Article

Adipose tissue cells, lipotransfer and cancer: a challenge for scientists, oncologists and surgeons. Biochim Biophys Acta

Laboratory of Hematology-Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Impact Factor: 4.66). 04/2012; 1826(1):209-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbcan.2012.04.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Despite recent evidence of the cancer-promoting role of adipose tissue-derived progenitor and differentiated cells, the use of lipotransfer for tissue/organ reconstruction after surgical removal of cancer is increasing worldwide. Here we discuss in a multidisciplinary fashion the preclinical data connecting obesity, adipose cells and cancer progression, as well as the clinical data concerning safety of lipotransfer procedures in cancer patients. A roadmap towards a more rationale use of lipotransfer in oncology is urgently needed and should include preclinical studies to dissect the roles of different adipose tissue-derived cells, the evaluation of drugs currently candidate to inhibit the interaction between adipose and tumor cells, and carefully designed clinical trials to investigate the safety of lipotransfer procedures in cancer patients.

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    • "Full list of author information is available at the end of the article the largest number of cells isolated at the point of care without expansion in culture is typically used. Despite a lack of reported clinical risk, in vitro studies have demonstrated potential oncological risks which clinicians should be cautious of when using SVF based therapies (Bertolini et al. 2012; Bielli et al. 2014). The surge in clinical applications for ASCs increases the need for clear and reliable information about the efficiency, cost and safety of automated equipment and manual techniques which facilitate separation of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) from adipose tissue. "
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for a variety of indications is rapidly expanding in medicine. Most commonly, ASCs are isolated at the point of care from lipoaspirate tissue as the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). The cells are immediately administered to the patient as an injection or used to enrich fat grafts. Isolation of ASCs from adipose tissue is a relatively simple process performed routinely in cell biology laboratories, but isolation at the point of care for immediate clinical administration requires special methodology to prevent contamination, ensure integrity of clinical research and comply with regulatory requirements. A lack of practical laboratory experience, regulatory uncertainty and a relative paucity of objective published data can make selection of the optimum separation method for specific indications a difficult task for the clinician and can discourage clinical adoption. In this paper, we discuss the processes which can be used to separate SVF cells from fat tissue. We compare the various mechanical and enzymatic methods. We discuss the practical considerations involved in selecting an appropriate method from a clinical perspective. Studies consistently show that breakdown of the extracellular matrix achieved with proteolytic enzymes affords significantly greater efficiency to the separation process. SVF isolated through mechanical methods is equally safe, less costly and less time consuming but the product contains a higher frequency of blood mononuclear cells and fewer progenitor cells. Mechanical methods can provide a low cost, rapid and simple alternative to enzymatic isolation methods, and are attractive when smaller quantities of ASCs are sufficient.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · SpringerPlus
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    • "Through paracrine secretion of a broad selection of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, ADSCs have been shown to have antiapoptotic, proangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiscarring effects. This potential makes them promising candidates for cellular therapy in regenerative medicine [9] [15] [44] [45]. Unlike bone marrow, fat is abundantly available and easily accessible through liposuction and can yield significantly higher amounts of cells, which makes adiposederived cells appealing for regenerative medicine [14] "
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional breast cancer extirpation involves resection of parts of or the whole gland, resulting in asymmetry and disfiguration. Given the unsatisfactory aesthetic outcomes, patients often desire postmastectomy reconstructive procedures. Autologous fat grafting has been proposed for reconstructive purposes for decades to restore form and anatomy after mastectomy. Fat has the inherent advantage of being autologous tissue and the most natural-appearing filler, but given its inconsistent engraftment and retention rates, it lacks reliability. Implementation of autologous fat grafts with cellular adjuncts, such as multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), has shown promising results. However, it is pertinent and critical to question whether these cells could promote any residual tumor cells to proliferate, differentiate, or metastasize or even induce de novo carcinogenesis. Thus far, preclinical and clinical study findings are discordant. A trend towards potential promotion of both breast cancer growth and invasion by ADSCs found in basic science studies was indeed not confirmed in clinical trials. Whether experimental findings eventually correlate with or will be predictive of clinical outcomes remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to concisely review current experimental findings on the interaction of mesenchymal stem cells and breast cancer, mainly focusing on ADSCs as a promising tool for regenerative medicine, and discuss the implications in clinical translation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Stem cell International
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    • "-standing imbalance between energy intake and expenditure that leads to the accumulation of fat in various adipose tissues and organs. It is caused by either genetic or environmental factors (Belsing and Rasmusson 2004; Galic et al. 2009; Bertolini et al. 2012; Dubnov et al. 2003; Phan-Hug et al. 2012). It is currently proposed that the environmental factors play major roles by influencing the genetic susceptibility to development of obesity (Rosmond and Bjorntorp 2000; Lavie et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a complex metabolic disease of excessive fat accumulation. It is a worldwide epidemic affecting billions of people. Current pharmacological treatment of obesity remains limited and ineffective due to systemic drug toxicity and undesirable side effects. The current epidemic raises a serious need for development of safer drugs to treat obesity. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery system for administering pharmaceutical compound to achieve therapeutic effects is currently an exciting field in cancer treatment. Drug delivery involves either modification of drug release profile, absorption, distribution and/or elimination, for the benefit of improving drug efficacy and safety. Therefore, nanotechnology holds promise in the treatment of diseases including obesity. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) functionalised with different biomolecules have been successfully used as drug delivery, labelling and imaging tools in biomedical research. In this study, the binding-specificity and targeting ability of adipose homing peptide (AHP)-functionalised GNPs (AHP-GNPs) were evaluated using flow cytometry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Caco-2 cells and rats fed either chow or a high-fat diet were treated with either unfunctionalised GNPs or AHP-GNPs. Cellular uptake of GNPs was detected in cells treated with AHP-GNPs and not those treated with GNPs alone. Binding of AHP to cells was both temperature- and concentration-dependent. Compared to rats treated with GNPs alone, treatment of obese rats with AHP-GNPs resulted in the targeted delivery of the GNPs to the white adipose tissue (WAT). This paper reports the successful targeting of AHP-functionalised GNPs to WAT of obese rats.
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