwu et al [15,38]. The improvement in lipid profile could be due to the presence of flavonoids in honey, as flavonoids of plant extracts are reported to reduce the cholesterol level [39]. ...
... The improvement in lipid profile could be due to the presence of flavonoids in honey, as flavonoids of plant extracts are reported to reduce the cholesterol level [39]. Alagwu et al stated that honey reduces serum levels of cholesterol by increasing its secretion through bile [38]. In the present study, insulin increased HDL-C (24.84%) and reduced other lipid parameters (TC:18.63%, ...
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Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication affecting more than 50% of patients with longstanding diabetes. Till date, there are no reports to explain the scientific basis of alternative medicine as an adjunct therapy for treating diabetic neuropathy. Hence, we studied the effect of honey and insulin treatment on hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, oxidant and anti-oxidant status and nerve conduction in experimental diabetic neuropathy Wistar rats. In this experimental study, forty healthy male Wistar albino rats of 10–12 weeks age, weighing between 150 to 200g were obtained from our institute central animal house. After acclimatization, the rats were divided into control (n = 8) and experimental (n = 32) groups randomly. In the experimental group, type 2 diabetic neuropathy was induced with high fat and high sugar diet for 8 weeks followed by streptozotocin at a dose of 35 mg/kg body weight. Three days after streptozotocin injection, blood glucose levels of rats were measured from fasting samples to confirm diabetes. After the development of diabetes, rats were given standard rodent chow and allowed four more weeks to remain diabetic and to develop neuropathy. Every second week, nerve conduction study was done to confirm neuropathy. All the diabetic rats of experimental group developed neuropathy after 4 weeks of developing diabetes, which was confirmed by significant reduction in conduction velocity of sensory and motor nerve when compared to non-diabetic control group. After the development of neuropathy, these rats were randomly divided into diabetic neuropathy with no treatment group (n = 8) and three treatment groups (n = 8, each). The rats of treatment group were administered with either honey or insulin or honey+insulin for six weeks. After six-weeks of intervention, there was significant decrease in blood glucose and lipids in honey, insulin and honey+insulin treated neuropathy rats, when compared with no treatment group. Malondialdehyde was reduced and total anti-oxidant status improved in all the three treatment groups. There was no significant increase in conduction velocity of sciatic tibial motor nerve in treatment groups when compared with no treatment group. However, the sensory nerve conduction velocity improved significantly in honey+insulin treated neuropathy rats. In conclusion, six-week honey treatment helped in reducing dyslipidemia and oxidative stress. Honey given along with insulin for six-weeks improved sensory nerve conduction velocity in experimental diabetic neuropathy Wistar rats.
... Serum TC was found to be lower in the hyperlipidemic rats treated with berry honey in a dose of 0.5G/Kg body Wt. (Group C) and in the hyperlipidemic rats treated with Simvastatin in a dose of 10mg/Kg body Wt. (Group D) when compared with experimental Control Group B. Honey decreased 20% TC while Simvastatin 30% in experimental rats (Group C and D respectively) in comparison with experimental control Group (B) (Figure 1). Observation made by Yaghoobi et al. (2008) showed that natural honey decreased TC by 3.3%;another study conducted by Alagwu et al. (2014) is also in-keeping with our results as they also reported that honey improved lipid profile. ...
... Luka et al. (17) found that feeding honey solution to rats increased their serum HDL-C concentration while the serum LDL-C concentration decreased. Honey intake decreased plasma cholesterol and LDL-C and increased HDL-C, VLDL-C and triglycerides in albino rats (18) . ...
Article
EFFECT OF HONEY BEE ON SOME ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES AND LIPID PROFILE IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC MALE ALBINO RATS Aziza A.M. El-Shafey; Moshira M.E. Seliem; Safaa A.M. El-Zawahry; Eman M.S. Shahen and Doaa E.M. Mahmoud Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt. ABSTRACT The present study investigates the effect of administration of honey bee on serum antioxidant enzymes "catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)" and lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic male albino rats. Eighty four male albino rats weighting 150±20g were divided into six groups as follows: control group (freely supplemented with standard diet), coconut oil treated group (0.5 ml daily), cholesterol treated group (400 mg/kg b.w dissolved in 0.5 ml coconut oil), honey treated group (1 ml/rat of 20% honey bee), cholesterol and honey treated group and cholesterol before honey treated group. All treatments were by oral administration for two months. The results showed that, after one and two months coconut oil treated group showed significant increases in catalase and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and significant decrease in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), while GPx significantly increased after two months. Treatment with cholesterol for one and two months caused significant decreases in antioxidant enzymes and significant increases in total cholesterol "TC" and LDL-C, while total lipid (TL), triglyceride (TG) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were significantly increased after two months. After one and two months, honey bee treated group showed significant increases in antioxidant enzymes and HDL-C and significant decreases in TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C, while TL was significantly decreased after two months. After one and two months, cholesterol and honey and cholesterol before honey treated groups showed non significant changes in antioxidant enzymes while these groups showed significant increases and decreases in HDL-C and LDL-C respectively. These results indicated that honey administration with or after cholesterol treatment acted for ameliorating the disturbances in antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile that induced by hypercholesterolemia. Honey bee administration for two months is more effective than one month in return of most measured parameters to about control values. Key words: honey bee, hypercholesterolemia, antioxidant enzymes, lipid profile.
... Luka et al. (17) found that feeding honey solution to rats increased their serum HDL-C concentration while the serum LDL-C concentration decreased. Honey intake decreased plasma cholesterol and LDL-C and increased HDL-C, VLDL-C and triglycerides in albino rats (18) . ...
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EFFECT OF HONEY BEE ON SOME ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES AND LIPID PROFILE IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC MALE ALBINO RATS Aziza A.M. El-Shafey; Moshira M.E. Seliem; Safaa A.M. El-Zawahry; Eman M.S. Shahen and Doaa E.M. Mahmoud Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt. ABSTRACT The present study investigates the effect of administration of honey bee on serum antioxidant enzymes "catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)" and lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic male albino rats. Eighty four male albino rats weighting 150±20g were divided into six groups as follows: control group (freely supplemented with standard diet), coconut oil treated group (0.5 ml daily), cholesterol treated group (400 mg/kg b.w dissolved in 0.5 ml coconut oil), honey treated group (1 ml/rat of 20% honey bee), cholesterol and honey treated group and cholesterol before honey treated group. All treatments were by oral administration for two months. The results showed that, after one and two months coconut oil treated group showed significant increases in catalase and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and significant decrease in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), while GPx significantly increased after two months. Treatment with cholesterol for one and two months caused significant decreases in antioxidant enzymes and significant increases in total cholesterol "TC" and LDL-C, while total lipid (TL), triglyceride (TG) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were significantly increased after two months. After one and two months, honey bee treated group showed significant increases in antioxidant enzymes and HDL-C and significant decreases in TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C, while TL was significantly decreased after two months. After one and two months, cholesterol and honey and cholesterol before honey treated groups showed non significant changes in antioxidant enzymes while these groups showed significant increases and decreases in HDL-C and LDL-C respectively. These results indicated that honey administration with or after cholesterol treatment acted for ameliorating the disturbances in antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile that induced by hypercholesterolemia. Honey bee administration for two months is more effective than one month in return of most measured parameters to about control values. Key words: honey bee, hypercholesterolemia, antioxidant enzymes, lipid profile.
... Alagwu et al. [33] postulated that honey increases bile cholesterol excretion and lowers plasma cholesterol levels. It is also plausible that honey reduces plasma cholesterol through its antioxidant properties and by enhancing the synthesis of HDL-C in the liver [34] . Polyphenols , particularly gallic acid and catechin, have been reported to inhibit cholesterol esterase [35]. ...
... Alagwu et al. [33] postulated that honey increases bile cholesterol excretion and lowers plasma cholesterol levels. It is also plausible that honey reduces plasma cholesterol through its antioxidant properties and by enhancing the synthesis of HDL-C in the liver [34]. Polyphenols, particularly gallic acid and catechin, have been reported to inhibit cholesterol esterase [35]. ...
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The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly decreased in the hearts after ISO-induced myocardial infarction. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with Sundarban honey brought the biochemical parameters to near normalcy, indicating the protective effect of Sundarban honey against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings of the heart tissues further confirmed the biochemical findings, indicating that Sundarban honey confers protection against ISO-induced oxidative stress in the myocardium.
... Alagwu et al. [33] postulated that honey increases bile cholesterol excretion and lowers plasma cholesterol levels. It is also plausible that honey reduces plasma cholesterol through its antioxidant properties and by enhancing the synthesis of HDL-C in the liver [34]. Polyphenols, particularly gallic acid and catechin, have been reported to inhibit cholesterol esterase [35]. ...
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The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol-(ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly decreased in the hearts after ISO-induced myocardial infarction. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with Sundarban honey brought the biochemical parameters to near normalcy, indicating the protective effect of Sundarban honey against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings of the heart tissues further confirmed the biochemical findings, indicating that Sundarban honey confers protection against ISO-induced oxidative stress in the myocardium.
... As the Acacia honey was having higher antioxidant potential, it exerted relatively strong positive impact on the HDL level of subjects rather than the citrus honey. In a relevant study conducted by Alagwu et al. (2011), the rats were provided with 1 mL of honey/10 mL of drinking water for 22 weeks on daily basis. The analysis of their blood showed a significant increase in HDL, which relates to the fact that the honey could increase good cholesterol level in the subjects. ...
Article
During the last decade, scientific investigations have put more focus on diet based therapies to prevent numerous maladies especially hypercholesterolemia and related disorders. Current project was designed to discover the nutraceutical worth of natural unifloral honeys from Acacia nilotica (Desi Kikar) and Citrus limetta (Mosambi) against hypercholesterolemia. Initially both honey varieties were analyzed for TPC and TFC, followed by DPPH and FRAP assays. Afterwards, honey drinks were prepared using different concentrations of Acacia and Citrus honeys (10:20:30 g/250 mL water) and were tested in experimental rat model. Initially the rats were provided with high cholesterol diet (2%) to induce hypercholesterolemia, which were then provided with honey drinks for 8 weeks. These were monitored regularly for feed and water intake and weekly for body weight gain. The blood samples for total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglyceride levels as well as safety assessment tests were analyzed at the intervals of 0, 28, and 56 days, which showed that Acacia honey was better in terms of antioxidant potential (DPPH, FRAP, and TPC) than the Citrus honey. Feed and drink intakes along with body weight gain showed significant effect among all the experimental groups. Substantial reduction in cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides was observed in G3 (213.82±3.36 to 183.95±3.02 mg/dL), (150.05±2.30 to 125.44±3.32 mg/dL) and (163.24±4.87 to 133.64±4.75 mg/dL), respectively, from 0 to 56th day. Liver and kidney functioning values decreased within the normal range. Owing to strong antioxidant potential, Acacia honey was proved to be more effective in controlling hypercholesterolemia than the Citrus honey.
... One of the suggested mechanisms of how honey changes the lipid profile is by the niacin-like substances' properties. 19 Sustained niacin release is proven to be the most effective modifier of lipids. 20,21 Aliphatic compounds, benzene derivatives, norisoprenoids, and maillard reaction products are examples of niacin-like substances found in honey. ...
... Computed values of CVPI have shown a significant increase in the test values compared to that of the control (P<0.01). It is concluded that consumption of unrefined Nigeria honey significantly improved lipid profile and computed cardiovascular disease predictive index in male albino rats [69].Treatment with honey also showed protective effects on organs through the improvement the hematological and biochemical parameters (RBCs, WBCs, Platelets, ALT, AST, ALP, urea, Creatinine, Triglyceride, Total cholesterol, HDL and LDL). These results showed that honey may have a therapeutic protect effect organs during inflammatory diseases [70]. ...
... [20,44,45] Other hypolipidemic effects of honey could be exerted through the following pathways: increased cholesterol secretion through bile, improvement in lipid metabolism, and its catabolism which have been attributed to its antioxidant content, and reduction in free radicals that decrease the accumulation of fat . [20,46] Furthermore, natural honey consumption could stimulate insulin secretion, which can increase lipid biosynthesis and reduce lipolysis, and as a result, lower serum levels of lipids are observed . [17,47] It should be mentioned that the ratio of fructose to glucose in natural honey varies depending on floral source and climate circumstances from 0.46 to 1.62. ...
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Since cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common and debilitating disorders globally, risk factor modification is an urgent health priority. Interestingly, an increasing body of literature has suggested honey, and its by-products, can elicit a positive effect on CVD risk factors. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to summarize and discuss the outcomes of interventional studies in humans regarding the effects of bee products’ consumption on CVD risk factors. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was used for quality assessment of the included studies. A total of 23 studies met our inclusion criteria. Six studies used natural honey, seven used propolis, and ten administered royal jelly as the intervention. Natural honey consumption could improve lipid profile and anthropometric parameters, and propolis supplementation could enhance lipid profile and glycemic markers. Current evidence precludes conclusions being made regarding royal jelly and CVD risk factors. It seems that honey and propolis consumption could reduce CVD risk factors. Overall, in order to confirm the association between bee products and CVD risk factors, more clinical trials with adequate sample sizes and better methodology should be conducted in the future.
... Gongronema latifolium exhibits the following herbal actions:-Analgesic, anti-tumour, broad spectrum antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic and antiviral), antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, anti-sickling, anti-asthmatic, mild expectorant, hypoglycaemic , hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, digestive tonic and laxative properties. It stimulates the flow of bile and appetite for food and enhances the activities of the pancreas, regulates plasma glucose and promotes the detoxification actions of the liver (Alagwu et al. 2014). In Southern part of Nigeria, especially among the people of Southeast and south-south, the leaves of these herbs are used commonly for nutritional purposes, including spice and vegetable to garnish some special local delicacies, such as 'Isiewu', 'Nkwobi', 'Abacha/ugba' (African Salad), 'Ofe Nsala' (White Soup), unripe plantain porridge etc, because of its sharp-bitter and sweet taste. ...
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ABSTRACT Medicinal plants and plant-derived medicines are widely used in treatment of various diseases all over the world. Medicinal plants are of socio-economic importance to the rural population, both as a source of raw materials for health care remedies and also serve as a source of income. They are equally growing popular in modern societies as natural alternatives to synthetic drugs. Today, it is estimated that more than three-quarters of the world’s population relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for better health care. Increase in population, inadequate supply of orthodox drugs, prohibitive costs of treatment, side and toxic effects of many synthetic drugs, resistance of some diseases to synthetic drugs have led to increased emphasis on the use of plant materials as main sources of medicine for a wide variety of human diseases. Most medicinal plants are used as hypolipidemic, anti-ulcerogenic, abortifacient, contraceptive, antihypertensive, treatment of skin diseases, wound healers, antimicrobial, anti-cancer and anti-diabetics etc. This review therefore highlights the health benefits of selected medicinal plants used mainly in South-Eastern Nigeria for treatment of various ailments
... Restriction of dietary intake is expected to decrease the concentrations of triglycerides, LDL, as well as total cholesterol. (22)(23)(24) In this study we also found higher HDL concentrations in the rats subjected to intermittent fasting compared with the groups not subjected to intermittent fasting. Diets high in carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease apolipoprotein A-1, which is the main component of HDL and functions to decrease oxidized LDL concentrations. ...
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Background Chronic and degenerative diseases are closely related to modern lifestyles that tend to be deficient in physical activity but excessive in food intake. One method used to overcome this problem is dietary restriction through intermittent fasting. Intermittent fasting decreases the risk of chronic and degenerative diseases, e.g. by lowering oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can be determined from the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and lipid profile in the blood. The present study aimed to determine the effect of intermittent fasting on plasma MDA levels and lipid profile of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). Methods This research was a laboratory experimental research using a post test control group design. Twenty four male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were randomly assigned to 4 groups, ie control group (C), fasting group (F), non-fasting obese group (NFO), and fasting obese group (FO). Fasting treatment given in this research was intermittent fasting, comprising one day of fasting for 12 hours alternating with one day of normal feed ad libitum in the span of 8 weeks. After completion of treatment, blood was taken transcardially for examination of MDA levels and lipid profiles using spectrophotometry. Results There were significant between-group differences in MDA levels and lipid profiles (p<0.05 for all parameters). Groups treated with intermittent fasting had lower levels of MDA, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and ow-density lipoprotein (LDL) than those without intermittent fasting. The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were higher in the intermittent fasting group than the other groups. Conclusion Intermittent fasting has an effect on the oxidative stress parameters of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus).
... Although, it is claimed that honey decreases blood pressure and blood sugar, data on the relationship between honey consumption and blood pressure or sugar are rare. Earlier studies have mostly examined the association between honey and lipid profile or body weight in diabetic or obese patients (11,15,16). Some studies showed a decrease in lipid profile and body weight in intervention group. ...
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Background and aims: Several studies have demonstrated that honey consumption has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease indicators. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of honey consumption compared with sucrose on lipid profile among young healthy subjects. Methods: Sixty healthy subjects, aged 18-30 years, were randomly recruited into this double blind randomized trial and assigned into two groups: honey (received 70 g honey per day) and sucrose (received 70 g sucrose per day) groups. Total cholesterol, TG, LDL and HDL were measured in the control and intervention groups at the beginning and end of study. Results: In this trial, the baseline FBS, SBP and DBP were not different between honey and sucrose groups (P > 0.3). We found evidence indicating consumption of honey can decrease total cholesterol, TG and LDL and increase HDL in healthy young subjects, but intake of sucrose increase total cholesterol, TG and LDL and decreased HDL. In all of these analyses, confounding variable including age, physical activity and some nutrient intake were adjusted. Conclusions: Honey consumption can improve the lipid profile such as; total cholesterol, TG and LDL and increase HDL, but consumption of sucrose increases total cholesterol, TG and LDL and decreases HDL. Further clinical trial studies are required to confirm our findings.
... Several in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trial studies have revealed positive honey effects against heart problems by improving the plasma lipid profile (i.e., reduced the level of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, TG, cardiovascular risk predictive index (CVPI), plasma cholesterol, TC, and HDL) [142], suppressing oxidation, attenuating the elevation of cardiac damage markers (e.g., creatine kinase (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin I) as well as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) [143]. Increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase/reductase [144], and LDL resistance to oxidation [145], have been observed. ...
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Since ancestor times, honey has been used to promote human health due to its medicinal, and nutritious properties, mainly due to bioactive compounds present, such as phenolic compounds. The emergence of COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, led to the pursuit of solutions for the treatment of symptoms and/or disease. Honey has proven to be effective against viral infections, principally due to its potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that attenuate oxidative damage induced by pathogens, and by improving the immune system. Therefore, the aim of this review is to overview the abilities of honey to attenuate different COVID-19 symptoms, highlighting the mechanisms associated with these actions and relating the with the different bioactive compounds present. A brief, detailed approach to SARS-CoV-2 mechanism of action is first overviewed to allow readers a deep understanding. Additionally, the compounds and beneficial properties of honey, and its previously application in other similar diseases, are detailed in depth. Despite the already reported efficacy of honey against different viruses and their complications, further studies are urgently needed to explain the molecular mechanisms of activity against COVID-19 and, most importantly, clinical trials enrolling COVID-19 patients.
... Computed values of CVPI have shown a significant increase in the test values compared to that of the control (P<0.01). It is concluded that consumption of unrefined Nigeria honey significantly improved lipid profile and computed cardiovascular disease predictive index in male albino rats [69].Treatment with honey also showed protective effects on organs through the improvement the hematological and biochemical parameters (RBCs, WBCs, Platelets, ALT, AST, ALP, urea, Creatinine, Triglyceride, Total cholesterol, HDL and LDL). These results showed that honey may have a therapeutic protect effect organs during inflammatory diseases [70]. ...
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The global prevalence of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer and Alzheimer's disease is on the rise. These diseases constitute the major causes of death globally. Honey is a natural substance with many medicinal properties such as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, reproductive, and antihypertensive and antioxidant. This review presents findings that indicate honey may ameliorate oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), liver, pancreas, kidney, reproductive organs and plasma/serum. Besides, the review highlights data that demonstrate the synergistic antioxidant effect of honey and antidiabetic drugs in the pancreas, kidney, and serum of diabetic rats. These data suggest that honey, administered alone or in combination with conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant in the management of chronic diseases commonly associated with oxidative stress. In view of the fact that the majority of these data emanate from animal studies, there is an urgent need to investigate this antioxidant effect of honey in human subjects with chronic or degenerative diseases.
... Serum TC was found to be lower in the hyperlipidemic rats treated with berry honey in a dose of 0.5G/Kg body Wt. (Group C) and in the hyperlipidemic rats treated with Simvastatin in a dose of 10mg/Kg body Wt. (Group D) when compared with experimental Control Group B. Honey decreased 20% TC while Simvastatin 30% in experimental rats (Group C and D respectively) in comparison with experimental control Group (B) (Figure 1). Observation made by Yaghoobi et al. (2008) showed that natural honey decreased TC by 3.3%;another study conducted by Alagwu et al. (2014) is also in-keeping with our results as they also reported that honey improved lipid profile. ...
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Abstract The fear of Coronary Heart Disease looms over the medical science. In a considerable number of people, hyperlipidemia remains undiagnosed and it lurks silently over years until its consequences appear. Therefore, to manage hyperlipidemia is a medical challenge to reduce the burden of CHD. Statins, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, have superseded other pharmacological therapies to manage hyperlipidemia. The use of statins is not only costly but also associated with side effects and about one-third of symptomatic patients quit taking statin therapy due to discomfort. Therefore, the quest for a better treatment of hyperlipidemia urges scientists to look for alternatives of statins. Therefore, a randomized controlled experimental study was conducted to gauge the lipid lowering effect of berry honey and to compare it with simvastatin. Honey is suggested to have lipid-lowering effect. It is suggested that darker the color of honey the greater the antioxidant effect. Presence of berry trees (Ziziphus) makes Pakistani honey special due to its darker color. Rats of age 4-5 months were randomly divided into four groups with ten rats in each group (Normal Control Group A, Experimental Control Group B, Honey Group C and Simvastatin Group D). Rats in Groups B, C & D were induced hyperlipidemia by giving 4% cholesterol diet + 1% cholic acid for the initial six weeks. For the next six weeks, Group C was given Honey solution, in a single oral dose of 0.5G/Kg daily and Group D was given Simvastatin solution, in a single oral dose of 10mg/Kg daily. Blood samples were taken at zero, six and twelve weeks through cardiac puncture for serum TC, TGs, LDL and HDL level. Honey decreased TC, TGs and LDL by about 20%, 31% and 21% respectively. Simvastatin decreased TC, TGs and LDL by about 30%, 37% and 38% respectively. Honey raised HDL level by about 15% and Simvastatin by about 43%. Berry honey has a beneficial effect on lipid profile. Honey did not improve lipid profile to the extent as did by Simvastatin but it can be valuable if it is included as part of normal diet in the long run to decrease the incidence of hyperlipidemia and its consequences later in life
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Lead poisoning is a serious condition caused by increased levels of the heavy metal lead in the body. Lead interferes with a variety of body processes and is toxic to many organs and tissues including the heart, bones, intestines, kidneys, liver as well as reproductive and nervous systems. The present study aimed to evaluate the amleiorative effect of bee honey against lead acetate toxicity. Honey was administered orally at doses of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.4 g/kg for one month. Lead treatment (200mg/kg, p.o) started 10 days before the honey treatment and continoued with honey for one month. Positive control group were treated with lead acetate for 40 days. Lead intoxication caused a significant increase in serum malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased glutathione (GSH), increased uric acid, urea and creatinine. Moreover, lead administration increased bilirubin and the enzymatic activiry of GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase. In addition, lead intoxication increased total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides. Bee honey dose- dependently reversed the adverse effect of lead on liver and kidney function and decreased MDA level and noormalized GSH level. In conclusion, induction of oxidative stress and disturbing lipid metabolism may be responsible for the adverse cellular effects of lead and that these cellular events may mediate the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic manifestations in lead intoxication. Also, the beneficial effect of honey is likely- partially- due to its antioxidant property and its modulatory effect on the metabolic processes.
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Honey is a natural sweetener that is derived from the nectar, pollen, and resin of plants. It has been used as a folk medicine for decades. In addition to being an excellent therapeutic agent, honey possesses an unusually high nutritional content, thus generating interest among researchers. The major phytonutrients of honey are polyphenols. Polyphenols can be separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Moreover, to separate the volatile compounds in honey, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) may be used. Polyphenols have unique and complex structures that are mainly composed of flavonoids and phenolic acids, which confer significant antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, and antiulcer effects and can be used to treat chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. The nature and variability of polyphenols in different honeys posed a challenge to investigations in previous years. Nevertheless, the significant role of honey as a natural therapy and its enrichment with natural substances have led to the continuous discovery of efficient, reliable, and rapid methods for the identification and quantification of novel bioactive compounds in honey. This current review highlights the above mentioned issues.
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Samples of unifloral sulla (Hedysarum coronarum L.) honey from Sardinia (Italy) were analysed. To investigate the chemical composition of the honey volatiles two solvent systems were used for ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE): 1) a 1:2 (v/v) pentane and diethyl ether mixture and 2) dichloromethane. All the extracts were analysed by GC and GC/MS. These procedures have permitted the identification of 56 compounds that include norisoprenoids, benzene derivatives, aliphatic compounds and Maillard reaction products. Norisoprenoids were the major compounds in both extracts, dominated by vomifoliol (5.3-11.2%; 9.6-14.0%) followed by minor percentages of other norisoprenoids such as α-isophorone, 4-ketoisophorone, 3-oxo-α-ionol or 3-oxo-α-ionone. Other abundant single compounds in the extracts were 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutan-2-one (0.8-5.4%; 0.6-5.7%) and methyl syringate (3.0-5.7%; 2.2-4.1%). The composition of the volatiles and semi-volatiles in the obtained extracts suggests that sulla honey is quite distinctive relative to the other honeys that have been chemically studied by GC/MS, but no specific markers of the honey botanical origin were found.
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Nicotinic acid (niacin) is one of the oldest drugs used to treat dyslipidemia. In addition to modestly lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipoprotein(a), niacin is currently the most effective available agent for raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Despite its well-documented beneficial effects on lipids, the clinical use of niacin has been limited by its side effect profile, notably flushing. This sensation of cutaneous vasodilatation and burning has limited patient compliance and is a frequent cause of discontinuation of the drug. While pretreatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, such as aspirin, may reduce the incidence of flushing, present-day niacin still results in flushing in many patients. Recent studies have elucidated what we currently understand as the molecular mechanism that mediates niacin-induced flushing, specifically that niacin acting through its receptor stimulates the production of several prostaglandins, including prostaglandin (PG) I(2), PGE(2) and PGD(2). Laropiprant is a potent, highly selective prostaoid DP(1) receptor antagonist that decreases the incidence and intensity of niacin-induced flushing without affecting its beneficial lipid effects. Thus, laropiprant, when used in conjunction with niacin, can improve the tolerability of niacin and aid in medication compliance. This paper reviews the data suggesting the importance of raising HDL with niacin, describes the pharmacology of the drug, and examines the potential beneficial effects of combining niacin with laropiprant.
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Natural honey is widely used all over the world as a complementary and alternative medicine in various disorders including gastrointestinal lesions. To evaluate the effects of combination of low dosage of honey (0.312 g/kg) and sucralfate (0.125 or 0.250 g /kg) on gastric protection and to determine any potentiating interactions between them against ammonia-induced gastric lesions in rats. Twenty-four hours fasted rats were given I ml of ammonium hydroxide 1 % intragastrically and they were killed one hour later under deep ether anesthesia. The gastric lesion index was calculated according to the method of Takaishi et al 1998. Non protein sulthydryls level was determined spectrophotometrically as described by Sedlak and Lindsay 1968. Administration of ammonium hydroxide produced red and black linear lesions and significant depletion of gastric nonprotein sulthydryls level. Oral administration of honey (0.312g/kg) or sucralfate (0.125 and 0.250 g/kg) 30 min before ammonium hydroxide reduced the severity of gastric mucosal lesions by 1 I or 18 and 42 % respectively, and has shown the changes in nonprotein sulfhydryls level induced by ammonium hydroxide. Furthermore, pretreatment with a combination of a low dose of honey (0.312 g /kg) and sucralfate (0.125 g or 0.250 g/kg) afforded significantly greater protection (58 and 77 %) than that obtained with either of them administered alone. The present results suggest potentiation of gastric protection effect of sucralfate by honey and this may have a clinical value in the treatment of peptic ulcer diseases in Helicobacter pylori positive patients.
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Niacin has long been used in the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Recent research on niacin has been focused on understanding the mechanism of action of niacin and preparation of safer niacin formulations. New findings indicate that niacin does the following: 1) it inhibits hepatic diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2, resulting in inhibition of triglyceride synthesis and decreased apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins; 2) it decreases the surface expression of hepatic adenosine triphosphate synthase beta-chain, leading to decreased holoparticle high-density lipoprotein catabolism and increased high-density lipoprotein levels; and 3) it increases redox potential in arterial endothelial cells, resulting in inhibition of redox-sensitive genes. Flushing, an adverse effect of niacin, results from niacin receptor GPR109A-mediated production of prostaglandin D2 and E2 via DP1 and EP2/4 receptors. DP1 receptor antagonist (laropiprant) attenuates the niacin flush. A reformulated preparation of extended-release niacin (Niaspan; Abbott, Abbott Park, IL) lowers flushing compared with an older Niaspan formulation. These advancements in niacin research have rejuvenated its use for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease.
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The Boehringer one-component high-performance cholesterol oxidase reagent has been modified by the inclusion of 2,4,6-tribromo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid (TBHBA) to give a fourfold increase in sensitivity to a molar absorbance of approximately equal to 29,000 with respect to cholesterol. The resulting reagent system is particularly suitable for the determination of plasma HDL-cholesterol for which a reagent of high sensitivity is required. A simple method of bromination avoiding the use of elemental bromine is used to prepare TBHBA. The modified reagent system has been found to have good within- and between-batch precision and has shown itself to be reliable and trouble-free.
Article
Cholesterol esters in 20 microliter of plasma are hydrolysed with hot ethanolic KOH. Preformed cholesterol and cholesterol released by hydrolysis is reacted with cholesterol oxidase to form hydrogen peroxide and cholest-4-en-3-one, which is extracted from alkaline 50% v/v ethanolic solution with iso-octane. The absorbance of the ketone in iso-octane at the 232 nm peak is used to measure the cholesterol originally present. Plasma blanks obtained by omitting the cholesterol oxidase from the reagent shown negligible absorbance even when samples are grossly icteric, lipaemic, or haemolysed. The test is carried out in a single glass screw-capped tube, and the absorbance given by a sample containing 6.25 mmol/1 cholesterol is approximately 0.44, corresponding to a molar absorbance of approximately 17 500. The conversion of cholesterol to cholest-4-en-3-one is stoichiometric, and the absorbance of the iso-octane layer is stable for at least 48 hours. A single determination occupies 30 minutes, 30 samples can be analysed in 1 1/2 hours.
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The study was designed to determine how pregnancy affects lipid and lipoprotein profiles among women living in a typical suburban commercial community in Africa, and to highlight the consequences of such changes. Lipid and lipoprotein levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk predictor index [High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC)/Total cholesterol (TC)] were evaluated in 27 African pregnant and 17 non-pregnant women of the same age and demographic profiles. Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC) levels increased, while HDLC level and HDLC/TC ratio decreased in the pregnant women. These findings suggest that African women are more prone to hyperlipidemia during normal pregnancy. The consequences of the adverse lipid and lipoprotein changes as seen in the pregnant women, on the fetal development and welfare should be explored in further studies. In general, these results have added to our understanding and knowledge of the numerous factors that could cause abnormal lipid and lipoprotein levels in African women.
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Honey is not only used as nutrition but also used in wound healing and as an alternative treatment for clinical conditions ranging from gastrointestinal tract (GIT) problems to ophthalmic conditions. We did the literature search and found interesting facts about the nutritional and medicinal value of honey. No wonder, it is a good source of nutrition, the results of the studies prove that it also helps in wound healing. On burns, it has an initial soothing and later rapid healing effects. It has been used as wound barrier against tumour implantation in laparoscopic oncological surgery. No infection has been reported from the application of honey to open wounds. It has a potential therapeutic role in the treatment of gingivitis and periodontal disease. Based on these facts, the use of honey in the surgical wards is highly recommended and patients about to undergo surgery should ask their surgeons if they could apply honey to their wounds postoperation.
Article
Simvastatin is an agent of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor group of drugs. It is administrated orally once a day in doses of 5-80 mg. Although its main action is to reduce total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, it is able to reduce triglycerides and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, though at a lower extent. Beyond this action, studies enrolled with simvastatin have shown beneficial effect on endothelial function, smooth muscle cell function, hemostasis, vascular wall function, LDL oxidation, and inflammation. All these actions mentioned above are known as pleiotropic effects. In this review, we will present all these effects, as well as the beneficial effects on atherogenesis and the reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality related to simvastatin.